"Bookland" is the informal name for the Unique Country Code (UCC) prefix allocated in the 1980s for European Article Number (EAN) identifiers of published books, regardless of country of origin, so that the EAN namespace can catalogue books by ISBN rather than maintaining a redundant parallel numbering system. In other words, Bookland is a fictitious country that exists solely in EAN for the purposes of non-geographically cataloguing books in the otherwise geographically keyed EAN coding system.


Until January 1, 2007, all ISBNs were allocated as 9-digit numbers followed by a modulo 11 checksum character that was either a decimal digit or the letter "X". A Bookland EAN was generated by concatenating the Bookland UCC 978, the 9 digits of the book's ISBN other than its checksum, and the EAN checksum digit.[1][2]

Since parts of the 10-character ISBN space are nearly full, all books published from 2007 on have been allocated a 13-digit ISBN, which is identical to the Bookland EAN. Most of UCC 979 (formerly "Musicland") has now been assigned for the expansion of Bookland,[3] and was first used by publishers in the French language, which can now use the additional prefix "979-10-" in addition to the nearly full "978-2-" prefix (onto which legacy 10-character ISBNs starting with "2-" have been remapped). Books numbered with prefixes other than 978 will not be mappable to 10-character ISBNs.

The GS1 is the global identification standards organization for retail. Every country has an assigned country code which precedes the company code. The "country codes" 978 and 979 are now officially registered for allocation by the International ISBN Agency, which maintains the official international registry of ISBN numbers allocated to book publishers.

Similar mappings

  • ISSNs (which identify periodical publications) are mapped into the UCC 977.[4]
  • ISMNs (which identify sheet music) are mapped into the UCC 979. Since the leading "M" of a legacy 10-digit ISMN number (such as M-345-24680-5) is transcoded as 0, the EAN prefix 979-0 is wholly reserved for sheet music and has been dubbed the fictitious country "Musicland". Like ISBNs, ISMNs have been officially allocated using 13 digits since mid-2008.[5]


  1. ^ Anatomy of a 13-digit ISBN
  2. ^ Thomas Koshy, Elementary number theory with applications
  3. ^ Bruce Trelawny Batchelor, Book Marketing Demystified
  4. ^ International literary market place, 1999
  5. ^ Guidelines for the Implementation of 13-Digit ISMNs

External links

Anglo-Saxon charters

Anglo-Saxon charters are documents from the early medieval period in England, which typically made a grant of land, or recorded a privilege. The earliest surviving charters were drawn up in the 670s: the oldest surviving charters granted land to the Church, but from the eighth century, surviving charters were increasingly used to grant land to lay people.

The term charter covers a range of written legal documentation including diplomas, writs and wills. A diploma was a royal charter that granted rights over land or other privileges by the king, whereas a writ was an instruction (or prohibition) by the king which may have contained evidence of rights or privileges. Diplomas were usually written on parchment in Latin, but often contained sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, which often correspond closely to modern parish boundaries. The writ was authenticated by a seal and gradually replaced the diploma as evidence of land tenure during the late Anglo-Saxon and early Norman periods. Land held by virtue of a charter was known as bookland.

Charters have provided historians with fundamental source material for understanding Anglo-Saxon England, complementing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and other literary sources. They are catalogued in Peter Sawyer's Annotated List and are usually referred to by their Sawyer number (e.g. S407).

Banu Makhzum

Banū Makhzūm (Arabic: بنو مخزوم‎) was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh. They are regarded as one of three most powerful and influential Tribes in Mecca before the advent of Islam, the other two being Banu Hashim-the Islamic prophet Muhammad- and Banu Umayya Members of this clan still live in present-day Saudi Arabia and Syria.

Barua (Bangladesh)

Barua (Bengali: বড়ুয়া Boṛua, Arakanese: မရမာကြီး) is a distinct Bengali-speaking Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to Chittagong Division in Bangladesh, Rakhine State in Myanmar, where they are known as the Maramagyi or Maramagri, and parts of Tripura in northeast India. According to Arakanese chronology, the Barua Buddhists are the ancient peoples of Bangladesh who have lived there for five thousand years. They are commonly identified by their last name, "Barua".

