A bookmark is a thin marker, commonly made of card, leather, or fabric, used to keep the reader's place in a book and to enable the reader to return to it with ease. Other frequently used materials for bookmarks are paper, metals like silver and brass, silk, wood, cord (sewing), and plastic. Many bookmarks can be clipped on a page with the aid of a page-flap.

A book with a bound bookmark.
Book with florentine paper bookmark
Book with florentine paper bookmark.
Bedouin bookmark
Fabric bookmark with Bedouin embroidery, Lakiya, Israel
Metal Bookmark
Metallic Bookmark


According to new results of the research done on the history of bookmarks, there are indications that bookmarks have accompanied codices since their first emergence in the 1st century AD.[1] The earliest existing bookmark dates from the 6th century AD and it is made of ornamented leather lined with vellum on the back and was attached with a leather strap to the cover of a Coptic codex (Codex A, MS 813 Chester Beatty Library, Dublin).[2] It was found near Sakkara, Egypt, under the ruins of the monastery Apa Jeremiah. Further earliest bookmarks and remnants of them have been found in Coptic codices dating from the 1st to the 11th century and in Carolingian codices from the 8th to the 12th century.

Bookmarks were used throughout the medieval period,[3] consisting usually of a small parchment strip attached to the edge of folio (or a piece of cord attached to headband). As the first printed books were quite rare and valuable, it was determined early on that something was needed to mark one's place in a book without causing its pages any harm. Some of the earliest bookmarks were used at the end of the sixteenth century.

Modern bookmarks are available in a huge variety of materials in a multitude of designs and styles. Many are made of cardboard or heavy paper, but they are also constructed of paper, ribbon, fabric, felt, steel, wire, tin, beads, wood, plastic, vinyl, silver, gold, and other precious metals, some decorated with gemstones.

The first detached, and therefore collectible, bookmarkers began to appear in the 1850s. One of the first references to these is found in Mary Russell Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life (1852): "I had no marker and the richly bound volume closed as if instinctively." Note the abbreviation of 'bookmarker' to 'marker'. The modern abbreviation is usually 'bookmark'. Historical bookmarks can be very valuable, and are sometimes collected along with other paper ephemera.

By the 1860s, attractive machine-woven markers were being manufactured, mainly in Coventry, England, the centre of the silk-ribbon industry. One of the earliest was produced by J.&J. Cash to mark the death of Albert, Prince Consort, in 1861. Thomas Stevens of Coventry soon became pre-eminent in the field and claimed to have nine hundred different designs.

Woven pictorial bookmarks produced by Thomas Steven, a 19th-century English silk weaver, starting around 1862, are called Stevengraphs.[4] Woven silk bookmarks were very appreciated gifts in the Victorian Era and Stevens seemed to make one for every occasion and celebration. One Stevengraph read: All of the gifts which heaven bestows, there is one above all measure, and that's a friend midst all our woes, a friend is a found treasure to thee I give that sacred name, for thou art such to me, and ever proudly will I claim to be a friend to thee.

Most 19th-century bookmarks were intended for use in Bibles and prayer books and were made of ribbon, woven silk, or leather. By the 1880s the production of woven silk markers was declining and printed markers made of stiff paper or cardboard began to appear in significant numbers. This development paralleled the wider availability of books themselves, and the range of available bookmarkers soon expanded dramatically.


Bookmarks are known to be popular collectibles. As bookmarks are considered by collectors as an advertising art, the main criteria is usually one's favorite book for choosing which bookmarks to collect. Shapes, materials, arrangements, and publishers can also be important factors for bookmark collectors. There are many book collector clubs worldwide. Many members of these clubs are often bookmark collectors as well. Online clubs typically contain catalogs to provide information about bookmarks alongside a photo.[5] These clubs also include a forum to assist with discussions among collectors.

See also


  1. ^ Szirmai, J.A. (1999). The Archeology of Medieval Bookbinding. Ashgate. ISBN 978-085-967-904-6.
  2. ^ Lamacraft, C.T. (1939). Early Book-Bindings from a Coptic Monastery. The Library, Fourth Series, Vol. 20 (1940). pp. 214–233.
  3. ^ For a 9th-century Carolingian bookmark see: Szirmai, J. A. (1999). The archaeology of medieval bookbinding. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 123. ISBN 0-85967-904-7. For a 15th-century bookmark, see Medeltidshandskrift 34, Lund University Library.
  4. ^ Gordon Campbell (2006). The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts. 2. Oxford University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3.
  5. ^ "Bookmarks on Colnect". Retrieved 2019-02-15.

