A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight. A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower. It is well known as a weapon used by Indigenous Australians for hunting.

Boomerangs have been historically used for hunting, as well as sport, and entertainment. They are commonly thought of as an Australian icon,[1] and come in various shapes and sizes.

A typical wooden returning boomerang


Boomerang (PSF)
A boomerang returns to the point from where it was sent

A boomerang is traditionally a long wooden device, although historically boomerang-like devices have also been made from bones. Modern boomerangs used for sport are often made from thin aircraft plywood, plastics such as ABS, polypropylene, phenolic paper, or even high-tech materials such as carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. Boomerangs come in many shapes and sizes depending on their geographic or tribal origins and intended function. Many people think of a boomerang as the Australian type, although today there are many types of more easily usable boomerangs, such as the cross-stick, the pinwheel, the tumble-stick, the Boomabird and many other less common types.

An important distinction should be made between returning boomerangs and non-returning boomerangs. Returning boomerangs fly and are examples of the earliest heavier-than-air human-made flight. A returning boomerang has two or more airfoil wings arranged so that the spinning creates unbalanced aerodynamic forces that curve its path so that it travels in an elliptical path and returns to its point of origin when thrown correctly. While a throwing stick can also be shaped overall like a returning boomerang, it is designed to travel as straight as possible so that it can be aimed and thrown with great force to bring down the game. Its surfaces therefore are symmetrical and not uneven like the aerofoils which give the returning boomerang its characteristic curved flight.

The most recognisable type of the boomerang is the L-shaped returning boomerang; while non-returning boomerangs, throwing sticks (or shaunies) were used as weapons, returning boomerangs have been used primarily for leisure or recreation. Returning boomerangs were also used to decoy birds of prey, thrown above the long grass to frighten game birds into flight and into waiting nets. Modern returning boomerangs can be of various shapes or sizes.

Historical evidence also points to the use of non-returning boomerangs by the Native Americans of California and Arizona, and inhabitants of southern India for killing birds and rabbits.[2] Indeed, some boomerangs were not thrown at all, but were used in hand to hand combat by Indigenous Australians.[3] Ancient Egyptian examples, however, have been recovered, and experiments have shown that they functioned as returning boomerangs.[4]

Boomerangs can be variously used as hunting weapons, percussive musical instruments, battle clubs, fire-starters, decoys for hunting waterfowl, and as recreational play toys. The smallest boomerang may be less than 10 centimetres (4 in) from tip to tip, and the largest over 180 cm (5.9 ft) in length.[5] Tribal boomerangs may be inscribed and/or painted with designs meaningful to their makers. Most boomerangs seen today are of the tourist or competition sort, and are almost invariably of the returning type.


The origin of the term is mostly certain, but many researchers have different theories on how the word entered into the English vocabulary. One source asserts that the term entered the language in 1827, adapted from an extinct Aboriginal language of New South Wales, Australia, but mentions a variant, wo-mur-rang, which it dates to 1798.[6] The boomerang was first encountered by western people at Farm Cove (Port Jackson), Australia, in December 1804, when a weapon was witnessed during a tribal skirmish:[7]

... the white spectators were justly astonished at the dexterity and incredible force with which a bent, edged waddy resembling slightly a Turkish scimytar, was thrown by Bungary, a native distinguished by his remarkable courtesy. The weapon, thrown at 20 or 30 yards [18 or 27 m] distance, twirled round in the air with astonishing velocity, and alighting on the right arm of one of his opponents, actually rebounded to a distance not less than 70 or 80 yards [64 or 73 m], leaving a horrible contusion behind, and exciting universal admiration.

— The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 23 December 1804

David Collins listed "Wo-mur-rāng" as one of eight aboriginal "Names of clubs" in 1798.[8] A 1790 anonymous manuscript on aboriginal language of New South Wales reported "Boo-mer-rit" as "the Scimiter".[9]

In 1822, it was described in detail and recorded as a "bou-mar-rang" in the language of the Turuwal people (a sub-group of the Darug) of the Georges River near Port Jackson. The Turawal used other words for their hunting sticks but used "boomerang" to refer to a returning throw-stick.[10]


Australia Boomerang Distribution
Distribution of boomerangs in Australia
Australia Cairns Boomerang
Australian Aboriginal boomerangs

Depictions of boomerangs being thrown at animals, such as kangaroos, appear in some of the oldest rock art in the world, the Indigenous Australian rock art of the Kimberly region, which is potentially up to 50,000 years old.[11] Stencils and paintings of boomerangs also appear in the rock art of West Papua, including on Bird's Head Peninsula and Kaimana, likely dating to the Last Glacial Maximum, when lower sea levels led to cultural continuity between Papua and Arnhem Land in Northern Australia.[12] The oldest surviving Australian Aboriginal boomerangs come from a cache found in a peat bog in the Wyrie Swamp of South Australia and date to 10,000 BC.