Chittagong was formerly known as "Chaityagrama" "town with Buddhist shrines". It was a center of Mahayana Buddhism in the 10th century. Magh was the general term used for Buddhists; Barua's are also termed Rajbansi "of royal descent".

They insist that they came from the Aryavarta or the country of the Aryans which is practically identical to the country later known as Majjhimadesa or Madhyadesa in the Pali texts. Bengali speaking Barua people of Chittagong are all Buddhist by religion, unlike Assamese Barua of Assam. Barua came from "Baru" "great" and "arya", meaning "noble ones".

A Magh king, Jaychand, ruled the Chittagong region in the 16th century.

Bookland (disambiguation)

Bookland can refer to:

Bookland, a fictitious location corresponding to a 978 prefix that converts a 10 digit ISBN into EAN-13 barcode (with checksum changes).

Bookland (law), a category of land in Anglo-Saxon law

"Bookland", a chain of small-format book stores owned by American retailer Books-A-Million

Bookland (law)

Bookland (Old English: bocland) was a type of land tenure under Anglo-Saxon law and referred to land that was vested by a charter. Land held without a charter was known as folkland (Old English: folcland).The meanings of these terms have more depth when their Anglo-Saxon origins are considered. The concept of bookland arose in the seventh century and referred to land that could be 'alienated' (i.e., disposed of) at will. It evolved to resemble ownership in the modern sense. Folkland was land held under ancient, unwritten folk-law or custom and by that custom it could not be alienated (i.e., removed) from the kin of the holder, except under special circumstances. No such claim by the kin could be made on bookland. The definition of those ancient folk-laws and customs, and the definition of the word folkland, has long been the subject of controversy. The model suggested by the historian Patrick Wormald, given in the definition above, allows for the graceful sidestepping of that controversy.A related concept was loanland (Old English: lænland), which was land granted temporarily, without any loss of ownership. Such land might be granted for a term of years, or for the life of a person, or it might be granted to an official for the term of his office (e.g., as royal patronage). Both folkland and bookland might become loanland at one time or another.


Books-A-Million, Inc., also known as BAM!, owns and operates the second largest bookstore chain in the United States, operating 260 stores in 32 states. Stores range in size from 4,000 to 30,000 square feet and sell books, magazines, collectibles, toys, technology, and gifts. Most Books-A-Million stores feature "Joe Muggs" cafés, a coffee and espresso bar.Stores operate under the names Books-A-Million, Bookland, Books & Company, and 2nd & Charles.The company owns Yogurt Mountain Holding, a frozen yogurt retailer and franchisor with 40 locations. The company also owns Preferred Growth Properties, which develops and manages commercial real estate investments.The company also owns and operates American Wholesale Book Company (AWBC), an e-commerce division operating as, and an internet development and services company, NetCentral, in Nashville, Tennessee.In December 2015, the company was acquired by its chairman, Clyde B. Anderson, and his family, for $21 million.

Bosiljka Pušić

Bosiljka Pušić (Serbian Cyrillic: Босиљка Пушић, born May 2, 1936) is a Montenegrin writer and poet. Bosiljka was born in Ćuprija, Serbia. In early 1937 her family moved to Jagodina, where her father opened an independent watch-making shop and she stayed there until her high school graduation. Bosiljka acquired a degree in literature at the Faculty of Arts in University of Belgrade. Before retiring, she worked as a high school teacher in Herceg Novi, where she resides to the present day. She is also a painter.


Ealhswith or Ealswitha (died 5 December 902) was the wife of King Alfred the Great. Her father was a Mercian nobleman, Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, which is thought to be an old Mercian tribal group. Her mother was Eadburh, a member of the Mercian royal family, and according to the historian Cyril Hart she was a descendant of King Coenwulf of Mercia. She is commemorated as a saint in the Christian East and the West on 20 July.

Fictional country

A fictional country is a country that is made up for fictional stories, and does not exist in real life, or one that people believe in without proof.

Sailors have always mistaken low clouds for land masses, and in later times this was given the name Dutch capes.

