|Book of Zhou|
The Book of Zhou (Zhōu Shū) records the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. Compiled by the Tang Dynasty historian Linghu Defen, the work was completed in 636 CE and consists of 50 chapters, some of which have been lost and replaced from other sources.
Compilation began with Liu Qiu 柳虯 (502-555) in the Western Wei, who was Vice-Director of the Palace Library.  Liu Qiu was assigned to compile the imperial diary in 550. Liu Qiu was succeeded by Niu Hong 牛弘 (545-610) who also worked on the imperial diary and later became Director of the Palace Library. Niu Hong compiled an incomplete history of the Western Wei and Northern Zhou. In 629 Emperor Taizong of Tang appointed a team headed by Linghu Defen to work on compiling the Book of Zhou. The other team members were Cen Weben and Cui Renshi.
Two partial translations have been published. Dien provides a translation of volume 11 on the biography of Yü-Wen Hu.  Miller provides a partial translation of volume 50 on accounts of Western nations. 
|Volume 1||帝紀第1 文帝上||Emperor Wen|
|Volume 2||帝紀第2 文帝下||Emperor Wen|
|Volume 3||帝紀第3 孝閔帝||Emperor Xiaomin|
|Volume 4||帝紀第4 明帝||Emperor Ming|
|Volume 5||帝紀第5 武帝上||Emperor Wu|
|Volume 6||帝紀第6 武帝下||Emperor Wu|
|Volume 7||帝紀第7 宣帝||Emperor Xuan|
|Volume 8||帝紀第8 靜帝||Emperor Jing|
|Volume 9||列傳第1 皇后||Empresses|
|Volume 10||列傳第2 邵惠公顥 杞簡公連 莒荘公洛生 虞國公仲||Yuwen Hao|
|Volume 11||列傳第3 晉蕩公護||Yuwen Hu|
|Volume 12||列傳第4 齊煬王憲||Yuwen Xian|
|Volume 13||列傳第5 文閔明武宣諸子||Princes of Wen; Princes of Xiaomin; Princes of Ming; Princes of Wu; Princes of Xuan|
|Volume 14||列傳第6 賀拔勝 賀拔允 賀拔岳 侯莫陳悅 念賢||Heba Sheng; Heba Yue; Houmochen Yue|
|Volume 15||列傳第7 寇洛 李弼 李輝 李耀 于謹||Li Bi; Yu Jin|
|Volume 16||列傳第8 趙貴 獨孤信 侯莫陳崇||Zhao Gui; Dugu Xin; Houmochen Chong|
|Volume 17||列傳第9 梁禦 若干惠 怡峯 劉亮 王德||Ruogan Hui|
|Volume 18||列傳第10 王羆 王慶遠 王述 王思政||Wang Pi; Wang Shu; Wang Sizheng|
|Volume 19||列傳第11 達奚武 侯莫陳順 豆盧寧 豆盧永恩 宇文貴 楊忠 王雄||Daxi Wu; Yuwen Gui; Yang Zhong; Wang Xiong|
|Volume 20||列傳第12 王盟 王勵 王懋 賀蘭祥 尉遲綱 叱列伏龜 閻慶||Wang Ming; Wang Li; Helan Xiang; Yuchi Gang|
|Volume 21||列傳第13 尉遲迥 王謙 司馬消難||Yuchi Jiong; Wang Qian; Sima Xiaonan|
|Volume 22||列傳第14 周惠達 楊寬 楊鈞 柳慶 柳機 柳弘||Zhou Huida; Yang Kuan; Liu Qing|
|Volume 23||列傳第15 蘇綽||Su Chuo|
|Volume 24||列傳第16 盧弁||Lu Bian|
|Volume 25||列傳第17 李賢||Li Xian (Northern Zhou); Li Yuan (Northern Zhou)|
|Volume 26||列傳第18 長孫儉 長孫紹遠 斛斯徵||Zhangsun Jian|
|Volume 27||列傳第19 赫連達 韓果 蔡祐 常善 辛威 厙狄昌 田弘 梁椿 梁台 宇文測|
|Volume 28||列傳第20 史寧 陸騰 賀若敦 權景宣||Shi Ning; Lu Teng; Heruo Dun|
|Volume 29||列傳第21 王傑 王勇 宇文虯 宇文盛 耿豪 高琳 李和 伊婁穆 楊紹 王雅 達奚寔 劉雄 侯植|
|Volume 30||列傳第22 竇熾 竇善 于翼||Dou Chi; Yu Yi|
|Volume 31||列傳第23 韋孝寬 韋敻 梁士彥||Wei Xiaokuan; Wei Xiong; Liang Shiyan|
|Volume 32||列傳第24 申徽 陸通 柳敏 盧柔 唐瑾|
|Volume 33||列傳第25 厙狄峙 楊薦 趙剛 王慶 趙昶 王悅 趙文表|
|Volume 34||列傳第26 趙善 元定 楊摽 裴寬 楊敷|
|Volume 35||列傳第27 鄭孝穆 崔謙 崔猷 裴俠 薛端 薛善|
|Volume 36||列傳第28 鄭偉 楊纂 段永 王士良 崔彥穆 令狐整 司馬裔 裴果||Zheng Wei|
|Volume 37||列傳第29 寇儁 韓褒 趙肅 徐招 張軌 李彥 郭彥 裴文舉|
|Volume 38||列傳第30 蘇亮 柳虯 呂思禮 薛憕 薛真 李昶 元偉|
|Volume 39||列傳第31 韋瑱 梁昕 皇甫璠 辛慶之 王子直 杜杲||Wei Tian|
|Volume 40||列傳第32 尉遲運 王軌 宇文神舉 宇文孝伯 顏之儀||Yuchi Yun; Wang Gui; Yuwen Shenju; Yuwen Xiaobo; Yan Zhiyi|
|Volume 41||列傳第33 王褒 庾信||Wang Bao; Yu Xin|
|Volume 42||列傳第34 蕭撝 蕭世怡 蕭圓肅 蕭大圜 宗懍 劉璠 柳霞||Xiao Hui; Xiao Yuansu; Xiao Dahuan; Liu Fan|