External links

A Flower Bookmark

A Flower Bookmark (Hangul: 꽃갈피; RR: Kkotgalpi) is the first cover extended play by South Korean singer, songwriter, and actress IU. It is also her sixth Korean-language mini-album. The EP was released on May 16, 2014, the singer's birthday, by LOEN Entertainment under its imprint LOEN Tree. Unlike her previous works, A Flower Bookmark features cover versions of nostalgic K-pop songs popularized from 1980s to 1990s.The EP was successful both commercially and critically. It spawned two hit singles; the lead single "My Old Story" and "The Meaning of You". The former topped Billboard Korea K-Pop Hot 100, while the latter was ranked at the top of Gallup Korea's "Song of the Year" in 2014. In particular, the latter has gone to sell more than two million digital copies since release, even outselling the album's lead track. The EP also earned IU a MelOn Music Award for Artist of the Year, and a nomination for Album of the Year and was also listed at number three on Billboard's list of "Best K-Pop Albums of 2014".A limited LP edition, featuring a bonus track "Eoheoya Dunggidunggi", was available for sale. As of March 2019, the album has sold over 50,000 physical copies and six million digital singles in the singer's native country (see Charts).

A Flower Bookmark 2

A Flower Bookmark 2 (Hangul: 꽃갈피둘; RR: Kkotgalpi dul) is the second cover extended play by South Korean singer, songwriter, and actress IU. It is also her sixth Korean-language mini-album. The EP was released on September 22, 2017 by LOEN Entertainment under its imprint Fave Entertainment. Like her previous cover album, A Flower Bookmark features cover versions of nostalgic K-pop songs popularized from the 1960s to the 2000s.

Avant Browser

Avant Browser is a freeware web browser from a Chinese programmer named Anderson Che, which unites the Trident layout engine built into Windows (see Internet Explorer shell) with an interface intended to be more feature-rich, flexible and ergonomic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE). It runs on Windows 2000 and above, including Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. Internet Explorer versions 6 through 11 are supported.

Version 2012 (released October 2011) was separated in two editions: Ultimate edition, which added the Gecko layout engine (used by Mozilla Firefox), allowing the user choose between both layout engines, and Lite edition which contains only the Trident layout engine.

As of November 2008, total downloads surpassed 22.5 million.

Avant Browser is currently available in 41 languages.

Bookmark (digital)

In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is stored for later retrieval in any of various storage formats. All modern web browsers include bookmark features. Bookmarks are called favorites or Internet shortcuts in Internet Explorer, and by virtue of that browser's large market share, these terms have been synonymous with bookmark since the first browser war. Bookmarks are normally accessed through a menu in the user's web browser, and folders are commonly used for organization. In addition to bookmarking methods within most browsers, many external applications offer bookmark management.

Bookmarks have been incorporated in browsers since the Mosaic browser in 1993. Bookmark lists were called Hotlists in Mosaic and in previous versions of Opera; this term has faded from common use. Other early web browsers such as ViolaWWW and Cello also had bookmarking features.

With the advent of social bookmarking, shared bookmarks have become a means for users sharing similar interests to pool web resources, or to store their bookmarks in such a way that they are not tied to one specific computer or browser. Web-based bookmarking services let users save bookmarks on a remote web server, accessible from anywhere.

Newer browsers have expanded the "bookmark" feature to include variations on the concept of saving links. Mozilla Firefox introduced live bookmarks in 2004, which resemble standard bookmarks but contain a list of links to recent articles supplied by a news site or weblog, which is regularly updated via RSS feeds. "Bookmarklets" are JavaScript programs stored as bookmarks that can be clicked to perform a function.


Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.

During mitosis, gene transcription is silenced and most transcription factors are removed from chromatin. The term bookmarking compares transcription to reading from a book. The pause in transcription during mitosis is like closing the book. "Molecular bookmarks" are the factors that allow transcription to resume in an orderly fashion in newborn cells following mitosis (when the book is re-opened).

Bookmarks fulfill the following criteria:

at some point prior to the onset of mitosis, the promoters of genes that exist in a transcription-competent state become "marked" in some way,

this "mark" persists both during and after mitosis, and

the marking transmits gene expression memory by preventing the mitotic compaction of DNA at this locus, or by facilitating reassembly of transcription complexes on the promoter, or both.