Other fictional lands appear most commonly as settings or subjects of myth, literature, film, or video games. They may also be used for technical reasons in actual reality for use in the development of specifications, such as the fictional country of Bookland, which is used to allow EAN "country" codes 978 and 979 to be used for ISBN numbers assigned to books, and code 977 to be assigned for use for ISSN numbers on magazines and other periodicals. Also, the ISO 3166 country code "ZZ" is reserved as a fictional country code,.

Fictional countries appear commonly in stories of early science fiction (or scientific romance). Such countries supposedly form part of the normal Earth landscape although not located in a normal atlas. Later similar tales often took place on fictional planets.

Jonathan Swift's protagonist, Lemuel Gulliver, visited various strange places. Edgar Rice Burroughs placed adventures of Tarzan in areas in Africa that, at the time, remained mostly unknown to the West and to the East. Isolated islands with strange creatures and/or customs enjoyed great popularity in these authors' times. By the 19th century, when Western explorers had surveyed most of the Earth's surface, this option was lost to Western culture. Thereafter fictional utopian and dystopian societies tended to spring up on other planets or in space, whether in human colonies or in alien societies originating elsewhere. Fictional countries can also be used in stories set in a distant future, with other political borders than today.

Superhero and secret agent comics and some thrillers also use fictional countries on Earth as backdrops. Most of these countries exist only for a single story, a TV-series episode or an issue of a comic book. There are notable exceptions, such as Qumar and Equatorial Kundu in The West Wing, Marvel Comics Latveria and DC Comics Qurac and Bialya.

Fictional location

Fictional locations are places that exist only in fiction and not in reality, such as the Negaverse or Planet X. Writers may create and describe such places to serve as backdrop for their fictional works. Fictional locations are also created for use as settings in role-playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons. They may also be used for technical reasons in actual reality for use in the development of specifications, such as the fictional country of Bookland, which is used to allow EAN "country" codes 978 and 979 to be used for ISBN numbers assigned to books, and code 977 to be assigned for use for ISSN numbers on magazines and other periodicals.

Fictional locations vary greatly in their size. Very small places like a single room are kept out of the umbrella of fictional locations by convention, as are most single buildings. A fictional location can be the size of a university (H.P. Lovecraft's Miskatonic University), a town (Stephen King's Salem's Lot), a county (William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County), a state (Winnemac in various Sinclair Lewis stories), a large section of continent (as in north-western Middle-earth, which supposedly represents Europe), a whole planet (Anne McCaffrey's Pern), a whole galaxy (Isaac Asimov's Foundation books), even a multiverse (His Dark Materials). In a larger scale, occasionally the term alternate reality is used, but only if it is considered a variant of Earth rather than an original world. Austin Tappan Wright's Islandia has an invented continent, Karain, on our world. However in fanfiction, along with pastiche and/or parody, it is not considered canon unless they get authorized.


Folkland may refer to:

Folkland (Swedish provinces), the original Swedish provinces of Tiundaland, Attundaland, Fjärdhundraland, and Roden (Roslagen) which in 1296 united to form the modern province of Uppland

A type of land tenure under Anglo-Saxon law: see bookland (law)

International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores.

Jerry Trainor

Gerald William Trainor (born January 21, 1977) is an American actor, comedian and musician. He is known for his roles in the Nickelodeon shows Drake & Josh (as "Crazy" Steve), iCarly (as Spencer Shay), and T.U.F.F. Puppy (as Dudley Puppy).

Michel Pleau

Michel Pleau (born May 25, 1964) is a Canadian poet, who was appointed Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate in January 2014.Originally from the Saint-Sauveur district of Quebec City, he was educated at Université Laval and the Université du Québec à Montréal.The author of numerous books of poetry and literary criticism, he won the Governor General's Award for French-language poetry at the 2008 Governor General's Awards for his collection La lenteur du monde. An English translation, Eternity Taking Its Time, was published by Bookland Press in 2012.

He won Quebec's Prix Alphonse-Piché, Prix Octave-Crémazie and Prix Félix-Antoine-Savard for earlier collections. In 1997, the Commission de toponymie du Québec named an unnamed island in the province's Caniapiscau Reservoir for his collection La traversée de la nuit, as part of a program honouring writers to mark the 20th anniversary of the Charter of the French Language.His most recent collection, Ciel de la basse-ville, was published in 2014.

