As of 2018, two firms in Italy rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Messaggerie Italiane (including Gruppo editoriale Mauri Spagnol), and Mondadori Libri. Other large publishers include De Agostini Editore.[nb 1]
Germans in Subiaco, Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweynheim, in 1464 set up a printing press and produced "the earliest book printed in Italy,...a Latin grammar by Donatus." Printing technology spread in the 1460s to Rome and Venice; in the 1470s to places such as Bergamo, Bologna, Brescia, Cremona, Ferrara, Florence, Genoa, Lucca, Mantua, Messina, Milan, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Piacenza, Reggio Calabria, Treviso, Turin, Verona, Vicenza; and in the 1480s to places such as L'Aquila, Pisa, Reggio Emilia, Siena, and Udine.
At the time of Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, the Biblioteca Magliabechiana in Florence merged with the Biblioteca Palatina Lorenese, and by 1885 became known as the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze (National Central Library). The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma formed in 1876. As official legal deposit libraries, both maintain copies of works published in Italy.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization named Turin the 2006 World Book Capital.
Notable shops in Italy include:
Arnold Pannartz and Conrad Sweynheym were two printers of the 15th century.
Pannartz died about 1476, Sweynheym in 1477. Pannartz was, perhaps, a native of Prague, and Sweynheym of Eltville near Mainz. Gottfried Zedler believed (Gutenberg-Forschungen, 1901) that Sweynheym worked at Eltville with Gutenberg in 1461-1464. Whether Pannartz had been connected with Sweynheym in Germany is not known. It is certain that the two brought Gutenberg's invention to Italy.
The Benedictine abbey of Subiaco was the cradle of Italian printing. Probably Cardinal Giovanni of Turrecremata, who was Abbot in commendam of Subiaco, summoned the two printers there. They came in 1464. The first book that they printed at Subiaco was a Donatus; it has not, however, been preserved. The first book printed in Italy that is extant was a Cicero, De oratore (now in the Buchgewerbehaus at Leipzig), issued in September, 1465. It was followed by Lactantius, De divinis institutionibus, in October, 1465, and Augustine's De civitate Dei (1467). These four impressions from Subiaco are of particular importance, because they abandon the Blackletter of the early German books. In Italy, Roman characters were demanded. Pannartz and Sweynheym, however, did not produce a pure but only a "half Roman" type with Blackletter-like characteristics.
In 1467, the two printers left Subiaco and settled at Rome, where the brothers Pietro and Francesco Massimo placed a house at their disposal. The same year, they published an edition of Cicero's letters that gave its name to the cicero, the Continental equivalent of the pica. Their proof and manuscript reader was Giovan de' Bussi, since 1469 Bishop of Aleria in Corsica.
The works they printed are given in two lists of their publications, issued in 1470 and 1472. Up to 1472, they had published twenty-eight theological and classical volumes, namely, the Bible, Lactantius, Cyprian, Augustine, Jerome, Leo the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Cicero, Apuleius, Gellius, Virgil, Livy, Strabo, Pliny, Quintilian, Suetonius, Ovid, etc., in editions varying from 275 to 300 copies each, in all 12,475 volumes. But the printers shared the fate of their master, Gutenberg; they could not sell their books, and fell into want.
In 1472, they applied to Pope Sixtus IV for Church benefices. From this we know that both were ecclesiastics: Pannartz of Cologne and Sweynheym of Mainz. The pope had a reversion drawn up for them, a proof of his great interest in printing. In 1474, Sweynheym was made a canon at St. Victor at Mainz. It is not known whether Pannartz also obtained benefice. Perhaps the pope also aided them; at any rate, they printed eighteen more works in 1472 and 1473. After this they separated. Pannartz printed by himself thirteen further volumes. Sweynheym took up engraving on metal and executed the fine maps for the Cosmography of Ptolemy, the first work of this kind, but died before he had finished his task.Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma
The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma (Rome National Central Library), in Rome, is one of two central national libraries of Italy, along with Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze in Florence. In total, 9 national libraries exist, out of 46 state libraries.The library's mission is to collect and preserve all the publications in Italy and the most important foreign works, especially those related to Italy, and make them available to anyone.
The collection currently includes more than 7,000,000 printed volumes, 2,000 incunabula, 25,000 cinquecentine (16th century books), 8,000 manuscripts, 10,000 drawings, 20,000 maps, and 1,342,154 brochures.Bologna Children's Book Fair
The Bologna Children's Book Fair or La fiera del libro per ragazzi is the leading professional fair for children's books in the world.
Since 1963, it is held yearly for four days in March or April in Bologna, Italy. It is the meeting place for all professionals involved with creating and publishing children's books, and is mainly used for the buying and selling of rights, both for translations and for derived products like movies or animated series. It is also the event where a number of major awards are given, the BolognaRagazzi Awards, in four categories (Fiction, Non-fiction, New Horizons (for the non-Western world) and Opera Prima (for first works). During the fair, but separate from it, some major awards are announced, including the biannual Hans Christian Andersen Awards and the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award.
In 2009, the fair had 1300 exhibitors, coming from 67 countries.Corrado Veneziano
Corrado Veneziano (born 1958 in Tursi, Italy) is an Italian painter, visual artist, television and theater director.