Although traditionally thought of as Australian, boomerangs have been found also in ancient Europe, Egypt, and North America. Hunting sticks discovered in Europe seem to have formed part of the Stone Age arsenal of weapons.[13] One boomerang that was discovered in Obłazowa Cave in the Carpathian Mountains in Poland was made of mammoth's tusk and is believed, based on AMS dating of objects found with it, to be about 30,000 years old.[14][15] In the Netherlands, boomerangs have been found in Vlaardingen and Velsen from the first century BC. King Tutankhamun, the famous Pharaoh of ancient Egypt, who died over 3,300 years ago, owned a collection of boomerangs of both the straight flying (hunting) and returning variety.[13]

No one knows for sure how the returning boomerang was invented, but some modern boomerang makers speculate that it developed from the flattened throwing stick, still used by the Australian Aborigines and other indigenous peoples around the world, including the Navajo in North America. A hunting boomerang is delicately balanced and much harder to make than a returning one. The curving flight characteristic of returning boomerangs was probably first noticed by early hunters trying to "tune" their throwing sticks to fly straight.[13]

Modern use

Modern sport boomerangs
First playedAncient
Mixed genderNo
TypeThrowing sport
Country or regionWorldwide
World Games1989 (invitational)

Today, boomerangs are mostly used for recreation. There are different types of throwing contests: accuracy of return; Aussie round; trick catch; maximum time aloft; fast catch; and endurance (see below). The modern sport boomerang (often referred to as a 'boom' or 'rang') is made of Finnish birch plywood, hardwood, plastic or composite materials and comes in many different shapes and colours. Most sport boomerangs typically weigh less than 100 grams (3.5 oz), with MTA boomerangs (boomerangs used for the maximum-time-aloft event) often under 25 grams (0.9 oz).

Boomerangs have also been suggested as an alternative to clay pigeons in shotgun sports, where the flight of the boomerang better mimics the flight of a bird offering a more challenging target.[16]

The modern boomerang is often computer-aided designed with precision airfoils. The number of "wings" is often more than 2 as more lift is provided by 3 or 4 wings than by 2.[17][18]

In 1992, German astronaut Ulf Merbold performed an experiment aboard Spacelab that established that boomerangs function in zero gravity as they do on Earth. French Astronaut Jean-François Clervoy aboard Mir repeated this in 1997.[19] In 2008, Japanese astronaut Takao Doi again repeated the experiment on board the International Space Station.[20][21]


It is thought by some that the shape and elliptical flight path of the returning boomerang makes it useful for hunting birds and small animals, or that noise generated by the movement of the boomerang through the air, or, by a skilled thrower, lightly clipping leaves of a tree whose branches house birds, would help scare the birds towards the thrower. It is further supposed by some that this was used to frighten flocks or groups of birds into nets that were usually strung up between trees or thrown by hidden hunters.[22] In southeastern Australia, it is claimed that boomerangs were made to hover over a flock of ducks; mistaking it for a hawk, the ducks would dive away, toward hunters armed with nets or clubs.[1] Despite these notions and similar claims by a few European writers, there is no independently contemporaneous record of any aboriginal peoples using a returning boomerang as a weapon.}

Traditionally, most boomerangs used by aboriginal groups in Australia were 'non-returning'. These weapons, sometimes called "throwsticks" or "kylies", were used for hunting a variety of prey, from kangaroos to parrots; at a range of about 100 metres (330 ft), a 2-kg (4.4 lb) non-returning boomerang could inflict mortal injury to a large animal.[1] A throwstick thrown nearly horizontally may fly in a nearly straight path and could fell a kangaroo on impact to the legs or knees, while the long-necked emu could be killed by a blow to the neck. Hooked non-returning boomerangs, known as "beaked kylies", used in northern Central Australia, have been claimed to kill multiple birds when thrown into a dense flock. It should be noted that throwsticks are used as multi-purpose tools by today's aboriginal peoples, and besides throwing could be wielded as clubs, used for digging, used to start friction fires, and are sonorous when two are struck together.


Boomerangs - melbourne show 2005
Boomerangs for sale at the 2005 Melbourne Show

A returning boomerang is a rotating wing. Although it is not a requirement that the boomerang be in its traditional shape, it is usually flat. A falling boomerang starts spinning, and most then fall in a spiral. When the boomerang is thrown with high spin, a boomerang flies in a curve rather than a straight line. When thrown correctly, a boomerang returns to its starting point.