Nora Archibald Smith

Nora Archibald Smith (1859–1934) was an American children's author of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and sister of Kate Douglas Wiggin. Nora and Kate co-authored and co-edited a series of children's books.

Both sisters were active in the kindergarten movement that was developing at the turn of the twentieth century, and wrote repeatedly on the subject. They were admirers of Friedrich Fröbel and promoted his theories on early childhood education.


Regiones (singular: regio) or provinciae,(singular: provincia), also referred to by historians as small shires or early folk territories, were early territorial divisions of Anglo-Saxon England, referred to in sources such as Anglo-Saxon charters and the writings of Bede. They are likely to have originated in the years before 600, and most evidence for them occurs in sources from or about the 7th century.Regiones were self-sufficient units of mixed subsistence agriculture consisting of scattered settlements producing the range of foodstuffs and other forms of produce necessary to support their population. They formed the defined territories of tribes or similar social groupings and were the building-blocks around which the larger Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were governed.Regiones gradually fragmented in the later Anglo-Saxon period as land was granted into private or ecclesiastical ownership by charter, and the smaller manors that emerged were gradually re-organised for military purposes into hundreds and the larger shires that later evolved into counties. The patterns of obligation that characterised regiones were often retained between successor manors, however, and their traces can be seen in many of the sokes, thanages, liberties, baronies and other administrative and ecclesiastic divisions that characterised later medieval society.Some historians have identified regiones with the concept of the Anglo-Saxon multiple estate. Others have argued that, while similarly organised, multiple estates represent a later stage of territorial organisation, after the concept of folkland or tribal occupation and obligation began to be replaced by that of bookland or documented private ownership.

Southgate Mall (Muscle Shoals)

Southgate Mall is an enclosed shopping mall in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Around 2005 the inside of the mall closed and the businesses that remained moved to the outside of the mall. Opened in 1968, it features Genesis Jewelry (currently the oldest tenant in the mall), Tractor Supply Company, PetDepot, Hibbets and a Walgreens call center.

WalMart was a tenant of the mall at one point, but now has its own free-standing store next to the mall.

Æthelwulf, King of Wessex

Æthelwulf (; Old English for "Noble Wolf"; died 13 January 858) was King of Wessex from 839 to 858. In 825, his father, King Egbert, defeated King Beornwulf of Mercia, ending a long Mercian dominance over Anglo-Saxon England south of the Humber. Egbert sent Æthelwulf with an army to Kent, where he expelled the Mercian sub-king and was himself appointed sub-king. After 830, Egbert maintained good relations with Mercia, and this was continued by Æthelwulf when he became king in 839, the first son to succeed his father as West Saxon king since 641.

The Vikings were not a major threat to Wessex during Æthelwulf's reign. In 843, he was defeated in a battle against the Vikings at Carhampton in Somerset, but he achieved a major victory at the Battle of Aclea in 851. In 853 he joined a successful Mercian expedition to Wales to restore the traditional Mercian hegemony, and in the same year his daughter Æthelswith married King Burgred of Mercia. In 855 Æthelwulf went on pilgrimage to Rome. In preparation he gave a "decimation", donating a tenth of his personal property to his subjects; he appointed his eldest surviving son Æthelbald to act as King of Wessex in his absence, and his next son Æthelberht to rule Kent and the south-east. Æthelwulf spent a year in Rome, and on his way back he married Judith, the daughter of the West Frankish King Charles the Bald.

When Æthelwulf returned to England, Æthelbald refused to surrender the West Saxon throne, and Æthelwulf agreed to divide the kingdom, taking the east and leaving the west in Æthelbald's hands. On Æthelwulf's death in 858 he left Wessex to Æthelbald and Kent to Æthelberht, but Æthelbald's death only two years later led to the reunification of the kingdom.

In the 20th century Æthelwulf's reputation among historians was poor: he was seen as excessively pious and impractical, and his pilgrimage was viewed as a desertion of his duties. Historians in the 21st century see him very differently, as a king who consolidated and extended the power of his dynasty, commanded respect on the continent, and dealt more effectively than most of his contemporaries with Viking attacks. He is regarded as one of the most successful West Saxon kings, who laid the foundations for the success of his son, Alfred the Great.

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