A bookmarklet is a bookmark stored in a web browser that contains JavaScript commands that add new features to the browser. Bookmarklets are unobtrusive JavaScripts stored as the URL of a bookmark in a web browser or as a hyperlink on a web page. Bookmarklets are usually JavaScript programs. Regardless of whether bookmarklet utilities are stored as bookmarks or hyperlinks, they add one-click functions to a browser or web page. When clicked, a bookmarklet performs one of a wide variety of operations, such as running a search query or extracting data from a table. For example, clicking on a bookmarklet after selecting text on a webpage could run an Internet search on the selected text and display a search engine results page.

Another name for bookmarklet is favelet or favlet, derived from favorite.

Ellis Library

Constructed in 1915, Ellis Library is the main library of the University of Missouri on the campus of the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. It was named in 1972 for former university president Elmer Ellis. With holdings of over three million volumes and six million microforms, The University of Missouri library system has been part of the Federal Depository Library Program since 1862.The State Historical Society of Missouri and Western Historical Manuscript Collection are at the main branch of the library on Lowry Mall.

The Division of Special Collections is on 4th Floor West and houses rare books, the Comic Art Collection, and plat maps and insurance city maps of Missouri, as well as various other special collections. Some of the materials have been digitized and made available online.

Also in the main branch of Ellis is the Bookmark Café, which is on the ground floor. Aside from providing study space and social space for students and faculty, Bookmark Café also provides gallery space.


A favicon (short for favorite icon), also known as a shortcut icon, website icon, tab icon, URL icon, or bookmark icon, is a file containing one or more small icons, associated with a particular website or web page. A web designer can create such an icon and upload it to a website (or web page) by several means, and graphical web browsers will then make use of it. Browsers that provide favicon support typically display a page's favicon in the browser's address bar (sometimes in the history as well) and next to the page's name in a list of bookmarks. Browsers that support a tabbed document interface typically show a page's favicon next to the page's title on the tab, and site-specific browsers use the favicon as a desktop icon. Favicons can also be used to have a textless favorite site, saving space.

Features of Firefox

Mozilla Firefox has features that allow it to be distinguished from other web browsers, such as Chrome and Internet Explorer.

Google Bookmarks

Google Bookmarks is a free online bookmarking service, available to Google Account holders. It is completely separate from browser-based bookmarking and should not be confused with the Bookmarks function on any popular browser, Google Chrome included. Google Bookmarks was launched on October 10, 2005. It is a cloud-based service that allows users to bookmark webpages and add labels or notes.

Users can access their bookmarks from any browser on any device by signing into their Google account. The online service is designed to store a single user's bookmarks as opposed to social and enterprise online bookmarking services that encourage sharing bookmarks. The bookmarks are searchable, and searches are performed on the full text of the bookmark; including page title, labels and notes.Google Toolbar has a tool enabling users to easily bookmark pages and access them. Bookmarks can also be created manually from the web interface, or by use of third-party tools such as Firefox extensions created for the purpose of managing the user's Google Bookmarks account and keeping them synchronized to the browser's bookmarks.

Additionally, a simple bookmarklet (JavaScript function) labeled Google Bookmark is at the bottom of the Google Bookmarks page which can be dragged to the toolbar of any browser to make bookmarking more convenient. This opens a window to save the bookmark to Google Bookmarks and add notes and labels. Although Google Bookmarks is an online service completely separate from the Google Toolbar they seem to have been created at the same time creating some confusion. The only help and feedback links provided on the site for Google Bookmarks lead you to the help system for Google Toolbar. It appears that support for the Google Bookmarks page itself is minimal although the service has operated for many years without major problems.

Hatena (company)

Hatena Co., Ltd. (株式会社はてな, Kabushiki-gaisha hatena) is an internet services company in Japan. It operates various services including the most popular social bookmarking service in Japan, Hatena Bookmark. Hatena is the collective name of the company's services. On July 19, 2001, it was founded by Junya Kondo in Kyoto. The company moved its headquarters to Shibuya, Tokyo on April 10, 2004. The headquarters were moved back to Kyoto in April, 2008.

María Clara

María Clara, whose full name is María Clara de los Santos, is the mestiza heroine in Noli Me Tángere, a novel by José Rizal, the national hero of the Republic of the Philippines. Her name and character has since become a byword in Filipino culture for the traditional, feminine ideal.