Returning boomerangs consist of two or more arms, or wings, connected at an angle. Each wing is shaped as an airfoil.

As the wing rotates and the boomerang moves through the air, this creates airflow over the wings and this creates lift on both "wings". However, during one-half of each blade's rotation, it sees a higher airspeed, because the rotation tip-speed and the forward speed add, and when it is in the other half of the rotation, the tip speed subtracts from the forward speed. Thus if thrown nearly upright each blade generates more lift at the top than the bottom.[23]

While it might be expected that this would cause the boomerang to tilt around the axis of travel, because the boomerang has significant angular momentum, gyroscopic effect causes the plane of rotation to tilt about an axis that is 90 degrees to the direction of flight, and this is what curves the flight in such a way that it will tend to return.[23]

Thus gyroscopic precession is what makes the boomerang return to the thrower when thrown correctly. This is also what makes the boomerang fly straight up into the air when thrown incorrectly. With the exception of long-distance boomerangs, they should not be thrown sidearm or like a Frisbee, but rather thrown with the long axis of the wings rotating in an almost-vertical plane.

Fast Catch boomerangs usually have three or more symmetrical wings (seen from above), whereas a Long Distance boomerang is most often shaped similar to a question mark.[24] Maximum Time Aloft boomerangs mostly have one wing considerably longer than the other. This feature, along with carefully executed bends and twists in the wings help to set up an 'auto-rotation' effect to maximise the boomerang's hover-time in descending from the highest point in its flight.

Some boomerangs have turbulators—bumps or pits on the top surface that act to increase the lift as boundary layer transition activators (to keep attached turbulent flow instead of laminar separation).

Modern construction

The pattern is placed on the plywood so that the wood grain runs across from the tip of one end of the boomerang to the tip of the other end. Try to get the grain of the outer ply running at 45 degrees to the length of the arms. If there is any warp in the wood, make sure that this produces dihedral on the upper side of the boomerang, i.e., if the airfoil is uppermost and the boomerang is on a flat surface, then the wingtips are raised slightly above the surface. (Any anhedral and the boomerang won't fly.) The pattern is traced on to the boomerang with a pencil. The boomerang shape is cut out of the plywood. This basic cut out is called the blank. An outline is drawn on the top of the blank to show the areas to be shaped for the leading and trailing edges of the wings. The profiles of the wings are shaped. The top of the leading edge of each wing is decreased at a 45° angle, while the rear of the wing is angled down to leave 1–2 mm thick trailing edge. The bottom face of the leading edge is trimmed back slightly. The tips of the wings are shaped down to the same thickness as the trailing edge. The various layers of the plywood serve as an outline that helps the worker achieve equal slopes. A shallow section may also be cut out from the bottom surface of each wing. For example, this might consist of a 5-cm long strip near the wing tip and behind the leading edge. Using progressively finer sandpaper, the surface of the boomerang is smoothed carefully. Check the boomerang for a slight amount of dihedral (2–3 mm) on both wings at this point. If there isn't any, introduce some by heating the boomerang either over a heat source or a brief spell in the microwave oven (about 30 seconds on high) – if the boomerang is just about uncomfortably hot to handle, you've got it just about right. Bend up the tips of the wings and place the boomerang on a flat surface with a coin under each tip and a weight (bag of sugar?) on the elbow of the boomerang. Allow it to cool for twenty minutes or more. After spraying the surface with sanding sealer, the surface is smoothed with fine steel wool. The boomerang is then painted again.

Tuning the flight

The boomerang is then thrown several times to check if it works. The extreme subtleties of the aerodynamic forces on the light wooden boomerang make it surprisingly difficult to predict how the finished boomerang will perform. Two apparently identical boomerangs may radically differ in their flight patterns. For example, they may climb uncontrollably, they may fall repeatedly into the ground, they may exhibit long narrow pattern non-returning flight, or display other erratic behaviour. The only sure way to know is to flight-test them. There are several methods to correct problems, for example the wing profiles might be adjusted by additional sanding. Plywood boomerangs may be heated for a short time in a microwave oven which softens the glue between the layers and then can be carefully intentionally warped. Angle of attack of the leading arm and the dingle arm can be adjusted, as can the overall dihedral angle of the wings all with some effect. There are many other esoteric tuning techniques as well. Tuning boomerangs is more of a slowly learned art than a science. The quality of the boomerang is also checked throughout this process. A tuned boomerang should be stored carefully on a flat surface away from too much humidity, direct sunlight, or heat. These conditions can subtly affect the shape of the boomerang and ruin its flight characteristics, and the boomerang will then need to be re-tuned.