Graduated in Literature, Professor of Philosophy, History, Psychology, Latino, he has published books in Italy and abroad, working and collaborating extensively with RAI, the Venice Biennale, the National Academy of Santa Cecilia, National Academy of dramatic Art Silvio D'Amico, the Piccolo Teatro in Milan, la Sapienza University of Rome, Harvard University, the Université Libre de Bruxelles.David Werner Amram
David Werner Amram (May 16, 1866 – June 27, 1939) was a prominent lawyer and legal scholar, as well as an early American Zionist.
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he received a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1887, and an LL.B. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1889. He later served as a member of the law school faculty, where he was eventually joined by his son, Philip Werner Amram. He also noted for his biblical and talmudic scholarship, and published numerous books on the subject, including The Jewish Law of Divorce According to Bible and Talmud (1896), Leading Cases in the Bible (1905). His most famous book, The Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy (1909), details the earliest history of Hebrew book printing, including the first complete edition of the Talmud published by Daniel Bomberg in the early sixteenth century.
Amram was among the earliest adherents of the Zionist movement. He served as a director of the Federation of American Zionists, and as an editor of The Maccabean, the official publication of the Zionist Organization of America.Enrico Martino
Enrico Martino is an Italian photojournalist.Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Farrar, Straus and Giroux (FSG) is an American book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. and John C. Farrar. FSG is known for publishing literary books, and its authors have won numerous awards, including Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards, and Nobel Peace Prizes. The publisher is currently a division of Macmillan, whose parent company is the German publishing conglomerate Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.Leo S. Olschki Editore
Leo S. Olschki Editore is a publishing house of Florence, Italy.
It was founded in 1886 by Leo Samuele Olschki and is among the country's oldest publishers of critical work in the humanities.Leonardus Achates
Leonardus Achates de Basilea, born Leonhard Agtstein in Basel, was a compositor who worked from 1472 to 1491. He is one of the first to introduce the art of printing books in Italy.
In 1472 he published a folio edition of Virgil in Venice. In the same year, he appears in Vicenza where he seems to have lived most of the time. In the meantime however, editions appeared in Padua and St. Ursus.List of libraries in Italy
This is a list of libraries in Italy, arranged by region.National Central Library (Florence)
The National Central Library of Florence (Italian: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, BNCF) is a public national library in Florence, the largest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe, one of the two central libraries of Italy, along with the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Rome.Outline of books
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to books:
Book – set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side.Sardinian language
Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru [ˈsaɾdu/'sadru], limba sarda [ˈlimba ˈzaɾda] or língua sarda [ˈliŋɡu.a ˈzaɾda]) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia. Many Romance linguists consider it the closest genealogical descendant to Latin. However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political membership of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.
In 1997, Sardinian was recognized by a regional law, along with other languages spoken on the island; since 1999, Sardinian is also one of the twelve "historical language minorities" of Italy, being granted recognition by the national Law no. 482/1999. However, the vitality of the Sardinian-speaking community is threatened and UNESCO classifies the language as "definitely endangered", although an estimated 68.4 percent of the islanders reported to have a good oral command of Sardinian in 2007. While the level of language competence is in fact relatively high among the older generation beyond retirement age, it has been estimated to have dropped to less than 13 percent among children, with Sardinian being kept as a heritage language.Subiaco, Lazio
Subiaco is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in Lazio, central Italy, 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. It is a tourist and religious resort thanks to its sacred grotto (Sacro Speco), in the medieval St Benedict's Abbey, and for the Abbey of Santa Scolastica.
At a time when several German monks had been assigned to the monastery, German printers established a printing press in the town. They printed the first books in Italy in the late 15th century.Talmud
The Talmud (; Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd) is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews.The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). It may also traditionally be called Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah.
The Talmud has two components; the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה, c. year 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah; and the Gemara (circa year 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah and Gemara together.
The entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era through to the fifth century) on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, philosophy, customs, history, lore and many other topics. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.The Outsiders (Dutch band)
The Outsiders were a Dutch band from Amsterdam. Their period of greatest popularity in the Netherlands was from 1965–67, but they released records until 1969. In recent years their legacy has extended beyond the Netherlands, and the group is today recognized as a distinctive exemplars of the garage rock genre.Turin International Book Fair
The Turin International Book Fair (Italian: Salone Internazionale del Libro) is Italy's largest trade fair for books, held annually in mid-May in Turin, Italy.
Founded in 1988 as Book showroom (Italian: Salone del libro), it is one of the largest book fairs in Europe, involving more than 1,400 exhibitors and 341,000 visitors in 2015.University of Salerno
The University of Salerno (Italian: Università degli Studi di Salerno, UNISA) is a university located in Fisciano and in Baronissi. Its main campus is located in Fisciano while the Faculty of Medicine is located in Baronissi. It is organized in ten faculties.Ventimiglia
Ventimiglia (Italian pronunciation: [ventiˈmiʎʎa]; Ligurian: (Intemelio) Ventemiglia [veŋteˈmiʎa], (Genoese) Vintimiggia; French: Vintimille [vɛ̃tiˈmij]; Occitan: Ventemilha [venteˈmiʎɔ]) is a city, comune (municipality) and bishopric in Liguria, northern Italy, in the province of Imperia. It is located 130 km (81 mi) southwest of Genoa, and 7 km (4 mi) from the French-Italian border, on the Gulf of Genoa, having a small harbour at the mouth of the Roia River, which divides the town into two parts. Ventimiglia's urban area has a population of 55,000.