Books in Germany

As of 2018, ten firms in Germany rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: C.H. Beck, Bertelsmann, Cornelsen Verlag, Haufe-Gruppe, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag, Springer Nature, Thieme, WEKA Holding, and Westermann Druck- und Verlagsgruppe.[1][nb 1] Overall, "Germany has some 2,000 publishing houses, and more than 90,000 titles reach the public each year, a production surpassed only by the United States."[4] Unlike many other countries, "book publishing is not centered in a single city but is concentrated fairly evenly in Berlin, Hamburg, and the regional metropolises of Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, and Munich."[4]

History

In the 1450s in Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg printed a Bible using movable metal type, a technique that quickly spread to other German towns and throughout Europe.[5]

In the 1930s Nazis conducted book burnings.

German publishers issued around 61,000 book titles in 1990, and around 83,000 in 2000.[6]

Recent historians of the book in Germany include Bernhard Fabian and Paul Raabe.[7]

Fairs

The influential Frankfurt Book Fair began in 1454, and the Leipzig Book Fair in 1632.

Collections

Outside of Germany, collections of German books include those stored in the UK at the British Library[8] and London Library;[9] in the US at Harvard University[10] and Yale University.[11]

In popular culture

In 2006 a temporary sculpture about German book history was installed at Bebelplatz in Berlin as part of the Walk of Ideas.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Of these, several also topped the list in 2016 and 2017.[2][3]

References

  1. ^ "The World's 54 Largest Publishers, 2018", Publishers Weekly, US, 265 (38), 14 September 2018
  2. ^ "World's 52 Largest Book Publishers, 2016", Publishers Weekly, US, 26 August 2016
  3. ^ "World's 54 Largest Publishers, 2017", Publishers Weekly, US, 25 August 2017
  4. ^ a b "Germany: Media and Publishing". Britannica.com. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  5. ^ Proctor 1898.
  6. ^ Euromedia 2004.
  7. ^ James Raven (2018). What is the History of the Book?. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745641614.
  8. ^ "German Printed Collections, 1501-1850". Help for Researchers. UK: British Library. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Guide to German Collections" (PDF). UK: London Library. Retrieved 8 December 2017. (Describes German-language holdings)
  10. ^ James Walsh (1985). "Twenty Years of German Collection Building, 1966-1986". Harvard Library Bulletin. US. 33. ISSN 0017-8136. + Roger Wieck (1981). "Exhibition of German Illustrated Books from the Sixteenth Century". Harvard Library Bulletin. 29. Free to read
  11. ^ "Collections: German Literature". US: Yale University Library. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.

Bibliography

in English

in German

  • Allgemeines Bücher-Lexicon [General Book List] (in German), Heinsius, 1793–1798, OCLC 491343885
  • Verzeichniß neuer Bücher [Directory of New Books] (in German), Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1794–1822, OCLC 894883757
  • Christian Gottlob Kayser (1834–1911), Vollständiges Bücher-Lexicon [Complete Book List] (in German), OCLC 496011129CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  • Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens [Archive for the History of the Book] (in German), ISSN 0066-6327 1958-
  • Reinhard Wittmann (1991). Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels: ein Uberblick [History of the German Book Trade: an Overview] (in German). ISBN 3406354254.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert [History of the German book trade in the 19th and 20th centuries] (in German). ISBN 978-3-11-095617-7. Multiple volumes, 2001-

Filmography

  • How to Make a Book with Steidl, 2010; about Steidl publisher in Göttingen

Images

Man with book by Brandseph of Stuttgart 2

Man with book, Stuttgart, circa 1890s; photo by Friedrich Brandseph

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F001703-0003, Bonn, Studentenbibliothek, Lesesaal

Readers in Bonn, 1950

Buchhandlung-felix-jud

Felix Jud bookshop, Hamburg, 2010

Frankfurter Buchmesse 2017-10-11-2

Frankfurt Book Fair, October 2017

External links

Bavarian State Library

The Bavarian State Library (German: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, abbreviated BSB, called Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis before 1919) in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries. With its collections currently comprising around 10.36 million books (as of 2016), it ranks among the best research libraries worldwide. Moreover, its historical stock encompasses one of the most important manuscript collections of the world, the largest collection of incunabula worldwide, as well as numerous further important special collections.

The legal deposit law has been in force since 1663, regulating that two copies of every printed work published in Bavaria have to be submitted to the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. This law is still applicable today. The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek furthermore is Europe's second-largest journals library (after the British Library). The BSB publishes the specialist journal Bibliotheksforum Bayern and has been publishing the Bibliotheksmagazin together with the Berlin State Library since 2007. Its building is situated in the Ludwigstrasse.