The hunting boomerang is more delicately balanced and is therefore much harder to make than a returning one. When thrown, this type of boomerang needs to develop no unbalanced aerodynamic forces that would affect its flight path, so that it will fly true to the target.

Art renaissance

Beginning in the later part of the twentieth century, there has been a bloom in the independent creation of unusually designed art boomerangs. These often have little or no resemblance to the traditional historical ones and on first sight some of these objects often do not look like boomerangs at all. The use of modern thin plywoods and synthetic plastics have greatly contributed to their success. As long as there are somewhere in the object several airfoil contoured surfaces, whether wing shaped or not, these boomerangs can be thrown and will return. Designs are amazingly diverse and can range from animal inspired forms, humorous themes, complex calligraphic and symbolic shapes, to the purely abstract. Painted surfaces are similarly richly diverse.

Throwing technique

A right-handed boomerang is thrown with a counter-clockwise spin causing a counter-clockwise flight (as seen from above). Conversely, a left-handed boomerang is constructed as a mirror image with the aerofoils' leading edges on the left side of the wings, as seen from above, causing it to produce lift when circling clockwise. Although appearing symmetrical from a flan view, the leading edges are on opposite edges of the wings (leading and trailing) so as to present the leading edges of the aerofoil to the wind when spinning.

Boomerang School
A boomerang school, William Street, Kings Cross, Sydney

Most sport boomerangs are in the range of about 70 to 110 grams (2.5 to 3.9 oz). The range on most is between 20 and 40 m (22 and 44 yd). Boomerangs are generally thrown in treeless, large open spaces that are twice as large as the range of the boomerang. A right- or left-handed boomerang can be thrown with either hand, but the flight direction will depend upon the boomerang, not the thrower. Throwing a boomerang with the wrong hand requires a throwing motion that many throwers may find awkward.

The correct launch orientation makes the boomerang's flight begin by flying into the wind, then having its flight take it through the "eye of the wind" and finally returning downwind using the wind's speed to help complete its flight back to the thrower. It is the spin that makes the boomerang return and the strength of throw and spin must be varied according to the speed of the wind – the stronger the wind, the less power is required to provide lift enough to make the return journey. In other words, the stronger the wind, the softer the boomerang is thrown. A light wind of three to five miles per hour is considered ideal. If the wind is strong enough to fly a kite, then it is usually too strong for boomerangs.

A properly thrown boomerang should curve around to the left, climb gently, level out in mid-flight, arc around and descend slowly, and then finish by popping up slightly, hovering, then stalling near the thrower. Ideally, this momentary hovering or stalling will allow the catcher the opportunity to clamp their hands shut horizontally on the boomerang from above and below, sandwiching the centre between their hands.

Competitions and records

In international competition, a world cup is held every second year. As of 2017, teams from Germany and the United States dominated international competition. The individual World Champion title was won in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2012 and 2016 by Swiss thrower Manuel Schütz. In 1992, 1998, 2006 and 2008 Fridolin Frost from Germany won the title.

The team competitions of 2012 and 2014 were won by Boomergang (an international team). World champions were Germany in 2012 and Japan in 2014 for the first time. Boomergang was formed by individuals from several countries, including the Colombian Alejandro Palacio. In 2016 USA became team world champion.

Competition disciplines

Modern boomerang tournaments usually involve some or all of the events listed below[25] In all disciplines the boomerang must travel at least 20 metres (66 ft) from the thrower. Throwing takes place individually. The thrower stands at the centre of concentric rings marked on an open field.

Events include:

  • Aussie Round: considered by many to be the ultimate test of boomeranging skills. The boomerang should ideally cross the 50-metre (160 ft) circle and come right back to the centre. Each thrower has five attempts. Points are awarded for distance, accuracy and the catch.
  • Accuracy: points are awarded according to how close the boomerang lands to the centre of the rings. The thrower must not touch the boomerang after it has been thrown. Each thrower has five attempts. In major competitions there are two accuracy disciplines: Accuracy 100 and Accuracy 50.
  • Endurance: points are awarded for the number of catches achieved in 5 minutes.
  • Fast Catch: the time taken to throw and catch the boomerang five times. The winner has the fastest timed catches.
  • Trick Catch/Doubling: points are awarded for trick catches behind the back, between the feet, and so on. In Doubling the thrower has to throw two boomerangs at the same time and catch them in sequence in a special way.
  • Consecutive Catch: points are awarded for the number of catches achieved before the boomerang is dropped. The event is not timed.
  • MTA 100 (Maximal Time Aloft, 100 metres (328 ft)): points are awarded for the length of time spent by the boomerang in the air. The field is normally a circle measuring 100 m. An alternative to this discipline, without the 100 m restriction is called MTA unlimited.
  • Long Distance: the boomerang is thrown from the middle point of a 40-metre (130 ft) baseline. The furthest distance travelled by the boomerang away from the baseline is measured. On returning, the boomerang must cross the baseline again but does not have to be caught. A special section is dedicated to LD below.
  • Juggling: as with Consecutive Catch, only with two boomerangs. At any given time one boomerang must be in the air.