|Volume 43||列傳第35 李延孫 韋祐 韓雄 陳忻 魏玄|
|Volume 44||列傳第36 泉企 李遷哲 楊乾運 扶猛 陽雄 席固 任果|
|Volume 45||列傳第37 儒林||Confucian Scholars|
|Volume 46||列傳第38 孝義||Filial Piety|
|Volume 47||列傳第39 藝術||Artists|
|Volume 48||列傳第40 蕭詧||Xiao Cha; Xiao Kui; Xiao Cong|
|Volume 49||列傳第41 異域上||Goguryeo; Baekje; Nanman; Rau peoples; Tanchang; Bailan; Di (Five Barbarians); Kumo Xi|
|Volume 50||列傳第42 異域下||Turkic Khaganate; Tuyuhun; Gaochang; Shanshan; Karasahr; Kucha; Kingdom of Khotan; Hephthalite Empire; Sogdia; Parthian Empire; Sasanian Empire|
Year 645 (DCXLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 645 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.Asena
Asena is the name of a wolf associated with the Oghuz Turkic foundation myth.Bumin Qaghan
Bumin Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐰉𐰆𐰢𐰣𐰴𐰍𐰣 , Bumïn qaγan, a.k.a. Bumın Kagan) or Illig Qaghan (Chinese: 伊利可汗, Pinyin: Yīlì Kèhán, Wade–Giles: i-li k'o-han, died 552 AD) was the founder of the Turkic Khaganate. He was the eldest son of Ashina Tuwu (吐務 / 吐务). He was the chieftain of the Türks under the sovereignty of Rouran Khaganate. He is also mentioned as "Tumen" (土門, 吐門, commander of ten thousand) of the Rouran Khaganate.Cen Wenben
Cen Wenben (595 – May 10, 645), courtesy name Jingren, posthumously known as Viscount Xian of Jiangling, was a Chinese official who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Taizong in the Tang dynasty. He was an assistant editor of the Book of Zhou, the official history of the Northern Zhou dynasty.Chen Yueyi
Chen Yueyi (Chinese: 陳月儀; 565?-650?), later Buddhist nun name Huaguang (華光), was a concubine of Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou, an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Chen Yueyi's father was Chen Shanti (陳山提), and she was his eighth daughter. Chen Shanti was initially a servant of the Northern Wei general Erzhu Zhao, and after Erzhu's defeat by Gao Huan became a servant to Gao. He served as a general in several administrations of Northern Qi, founded by Gao's son Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi, eventually achieving the title of Prince of Xieyang. After Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen Shanti became a Northern Zhou general and carried the title of Duke of Xiyang. In 579, Chen Yueyi was selected to be an imperial consort for Emperor Xuan, with the title of Defei (德妃). A month later, Emperor Xuan passed the throne to his son Emperor Jing and took an atypical title for a retired emperor, "Emperor Tianyuan" (天元皇帝, Tianyuan Huangdi). He subsequently decided that in addition to his wife Yang Lihua, he would create three more empresses, and Consort Chen was selected as one—with the title of Empress Tianzuo (天左皇后, Tianzuo Huanghou), subsequently changed in spring 580 to Tianzuo Da Huanghou (天左大皇后). Subsequently, as he wanted to create one more empress, he changed her title to Tianzhong Da Huanghou (天中大皇后) so that her Tianzuo Da Huanghou title could be given to Empress Yuchi Chifan. Among the empresses, she was said to be closest to Empress Yuan Leshang, as they entered the palace at the same time and were the same age, and they were also both favored by Emperor Xuan.