C.H. Beck

Verlag C.H.BECK oHG, doing business as Publishers C.H. Beck (German: Verlag C. H. Beck), is a German publisher with its headquarters in Munich and a branch office in Frankfurt. The company publishes 70 professional journals and over 9,000 individual titles. Each month it publishes up to 1,500 new editions and publications. 550 employees work in the Munich headquarters. The 120 scientific editors combined work at the Munich and Frankfurt offices, supporting over 14,000 authors. The Frankfurt office houses the editorial departments of most of C.H. Beck's law journals.The company was established in 1763. Historically its headquarters were in Nördlingen.

Ernst-Marcus Thomas

Ernst-Marcus Thomas (born March 23, 1973) is a German actor, TV host, radio DJ and writer. He currently hosts the "Afternoon show" on WDR 4 in Germany.

Thomas has been standing in front of a camera mainly in live shows in Germany and Switzerland for the last 20 years; amongst others in the national entertainment show "ZDF Fernsehgarten". Prior to that, Thomas was the host of the daily TV cooking show "ARD Buffet" that airs Monday through Friday in Germany on the national TV channel ARD.

He studied drama and psychology at the University of Munich and finished his studies with a Master of Arts. Additionally he followed an education as a newspaper editor at "Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung".

Ernst-Marcus Thomas also works as a communication trainer. With his company Charismedia, Thomas trains CEOs and managers all over Europe and is - besides that - lecturer at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences and the ARD.ZDF.Media-Academy.

In 2015 Mr. Thomas published his first two books in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: "Traumberuf Moderator" (Dream Job TV host), a career guide for German TV presenters, Tectum publishing house, and the best-selling nonfiction book "Der perfekte Auftritt" (The Perfect Performance) which covers the art of public speaking, Haufe publishing house.

In August 2017 Thomas played a part in the action comedy The Spy Who Dumped Me starring Mila Kunis. Producer is Ron Howard. The film is scheduled to be released on July 6, 2018.

Frankfurt Book Fair

The Frankfurter Buchmesse (FBM) is the world's largest trade fair for books, based both on the number of publishing companies represented, and the number of visitors. It is considered to be the most important book fair in the world for international deals and trading. The five-day annual event in mid-October is held at the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The first three days are restricted exclusively to professional visitors; the general public attend the fair on the weekend.

Several thousand exhibitors representing book publishing, multimedia and technology companies, as well as content providers from all over the world gather in order to negotiate international publishing rights and license fees. The fair is organised by Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH, a subsidiary of the German Publishers and Booksellers Association. More than 7,300 exhibitors from over 100 countries and more than 286,000 visitors took part in the year 2017.

German National Library

The German National Library (German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek or DNB) is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt.

Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas. A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin (founded 1970), which deals with all music-related archiving (both printed and recorded materials). Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is also located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there.

German literature

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is mostly in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects (e.g. Alemannic).

Medieval German literature is literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; various dates have been given for the end of the German literary Middle Ages, the Reformation (1517) being the last possible cut-off point. The Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century; the most famous works are the Hildebrandslied and a heroic epic known as the Heliand. Middle High German starts in the 12th century; the key works include The Ring (ca. 1410) and the poems of Oswald von Wolkenstein and Johannes von Tepl. The Baroque period (1600 to 1720) was one of the most fertile times in German literature. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment (such as Herder). The Sensibility movement of the 1750s–1770s ended with Goethe's best-selling Die Leiden des jungen Werther (1774). The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Biedermeier refers to the literature, music, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815 (Vienna Congress), the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Under the Nazi regime, some authors went into exile (Exilliteratur) and others submitted to censorship ("internal emigration", Innere Emigration). The Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to German language authors thirteen times (as of 2009), or the third most often after English and French language authors (with 27 and 14 laureates, respectively), with winners including Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, and Günter Grass.

Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was among the earliest major books printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed books in the West. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has iconic status. It is an edition of the Vulgate printed in the 1450s in Latin by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, in present-day Germany. Forty-nine copies (or substantial portions of copies) have survived. They are thought to be among the world's most valuable books, although no complete copy has been sold since 1978. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible displayed in Frankfurt to promote the edition. It is not known how many copies were printed; the 1455 letter cites sources for both 158 and 180 copies. The 36-line Bible, said to be the second printed Bible, is also referred to sometimes as a Gutenberg Bible, but may be the work of another printer.

Holtzbrinck Publishing Group

Holtzbrinck Publishing Group is a privately-held Stuttgart-based company which owns publishing companies worldwide. The company has published a wide variety of books including The Satanic Verses by Salman Rushdie and classics by Agatha Christie, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ernest Hemingway and John Updike. Other well-known publications of the company include the scientific journal Nature and Scientific American. It is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies.

In 2015, it merged most of its Macmillan Science and Education unit (including Nature Publishing Group) with Springer Science+Business Media, creating the company Springer Nature. Holtzbrinck owns 53% of the combined company.