World records

As of September 2017
Discipline Result Name Year Tournament
Accuracy 100 99 points Germany Alex Opri 2007 Italy Viareggio
Aussie Round 99 points Germany Fridolin Frost 2007 Italy Viareggio
Endurance 81 catches Switzerland Manuel Schütz 2005 Italy Milan
Fast Catch 14.07 s Switzerland Manuel Schütz 2017 France Besançon
Trick Catch/Doubling 533 points Switzerland Manuel Schütz 2009 France Bordeaux
Consecutive Catch 2251 catches Japan Haruki Taketomi 2009 Japan Japan
MTA 100 139.10 s United States Nick Citoli 2010 Italy Rome
MTA unlimited 380.59 s United States Billy Brazelton 2010 Italy Rome
Long Distance 238 m Switzerland Manuel Schütz 1999 Switzerland Kloten

Guinness World Record - Smallest Returning Boomerang

Non-discipline record: Smallest Returning Boomerang: Sadir Kattan of Australia in 1997 with 1.9 inches (48 mm) long and 1.8 inches (46 mm) wide. This tiny boomerang flew the required 22 yards (20 m), before returning to the accuracy circles on 22 March 1997 at the Australian National Championships.[26]

Guinness World Record - Longest Throw of Any Object by a Human

A boomerang was used to set a Guinness World Record with a throw of 1,401.5 feet (427.2 metres) by David Schummy on 15 March 2005 at Murrarie Recreation Ground, Australia.[27] This broke the record set by Erin Hemmings who threw an Aerobie 1,333 feet (406.3 metres) on 14 July 2003 at Fort Funston, San Francisco.[28]

Long-distance versions

Long-distance boomerang throwers aim to have the boomerang go the furthest possible distance while returning close to the throwing point. In competition the boomerang must intersect an imaginary surface defined as an infinite vertical extrude of a 40-metre (44 yd) large line centred on the thrower. Outside of competitions, the definition is not so strict, and the thrower is happy whenever he/she does not have to travel 50 metres (55 yd) after the throw, to recover the boomerang.

General properties

Long-distance boomerangs are optimised to have minimal drag while still having enough lift to fly and return. For this reason, they have a very narrow throwing window, which discourages many beginners from continuing with this discipline. For the same reason, the quality of manufactured long-distance boomerangs is often non-deterministic.

Today's long-distance boomerangs have almost all an S or ? – question mark shape and have a beveled edge on both sides (the bevel on the bottom side is sometimes called an undercut). This is to minimise drag and lower the lift. Lift must be low because the boomerang is thrown with an almost total layover (flat). Long-distance boomerangs are most frequently made of composite material, mainly fibre glass epoxy composites.

Flight path

The projection of the flight path of long-distance boomerang on the ground resembles a water drop. For older types of long-distance boomerangs (all types of so-called big hooks), the first and last third of the flight path are very low, while the middle third is a fast climb followed by a fast descent. Nowadays, boomerangs are made in a way that their whole flight path is almost planar with a constant climb during the first half of the trajectory and then a rather constant descent during the second half.

From theoretical point of view, distance boomerangs are interesting also for the following reason: for achieving a different behaviour during different flight phases, the ratio of the rotation frequency to the forward velocity has a U-shaped function, i.e., its derivative crosses 0. Practically, it means that the boomerang being at the furthest point has a very low forward velocity. The kinetic energy of the forward component is then stored in the potential energy. This is not true for other types of boomerangs, where the loss of kinetic energy is non-reversible (the MTAs also store kinetic energy in potential energy during the first half of the flight, but then the potential energy is lost directly by the drag).

Related terms

In Noongar language, kylie is a flat curved piece of wood similar in appearance to a boomerang that is thrown when hunting for birds and animals.[29] "Kylie" is one of the Aboriginal words for the hunting stick used in warfare and for hunting animals.[30] Instead of following curved flight paths, kylies fly in straight lines from the throwers. They are typically much larger than boomerangs, and can travel very long distances; due to their size and hook shapes, they can cripple or kill an animal or human opponent. The word is perhaps an English corruption of a word meaning "boomerang" taken from one of the Western Desert languages, for example, the Warlpiri word "karli".

