Saint Bonaventure (/ˈbɒnəˌvɛntʃər, ˌbɒnəˈvɛn-/; Italian: Bonaventura [ˌbɔnavenˈtuːra]; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, he was also Cardinal Bishop of Albano. He was canonised on 14 April 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV and declared a Doctor of the Church in the year 1588 by Pope Sixtus V. He is known as the "Seraphic Doctor" (Latin: Doctor Seraphicus). Many writings believed in the Middle Ages to be his are now collected under the name Pseudo-Bonaventure.
|Friar, Bishop, Doctor of the Church|
Bagnoregio, Province of Viterbo, Latium, Papal States
|Died||15 July 1274 (aged 52–53)|
Lyon, Lyonnais, Kingdom of Arles
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Canonized||14 April 1482, Rome by Pope Sixtus IV|
2nd Sunday in July (1482–1568)
14 July (1568–1969)
|Attributes||Cardinal's hat on a bush; ciborium; Holy Communion; cardinal in Franciscan robes, usually reading or writing|
|Died||15 July 1274|
|Other names||"Giovanni di Fidanza" ("John of Fidanza"), "Doctor Seraphicus" ("Seraphic Doctor")|
|Alma mater||University of Paris|
Medieval realism (moderate realism)
|Institutions||University of Paris|
He was born at Bagnoregio in Umbria, not far from Viterbo, then part of the Papal States. Almost nothing is known of his childhood, other than the names of his parents, Giovanni di Fidanza and Maria di Ritella.
He entered the Franciscan Order in 1243 and studied at the University of Paris, possibly under Alexander of Hales, and certainly under Alexander's successor, John of Rochelle. In 1253 he held the Franciscan chair at Paris. A dispute between seculars and mendicants delayed his reception as Master until 1257, where his degree was taken in company with Thomas Aquinas. Three years earlier his fame had earned him the position of lecturer on The Four Books of Sentences—a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century—and in 1255 he received the degree of master, the medieval equivalent of doctor.
After having successfully defended his order against the reproaches of the anti-mendicant party, he was elected Minister General of the Franciscan Order. On 24 November 1265, he was selected for the post of Archbishop of York; however, he was never consecrated and resigned the appointment in October 1266.
During his tenure, the General Chapter of Narbonne, held in 1260, promulgated a decree prohibiting the publication of any work out of the order without permission from the higher superiors. This prohibition has induced modern writers to pass severe judgment upon Roger Bacon's superiors being envious of Bacon's abilities. However, the prohibition enjoined on Bacon was a general one, which extended to the whole order. Its promulgation was not directed against him, but rather against Gerard of Borgo San Donnino. Gerard had published in 1254 without permission a heretical work, Introductorius in Evangelium æternum (An Introduction to the Eternal Gospel). Thereupon the General Chapter of Narbonne promulgated the above-mentioned decree, identical with the "constitutio gravis in contrarium" Bacon speaks of. The above-mentioned prohibition was rescinded in Roger's favour unexpectedly in 1266.
Bonaventure was instrumental in procuring the election of Pope Gregory X, who rewarded him with the title of Cardinal Bishop of Albano, and insisted on his presence at the great Second Council of Lyon in 1274. There, after his significant contributions led to a union of the Greek and Latin churches, Bonaventure died suddenly and in suspicious circumstances. The 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia has citations that suggest he was poisoned, but no mention is made of this in the 2003 second edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. The only extant relic of the saint is the arm and hand with which he wrote his Commentary on the Sentences, which is now conserved at Bagnoregio, in the parish church of St. Nicholas.
He steered the Franciscans on a moderate and intellectual course that made them the most prominent order in the Catholic Church until the coming of the Jesuits. His theology was marked by an attempt completely to integrate faith and reason. He thought of Christ as the "one true master" who offers humans knowledge that begins in faith, is developed through rational understanding, and is perfected by mystical union with God.
Bonaventure's feast day was included in the General Roman Calendar immediately upon his canonisation in 1482. It was at first celebrated on the second Sunday in July, but was moved in 1568 to 14 July, since 15 July, the anniversary of his death, was at that time taken up with the feast of Saint Henry. It remained on that date, with the rank of "double", until 1960, when it was reclassified as a feast of the third class. In 1969 it was classified as an obligatory memorial and assigned to the date of his death, 15 July.
Bonaventure was formally canonised in 1484 by the Franciscan Pope Sixtus IV, and ranked along with Thomas Aquinas as the greatest of the Doctors of the Church by another Franciscan, Pope Sixtus V, in 1587. Bonaventure was regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages.
His works, as arranged in the most recent Critical Edition by the Quaracchi Fathers (Collegio S. Bonaventura), consist of a Commentary on the Sentences of Lombard, in four volumes, and eight other volumes, including a Commentary on the Gospel of St Luke and a number of smaller works; the most famous of which are The Mind's Road to God (Itinerarium mentis in Deum), an outline of his theology or Brief Reading (Breviloquium), Reduction of the Arts to Theology (De reductione artium ad theologiam), and Soliloquy on the Four Spiritual Exercises (Soliloquium de quatuor mentalibus exercitiis), The Tree of Life (Lignum vitae), and The Triple Way (De Triplici via), the latter three written for the spiritual direction of his fellow Franciscans.
The German philosopher Dieter Hattrup denies that Reduction of the Arts to Theology was written by Bonaventure, claiming that the style of thinking does not match Bonaventure's original style. His position is no longer tenable given recent research: the text remains "indubitably authentic". A work that for many years was falsely attributed to Bonaventure, De septem itineribus aeternitatis, was actually written by Rudolf von Biberach (c. 1270 – 1329).