Leipzig Book Fair

The Leipzig Book Fair (German: Leipziger Buchmesse) is the second largest book fair in Germany after the Frankfurt Book Fair. The fair takes place annually over four days at the Leipzig Trade Fairground in the northern part of Leipzig, Saxony. It is the first large trade meeting of the year and as such it plays an important role in the market and is often where new publications are first presented.

List of libraries in Germany

This is a list of libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany. There is a much more extensive list available on the German Wikipedia. There are about 6,313 public libraries in Germany.

Model (person)

A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing in fashion shows), or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional, and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films (Prêt-à-Porter and Looker); reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model and The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency); and music videos ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters" and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

Munich Digitization Center

Munich Digitization Center (German Das Münchener Digitalisierungszentrum (MDZ)) is an institution dedicated to digitalization, Online publication and the long-term archival preservation of the holdings of the Bavarian State Library and other cultural heritage institutions. It was founded in 1997 under the leadership of Mark Brantl. It operates as a unit of the Bavarian State Library.

Nancy Drew

Nancy Drew is a fictional character, a sleuth in an American mystery series created by publisher Edward Stratemeyer as the female counterpart to his Hardy Boys series. The character first appeared in 1930. The books are ghostwritten by a number of authors and published under the collective pseudonym Carolyn Keene. Over the decades, the character evolved in response to changes in US culture and tastes. The books were extensively revised and shortened, beginning in 1959, in part to lower printing costs with arguable success. In the revision process, the heroine's original character was changed to be less unruly and violent. In the 1980s, an older and more professional Nancy emerged in a new series, The Nancy Drew Files, that included romantic subplots for the sleuth. The original Nancy Drew Mystery Stories series started in 1930 and ended in 2003. Launched in 2004, the Girl Detective series features Nancy driving a hybrid electric vehicle and using a cell phone. In 2012, the Girl Detective series ended, and a new series, Nancy Drew Diaries, was launched in 2013. Illustrations of the character evolved over time to reflect contemporary styles. The character proves continuously popular worldwide: at least 80 million copies of the books have been sold, and the books have been translated into over 45 languages. Nancy Drew is featured in five films, two television shows, and a number of popular computer games; she also appears in a variety of merchandise sold around the world.

A cultural icon, Nancy Drew is cited as a formative influence by a number of women, from Supreme Court Justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Sonia Sotomayor to former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and former First Lady Laura Bush. Feminist literary critics have analyzed the character's enduring appeal, arguing variously that Nancy Drew is a mythic hero, an expression of wish fulfillment, or an embodiment of contradictory ideas about femininity. Nancy Drew has solved many cases that the police force have been stumped on.

Nazi book burnings

The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the German Student Union (the "DSt") to ceremonially burn books in Nazi Germany and Austria in the 1930s. The books targeted for burning were those viewed as being subversive or as representing ideologies opposed to Nazism. These included books written by Jewish, pacifist, religious, classical liberal, anarchist, socialist, and communist authors, among others. The first books burned were those of Karl Marx and Karl Kautsky.

Outline of books

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to books:

Book – set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side.

Printing press

A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty, and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century. Gutenberg's most important innovation was the development of hand-molded metal printing matrices, thus producing a movable type-based printing press system. His newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. Movable type had been hitherto unknown in Europe. In Europe, the two inventions, the hand mould and the printing press, together drastically reduced the cost of printing books and other documents, particularly in short print runs.

The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes. In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies. The operation of a press became synonymous with the enterprise of printing, and lent its name to a new medium of expression and communication, "the press".In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, and accelerated by the development of European vernacular languages, to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale.

Schocken Books

Schocken Books is an offspring of the Schocken Verlag, a publishing company that was established in Berlin in 1931 with a second office in Prague by the Schocken Department Store owner Salman Schocken. It published the writings of Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Franz Kafka and S. Y. Agnon, among others.

After being closed by the Germans in 1939, Salman Schocken, the owner, who had immigrated from Germany to Palestine in 1934, founded the Hebrew-language Schocken Publishing House in Mandate Palestine. Salman Schocken himself immigrated to the U.S. in 1940. In 1945 he founded the English-language Schocken Books in New York City. In 1987 it was bought up by Random House. Schocken Books continues to publish Jewish literary works.

Sebastian Fitzek

Sebastian Fitzek (born 13 October 1971 in Berlin) is a German writer and journalist. His first book Therapy (Die Therapie) was a bestseller in Germany in 2006, toppling The Da Vinci Code from the #1 position.Fitzek sold over 12 million books worldwide and alone 5 million books in Germany and is one of the most successful writers of Germany.

VD 17

The Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts (in English: Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries from 1601 to 1700), abbreviated VD17, is a project to make a retrospective German national bibliography for the 17th century. The project was initiated in 1996 and planned to continue for 10–12 years. It is financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). As of early 2007, the database contains more than 250,000 titles.

There is a corresponding German national bibliography for the 16th century, known as VD 16, which was compiled during the period 1969-1999, and another for the 18th century is planned.

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