Emperor Xuan died in summer 580, and Empress Yang's father Yang Jian became regent. Empress Chen became a Buddhist nun with the name of Huaguang, and she outlived Yang Jian's subsequent Sui Dynasty. According to both the Book of Zhou and History of Northern Dynasties, she was still alive as of the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang (626-649), but nothing further was recorded in either of those two official histories about her.Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou ((北)周靜帝) (573–581), personally name né Yuwen Yan (宇文衍), later Yuwen Chan (宇文闡), was the last emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou. He became emperor at the age of six, after his father Emperor Xuan formally passed the throne to him, but Emperor Xuan retained the imperial powers. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580, the official Yang Jian, the father of Emperor Xuan's wife Yang Lihua, seized power as regent. Yang soon defeated the general Yuchi Jiong, who tried to resist him, and in 581 had the young Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty. Yang soon had the young emperor, as well as other members of Northern Zhou's imperial Yuwen clan, put to death.Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou ((北)周孝閔帝) (542–557), personal name Yuwen Jue (宇文覺), nickname Tuoluoni (陀羅尼), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou (although he used the alternative title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang). He was the heir of Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and after Yuwen Tai's death in 556, his cousin Yuwen Hu, serving as his guardian, forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Jue in spring 557, establishing Northern Zhou. Later in 557, however, Yuwen Jue, wanting to assume power personally, plotted to kill Yuwen Hu, who in turn deposed him and replaced him with his brother Yuwen Yu (Emperor Ming). Later that year, Yuwen Hu had Yuwen Jue executed.Göktürks
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük; Chinese: 突厥/تُركِئ; pinyin: Tūjué, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚ (türkut), Dungan: Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu, tatar: kük törek, bashqurt: kük török) were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the main power in the region and established the Turkic Khaganate, one of several nomadic dynasties which would shape the future geolocation, culture, and dominant beliefs of Turkic peoples.History of the Northern Dynasties
The History of the Northern Dynasties (Běishǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon. The text contains 100 volumes and covers the period from 386 to 618, the histories of Northern Wei, Western Wei, Eastern Wei, Northern Zhou, Northern Qi, and Sui dynasty. Like the History of the Southern Dynasties, the book was started by Li Dashi and compiled from texts of the Book of Wei and Book of Zhou. Following his death, Li Yanshou (李延寿), son of Li Dashi, completed the work on the book between 643 and 659. Unlike most of the rest of the Twenty-Four Histories, this work was not commissioned by the state.Jin'ni-Ō
Jin'ni-Ō (辰爾王, ? – ?) was a prince of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was son of the 29th king, Beop of Baekje and brother of the 30th king, Mu of Baekje. He settled in Japan and became ancestor of the Ōuchi clan and Toyota clan.
He does not appear in the Samguk Sagi or Samguk Yusa but in Japanese and Chinese records. In China he is recorded in the Book of Zhou, Fengsu tong, Wan Xing Tong Pu (萬姓統譜, Genealogies of Ten Thousand Surnames), and Xing pu. In Japan he is recorded in the Shinsen Shōjiroku.His presence became known through a genealogy sent by Ōuchi Yoshihiro in July, 1398 to Joseon to confirm and prove his claim that he was a descendant of Prince Imseong. In the Shinsen Shōjiroku he is recorded as the 15th generation ancestor of the Ōuchi and Toyota clans.Liang dynasty
The Liang dynasty (Chinese: 梁朝; pinyin: Liáng cháo) (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang dynasty (南梁), was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period. It was located in East China and South China, and replaced by the Chen dynasty in 557. The small rump state Western Liang (555–587), located in Central China, continued until its annexation in 587.Linghu Defen
Linghu Defen (Chinese: 令狐德棻; pinyin: Línghú Défēn) (582–666), formally Duke Xian of Pengyang (彭陽憲公), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty. During Tang, he was a major proponent for the compilation of the histories of Sui and its predecessor Northern Zhou and was eventually put in charge of compiling Northern Zhou's official history Book of Zhou, which was completed in 636.Northern Zhou
The Northern Zhou (; Chinese: 北周; pinyin: Bĕi Zhōu) followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD. The last of the Northern Dynasties of China's Northern and Southern dynasties period, it was eventually overthrown by the Sui Dynasty. Like the preceding Western and Northern Wei dynasties, the Northern Zhou were members of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei.
The Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) – Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming, and Emperor Wu were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After his death in 580, when he was already nominally retired (Taishang Huang), Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian took power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing, establishing Sui. The young Emperor Jing and the imperial Yuwen clan, were subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian.The area was known as Guannei 關內. The Northern Zhou drew upon the Zhou dynasty for inspiration. The Northern Zhou military included Han Chinese.Old History of the Five Dynasties
The Old History of the Five Dynasties (Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ) was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907–960), which controlled much of northern China. It was compiled by the Song Dynasty official-scholar Xue Juzheng in the first two decades of the Song Dynasty, which was founded in 960. It is one of the Twenty-Four Histories recognized through Chinese history.
The book comprises 150 chapters, and was in effect divided into 5 books, Book of Liang, Book of Tang, Book of Jin, Book of Han and Book of Zhou. After the New History of the Five Dynasties by Ouyang Xiu was published, it was no longer popular. The fatal blow came in the 12th century when it was removed from the Imperial Library and was no longer published by order of the Jin dynasty. The book was lost during this period.During the 18th century, Qing Dynasty scholars found many complete quotes of the book in Yongle Da Dian. They extracted them and together with other sources of the same period, they were able to largely reconstruct the book, although missing a few chapters. There have been rumours that copies of the original book exist but to date, none have been found.Wang Lang
Wang Lang (pronunciation ) (died December 228), courtesy name Jingxing, was an official and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He later served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. Through his granddaughter's marriage to Sima Zhao, he was the great-grandfather of Sima Yan, the founding emperor of the Jin dynasty.Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia
Wuchuan (Mongolian: ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ Üčuvan siyan; Chinese: 武川县; pinyin: Wǔchuān Xiàn), is the county under the administration of Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Wuchuan has an area of 4,885 km2 (1,886 sq mi) with a population of 171,000. It is connected to Hohhot by the Huwu Highway; roughly a half-hour's drive. Zhaohe Grasslands, a popular tourist site, is nearby.Xiongnu
The Xiongnu [ɕjʊ́ŋ.nǔ] (Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a tribal confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. Their relations with adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east were complex, with repeated periods of conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tribute, trade, and marriage treaties.
During the Sixteen Kingdoms era, they were known as one of the Five Barbarians.
Attempts to identify the Xiongnu with later groups of the western Eurasian Steppe remain controversial. Scythians and Sarmatians were concurrently to the west. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources. The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of the Huns or the Huna, although this is disputed. Other linguistic links – all of them also controversial – proposed by scholars include Iranian, Mongolic, Turkic, Uralic, Yeniseian, Tibeto-Burman or multi-ethnic.Yi Zhou Shu
The Yi Zhou Shu (simplified Chinese: 逸周书; traditional Chinese: 逸周書; pinyin: Yì Zhōu Shū; Wade–Giles: I Chou shu; literally: "Lost Book of Zhou") is a compendium of Chinese historical documents about the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE). Its textual history began with a (4th century BCE) text/compendium known as the Zhou Shu ("Book of Zhou"), which was possibly not differentiated from the corpus of the same name in the extant Book of Documents. Western Han dynasty (206-9 BCE) editors listed 70 chapters of YZS, of which 59 are extant as texts, and the rest only as chapter titles. Such condition is described for the first time by Wang Shihan 王士漢 in 1669. Circulation ways of the individual chapters before that point (merging of different texts or single text's editions, substitution, addition, conflation with commentaries etc.) are subject to scholarly debates (see below).
Traditional Chinese historiography classified the Yi Zhou Shu as a zashi 雜史 "unofficial history" and excluded it from the canonical dynastic Twenty-Four Histories.Yuan Leshang
Yuan Leshang (Chinese: 元樂尚; born 565), later Buddhist nun name Huasheng (華勝), was a concubine of Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou, an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Yuan Leshang's father was Yuan Sheng (元晟), a Northern Zhou official and a descendant of Northern Wei's imperial Yuan clan. In 579, Yuan Leshang was selected to be an imperial consort for Emperor Xuan, with the title of Guifei (貴妃). A month later, Emperor Xuan passed the throne to his son Emperor Jing and took an atypical title for a retired emperor, "Emperor Tianyuan" (天元皇帝, Tianyuan Huangdi). He subsequently decided that in addition to his wife Empress Yang Lihua, he would create three more empresses, and Consort Yuan was selected as one—with the title of Empress Tianyou (天右皇后, Tianyou Huanghou), subsequently changed in spring 580 to Tianyou Da Huanghou (天右大皇后). Among the empresses, she was said to be closest to Chen Yueyi, as they entered the palace at the same time and were the same age, and they were also both favored by Emperor Xuan.
Emperor Xuan died in summer 580, and Empress Yang's father Yang Jian became regent. Empress Yuan became a Buddhist nun with the name of Huasheng, and she outlived Yang Jian's subsequent Sui dynasty. According to both the Book of Zhou and History of Northern Dynasties, she was still alive as of the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang (626-649), but nothing further was recorded in either of those two official histories about her.