See also


  1. ^ a b c Jones, Philip (1996). Boomerang: Behind an Australian Icon. Wakefield Press. ISBN 9781862543829.
  2. ^ "Boomerang". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  3. ^ Harris, Tom. "Battle Boomerangs". Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  4. ^ Rivers, Pitt. "On the Egyptian Boomerang and its Affinities". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1883. 12: 454–463.
  5. ^ Ted Bailey. "Worlds Largest Boomerang". Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  6. ^ Boomerang, Online Etymology Dictionary.
  7. ^ "SYDNEY". NLA Australian Newspapers. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  8. ^ Collins, David (1798). "Appendix XII (Language)". An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales. p. 554.
  9. ^ Image of handwritten note, in "The notebooks of William Dawes on the Aboriginal language of Sydney". The Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project.
  10. ^ "What is a Boomerang?". Boomerang Association of Australia. 15 September 1961. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  11. ^ "Kimberley rock art could be among oldest in the world". ABC News AU. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
  12. ^ Arifin, Karina (2004). Rock Art in West Papua (PDF). UNESCO Publishing.
  13. ^ a b c "Boomerang History". Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  14. ^ Valde-Nowak et al. (1987). Upper Palaeolithic boomerang made of a mammoth tusk in south Poland. Nature 329: 436-438 (1 October 1987); doi:10.1038/329436a0.
  15. ^ "Er fliegt!". Bumerang Welt. 1995. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007.. English translation: "Paleolithic Throwing Object" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) – Throwing experiments with the Palaeolithic throwing object from the Oblazowa in the Polish Carpathians
  16. ^ Aussie Boomerang Shootin'. YouTube. 15 October 2012.
  17. ^ Boomerang Aerodynamics,
  18. ^ Saulius Pakalnis, Aerodynamics of Boomerang, 21 April 2006,
  19. ^ "Boomerangs in Space". 18 March 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  20. ^ "Boomerang works in space, says astronaut". 21 March 2008. Archived from the original on 24 March 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  21. ^ "Does a Boomerang Work in Space?". 2008-03-24. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  22. ^ Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. Mackays of Chatham. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-571-23368-7.
  23. ^ a b "Boomerang".
  24. ^ "''". 19 April 2005. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  25. ^ Based on original text from German
  26. ^ "World's smallest boomerang". 12 April 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  27. ^ Longest Boomerang Throw on YouTube
  28. ^ "First quarter Mile Throw in History at Fort Funston". Business Wire. Business Wire. 16 July 2003. Archived from the original on 19 April 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
  29. ^ "Language | Kaartdijin Noongar". SWLASC. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  30. ^ "Whence comes, and what is a boomerang". Retrieved 2017-07-26.

Further reading

External links

Boomerang (Australian and New Zealand TV channel)

Boomerang is a cable and satellite television channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System, a unit of WarnerMedia and its main flagship channel of Cartoon Network. The Australian version of Boomerang was launched on 14 March 2004 as part of the Foxtel Digital launch, with a line-up very similar to that of the US and UK version. Originally devoted to classic animation from studios such as Hanna-Barbera, the channel has since expanded to include more contemporary programming. This channel is available as a free trial in a subscription entertainment package on Fetch TV by some ISPs and was added 26 January 2017. The free trial for Boomerang and Cartoon Network ended 27 February 2017. After the free trial ended, Boomerang relaunched on Fetch TV, removing the free trial status.

Boomerang (Central and Eastern Europe TV channel)

Boomerang is a European pay television channel which focuses on animated kids programming. The CEE feed is being broadcast in Albania, Austria, Baltic states, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Commonwealth of Independent States, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Macedonia, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and the Ukraine.

Boomerang (French TV channel)

Boomerang is a French-English television channel broadcasting programmes to children in France and Belgium. The channel was launched on 23 April 2003. The channel is owned by Turner Broadcasting System France.

Boomerang (Italian TV channel)

For the original Boomerang channel, see Boomerang (TV channel).

For Boomerang in other countries, see Boomerang around the world.Boomerang is a television channel of old and new cartoons, including Hanna-Barbera series and others. It is the sister channel of Cartoon Network, a division of WarnerMedia.

Since 2003, Boomerang also has an Italian version available on SKY Italia, and will soon start to broadcast on digital terrestrial television with Cartoon Network. For the most part, the network's schedule matches that of the main Boomerang in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with local scheduling variations and dubbing and subtitling of programmes into Italian.

Boomerang (Middle East and Africa TV channel)

Boomerang in Middle East and Africa (formerly Boomerang HQ) is a children's channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System Europe which air children's cartoons; Boomerang Africa —which broadcasts in Sub-Saharan Africa, and Boomerang MENA—which broadcasts in the Middle East and North Africa, in addition to Greece and Cyprus.