María Clara is the childhood sweetheart and fiancée of Noli Me Tángere's main protagonist, Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, the son of Don Rafael Ibarra. Although raised as the daughter of Captain Santiago "Kapitán Tiyago" de los Santos and his wife Doña Pía Alba, who are both native Filipinos.

María Clara is revealed to have been the illegitimate daughter of Padre Dámaso, a Spanish friar, who coerced Doña Pía into illicit sexual relations. Dámaso is made the girl's godfather; Doña Pía had died giving birth to Mariá Clara. Kapitán Tiyago's cousin, Tía Isabel, then came to be the dominant maternal figure in her life. As her beau Crisóstomo Ibarra was studying in Europe, Kapitan Tiyago sent María Clara to the Beaterio de Santa Clara, a convent school where she cultivated femininity under religion. Later in the novel, María Clara discovers the truth that Dámaso is her biological father.

Persephone Books

Persephone Books is an independent publisher based in Bloomsbury, London. Founded in 1999 by Nicola Beauman, Persephone Books reprints neglected fiction and non-fiction by mid-twentieth century (mostly) women writers. Their collection of 130 books includes novels, short stories, diaries, memoirs and cookery books. Each has a grey cover and a ‘fabric’ endpaper with matching bookmark. They sell their books mostly through their website but also have a shop on Lamb's Conduit Street in London.

Riverland Biosphere Reserve

The Riverland Biosphere Reserve, formerly the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, is a 9,000 square kilometres (3,500 square miles) area of land in eastern South Australia, adjoining the states of New South Wales and Victoria. It is one of 14 biosphere reserves in Australia and is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, being officially recognized and listed by UNESCO in 1977.

Smart bookmark

Smart bookmarks are an extended kind of Internet bookmark used in web browsers. By accepting an argument, they directly give access to functions of web sites, as opposed to filling web forms at the respective web site for accessing these functions. Smart bookmarks can be used for web searches, or access to data on web sites with uniformly structured web addresses (e.g., user profiles in a web forum).

Smart bookmarks first were introduced in OmniWeb on the NEXTSTEP platform in 1997/1998, where they were called shortcuts. The feature was subsequently taken up by Opera, Galeon and Internet Explorer for Mac, so they can now be used in many web browsers, most of which are Mozilla based, like Kazehakase and Mozilla Firefox.

In Web, smart bookmarks appear in a dropdown menu when entering text in the address bar. By selecting a smart bookmark the respective web site is accessed using the text as argument. Smart bookmarks can also be added to the toolbar, together with their own textbox. The same applies to Galeon, which also allows the user to collapse and expand the textboxes within the toolbar.

Smart bookmarks can also be shared, and there is a collection of them at the web site of the Galeon project.

Social bookmarking

Social bookmarking is an online service which allows users to add, annotate, edit, and share bookmarks of web documents. Many online bookmark management services have launched since 1996; Delicious, founded in 2003, popularized the terms "social bookmarking" and "tagging". Tagging is a significant feature of social bookmarking systems, allowing users to organize their bookmarks and develop shared vocabularies known as folksonomies.

The Copper Peacock

The Copper Peacock and Other Stories is a short-story collection by British writer Ruth Rendell. The title comes from the 6th story in the collection, in which a copper bookmark in the form of a peacock is gift from a cleaner to her employer, the giving of which has significant ramifications for their relationship. The final story in the collection features her popular series protagonist Inspector Reg Wexford.


In computer interface design, a toolbar (originally known as ribbon) is a graphical control element on which on-screen buttons, icons, menus, or other input or output elements are placed. Toolbars are seen in many types of software such as office suites, graphics editors and web browsers. Toolbars are usually distinguished from palettes by their integration into the edges of the screen or larger windows, which results in wasted space if too many underpopulated bars are stacked atop each other (especially horizontal bars on a landscape oriented display) or interface inefficiency if overloaded bars are placed on small windows.


The XML Bookmark Exchange Language (XBEL), is an open XML standard for sharing Internet URIs, also known as bookmarks (or favorites in Internet Explorer).

An example of XBEL use is the XBELicious application, which stores bookmarks in XBEL format. The Galeon, Konqueror, Arora and Midori web browsers use XBEL as the format for storing user bookmarks. The SiteBar bookmark server can import and export bookmarks in XBEL format.

XBEL was created by the Python XML Special Interest Group "to create an interesting, fun project which was both useful and would demonstrate the Python XML processing software which was being developed at the time".It is also used by Nautilus and gedit of the GNOME desktop environment.


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