Boomerang HQ was launched on 5 June 2005, broadcasting in select EMEA territories.

On 1 July 2016, Boomerang MENA was launched for the Middle East and North Africa to replace Boomerang Africa. In the Middle East and North Africa, Boomerang MENA is offered on beIN and numerous other miscellaneous providers; it is available in both English and Arabic, and broadcasts in HD as well. Boomerang MENA is also the version used in Greece and Cyprus. It has a separate schedule from Boomerang Africa, and features differing censorship rules as well.

Boomerang (Scandinavian TV channel)

Boomerang(Danish: Boomerang (Danmark),Norwegian: Boomerang (Norge),Swedish: Boomerang (Sverige)) is a television channel targeting the Nordic countries. It broadcasts a different selection of cartoons from its sister channel Cartoon Network.

Boomerang (Southeast Asian TV channel)

Boomerang is a cable and satellite television channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System. The Southeast Asian version of Boomerang was launched in September 2005 with a lineup very similar to that of the US version. It started previously as a programming block on Cartoon Network from 2001 to 2005 during weeknights. It has a lot of similarities with the Australian feed, including promos being shared across both feeds.

In December 2012, the channel was replaced by Toonami Asia and Cartoonito. However, it was relaunched in Asia on January 1, 2015, with a new look and as part of the Boomerang's global rebranding effort for 2015. The channel replaced the Asian feed of Cartoonito.

Boomerang (Spanish TV channel)

Boomerang was a Spanish pay-television channel centred on reruns of former Cartoon Network animated series dubbed in European Spanish, such as content from Hanna-Barbera. It was Cartoon Network's sister station, a former division of Warner Media. The channel was launched in 2004 and available on Digital+, Auna and Movistar TV.

On 1 September 2011, Boomerang Spain was rebranded as the Spanish variant of Cartoonito. Subsequently, Cartoonito Spain closed down on 1 July 2013, along with Cartoon Network Spain, moving its programming to Turner-owned DTT channel Boing.

Boomerang (TV network)

Boomerang is an American pay television network as well as an streaming service that is owned by Turner Broadcasting System, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. It specializes in classic and contemporary animated programming owned by WarnerMedia, including Looney Tunes, Tom and Jerry, and Scooby-Doo.

Launched in 1992 globally and in 2000 for the United States, Boomerang originated as a programming block and spinoff of Cartoon Network. It eventually grew into its own separate channel and identity, and similarly shares the same brand and likeness as Cartoon Network. The network's schedule is more experimental than most children's networks, mixing in older and newer content, and also runs on a sustained model with little advertising outside of Turner services and short-form continuity mainly featuring cartoon shorts and featurettes.

As of February 2015, approximately 43.6 million households (37.5% of those with television) access the channel.

Boomerang (UK and Irish TV channel)

Boomerang is a television channel broadcast in the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland launched on 27 May 2000. It is broadcast 24 hours on the Sky, Virgin Media, BT TV, TalkTalk Plus TV, Virgin Media Ireland and TVPlayer (When subscribed to TVPlayer Plus). It mostly features classic cartoons such as Tom and Jerry and Scooby-Doo.

It is a subscription digital based television channel, which features cartoons, mostly from the Hanna-Barbera and Warner Bros. Animation libraries, which include many Hanna-Barbera and Warner Bros. Animation titles.

Boomerang (comics)

Boomerang (Frederick "Fred" Myers) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He has been a member of several prominent supervillain teams and clashed with several heroes throughout his career, most notably Spider-Man.

Bunnicula (TV series)

Bunnicula is an American animated television series from Warner Bros. Animation developed by Jessica Borutski, produced by Borutski and Maxwell Atoms, and distributed by Warner Bros. Television. It premiered on Cartoon Network on February 6, 2016, and then premiered on Boomerang on the same day. The show is loosely based on the children's book series by James and Deborah Howe. It is a dark comedy about a vampire rabbit named Bunnicula who drinks carrot juice instead of blood to strengthen his super abilities in new paranormal adventures.New episodes aired same-day on Cartoon Network and Boomerang. On March 23, 2017, Bunnicula returned after a year-long hiatus when five new episodes aired unannounced on Boomerang in a graveyard slot. It returned again on November 6, 2017. In 2017, the series was picked up for a second and third season.The series can be streamed exclusively on Boomerang's SVOD subscription service and has also been rerun on the Boomerang TV network since July 30, 2018.

On May 23, 2018, Warner Bros. announced that the third season of Bunnicula would premiere on the Boomerang streaming service in 2019.

Captain Boomerang

Captain Boomerang (George "Digger" Harkness) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is an enemy of both Barry Allen and Wally West, who each have assumed the role of the superhero Flash. Created by writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino, Captain Boomerang first appeared in The Flash #117 (December 1960).

During the 2004 storyline Identity Crisis, George Harkness is killed and his son, Owen Mercer (also known as Owen Harkness), takes over his father's role as Captain Boomerang for a period of time until his own death. Following the 2009–2010 Blackest Night storyline, George Harkness returns to life and returns as Captain Boomerang. Following 2016's DC Rebirth, the George Harkness incarnation of Captain Boomerang is part of the supervillain team Suicide Squad in the fifth volume of the team's eponymous comic book series.

Digger Harkness appeared in an episode of the third season of Arrow portrayed by Nick E. Tarabay. He also appeared in the season five finale of the same show as well. The George "Digger" Harkness incarnation of Captain Boomerang was portrayed by Jai Courtney in the 2016 Suicide Squad film.

Cartoon Network (Australia and New Zealand)

Cartoon Network Australia and New Zealand is an Australian cable and satellite television channel created by Turner Broadcasting which primarily shows animated programming, It was launched on 3 October 1995.

The Australian version is available on cable TV networks Foxtel and Optus on 3 October 1995. It is also on 3 as a part of its new mobile TV service for $4 a month although this feed is merely a heavily repeated media stream of Cartoon Network's best shows. Telstra also broadcasts Cartoon Network on mobile service, though this is the same feed as seen on Foxtel. Neighbourhood Cable broadcasts the network in yet another feed in regional Victoria. Sky Network Television has broadcast the network in New Zealand, on 1 January 1997 originally during the day on Sky UHF preset channel 7 with Orange (later Sky 1, The Box, and now Sky 5) broadcasting during the evenings. The Cartoon Network became a separate 24-hour channel in New Zealand in 1998 when the Sky Digital service was launched. Cartoon Network Australia and Asia adopted the 24/7 broadcasting hours earlier on 1 July 1997.

List of programs broadcast by Boomerang

This is a list of television programs broadcast by Boomerang in the United States.

New Looney Tunes

New Looney Tunes (formerly known as Wabbit: A Looney Tunes Production for its first season) is an American animated television series from Warner Bros. Animation based on the characters from Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies. The series premiered on September 21, 2015, on Cartoon Network, and later premiered on October 5, 2015, on Boomerang. The show, along with most other WBA shows, then later moved to Boomerang's SVOD service where episodes are released before airing on television.On May 23, 2018, the Boomerang streaming service announced that New Looney Tunes would continue until 2019.

Scooby-Doo and Guess Who?

Scooby-Doo and Guess Who? is an upcoming American animated television series and the thirteenth animated series in the Scooby-Doo franchise by Hanna-Barbera, and produced by Warner Bros. Animation. The series is produced by Chris Bailey.

The show is scheduled to premiere on the Boomerang streaming service and app in March 23 2019.

Turner Broadcasting System

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. is an American media conglomerate that is a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia, and manages the collection of cable television networks and properties initiated or acquired by Ted Turner. The company was founded in 1965, and merged with Time Warner on October 10, 1996. It now operates as a semi-autonomous unit of WarnerMedia. The company's assets include CNN, TBS, TNT, Turner Classic Movies, Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, Boomerang, Hulu (10%), Audience, Game Show Network (42%), AT&T SportsNet and TruTV. The headquarters of Turner's properties are located in both the CNN Center in Downtown Atlanta and the Turner Broadcasting campus off Techwood Drive in Midtown Atlanta, which also houses Turner Studios. Across Interstate 75/85 from the Techwood campus is the original home of Turner's WTBS superstation (now separated into its TBS cable network and Peachtree TV), which today houses the headquarters of Adult Swim and Williams Street Productions.

Turner Broadcasting System Europe

Turner Broadcasting System Europe (also known simply as Turner Europe, Middle East and Africa) is the company managing the collection of cable and satellite networks around Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Turner Broadcasting System Europe operates the following brands: CNN International, Boomerang, Turner Classic Movies, TNT, Cartoon Network, Boing, truTV, HLN, Toonami, Warner TV and Cartoonito. The availability of these brands depends on what country in Europe, Middle East and Africa the viewer is from. The most available brands include Cartoon Network, Boomerang, CNN and Turner Classic Movies. In 2019, Turner EMEA will be moving to their new headquarters in Old Street, Shoreditch, London. The new headquarters will have more office space allowing room for the company's European operations to expand and a brand new custom-built CNN newsroom.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.