The Commentary on the Sentences, written at the command of his superiors when he was twenty-seven, is Bonaventure's major work and most of his other theological and philosophical writings are in some way dependent on it. However, some of Bonaventure's later works, such as the Lectures on the Six Days of Creation, show substantial developments beyond the Sentences.
Bonaventure wrote on almost every subject treated by the Schoolmen, and his writings are very numerous. The greater number of them deal with philosophy and theology. No work of Bonaventure's is exclusively philosophical, a striking illustration of the mutual interpenetration of philosophy and theology that is a distinguishing mark of the Scholastic period.
Much of St. Bonaventure’s philosophical thought shows a considerable influence by Augustine of Hippo. So much so that De Wulf considers him the best medieval representative of Augustinianism. St. Bonaventure adds Aristotelian principles to the Augustinian doctrine, especially in connection with the illumination of the intellect and the composition of human beings and other living creatures in terms of matter and form. St. Augustine, who had introduced into the west many of the doctrines that would define scholastic philosophy, was an incredibly important source of Bonaventure's Platonism. The mystic Dionysius the Areopagite was another notable influence.
In philosophy Bonaventure presents a marked contrast to his contemporaries, Roger Bacon, Albert the Great, and Thomas Aquinas. While these may be taken as representing, respectively, physical science yet in its infancy, and Aristotelian scholasticism in its most perfect form, he presents the mystical and Platonizing mode of speculation that had already, to some extent, found expression in Hugo and Richard of St. Victor, Alexander of Hales, and in Bernard of Clairvaux. To him, the purely intellectual element, though never absent, is of inferior interest when compared with the living power of the affections or the heart.
Like Thomas Aquinas, with whom he shared numerous profound agreements in matters theological and philosophical, he combated the Aristotelian notion of the eternity of the world vigorously (though he disagreed with Aquinas about the abstract possibility of an eternal universe). Bonaventure accepts the neo-Platonic doctrine that "forms" do not exist as subsistent entities, but as ideals or archetypes in the mind of God, according to which actual things were formed; and this conception has no slight influence upon his philosophy. Due to this philosophy, physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein contended that Bonaventure showed strong pandeistic inclinations.
Like all the great scholastic doctors, Bonaventura starts with the discussion of the relations between reason and faith. All the sciences are but the handmaids of theology; reason can discover some of the moral truths that form the groundwork of the Christian system, but others it can only receive and apprehend through divine illumination. To obtain this illumination, the soul must employ the proper means, which are prayer, the exercise of the virtues, whereby it is rendered fit to accept the divine light, and meditation that may rise even to ecstatic union with God. The supreme end of life is such union, union in contemplation or intellect and in intense absorbing love; but it cannot be entirely reached in this life, and remains as a hope for the future.
Like Aquinas and other notable thirteenth-century philosophers and theologians, Bonaventure believed that it is possible to prove the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. He offers several arguments for the existence of God, including versions of St. Anselm's ontological argument and Augustine's argument from eternal truths. His main argument for the immortality of the soul appeals to humans' natural desire for perfect happiness, and is reminiscent of C. S. Lewis's argument from desire. Contrary to Aquinas, Bonaventure did not believe that philosophy was an autonomous discipline that could be pursued successfully independently of theology. Any philosopher is bound to fall into serious error, he believed, who lacks the light of faith.
A master of the memorable phrase, Bonaventure held that philosophy opens the mind to at least three different routes humans can take on their journey to God. Non-intellectual material creatures he conceived as shadows and vestiges (literally, footprints) of God, understood as the ultimate cause of a world philosophical reason can prove was created at a first moment in time. Intellectual creatures he conceived of as images and likenesses of God, the workings of the human mind and will leading us to God understood as illuminator of knowledge and donor of grace and virtue. The final route to God is the route of being, in which Bonaventure brought Anselm's argument together with Aristotelian and Neoplatonic metaphysics to view God as the absolutely perfect being whose essence entails its existence, an absolutely simple being that causes all other, composite beings to exist.
Bonaventure, however, is not only a meditative thinker, whose works may form good manuals of devotion; he is a dogmatic theologian of high rank, and on all the disputed questions of scholastic thought, such as universals, matter, seminal reasons, the principle of individuation, or the intellectus agens, he gives weighty and well-reasoned decisions. He agrees with Saint Albert the Great in regarding theology as a practical science; its truths, according to his view, are peculiarly adapted to influence the affections. He discusses very carefully the nature and meaning of the divine attributes; considers universals to be the ideal forms pre-existing in the divine mind according to which things were shaped; holds matter to be pure potentiality that receives individual being and determinateness from the formative power of God, acting according to the ideas; and finally maintains that the agent intellect has no separate existence. On these and on many other points of scholastic philosophy the "Seraphic Doctor" exhibits a combination of subtlety and moderation, which makes his works particularly valuable.
In form and intent the work of St. Bonaventure is always the work of a theologian; he writes as one for whom the only angle of vision and the proximate criterion of truth is the Christian faith. This fact influences his importance for the history of philosophy; when coupled with his style, it makes Bonaventure perhaps the least accessible of the major figures of the thirteenth century. This is true, not because he is a theologian, but because philosophy interests him largely as a praeparatio evangelica, as something to be interpreted as a foreshadow of or deviation from what God has revealed.
In a way that is not true of Aquinas or Albert or Scotus, Bonaventure does not survive well the transition from his time to ours. It is difficult to imagine a contemporary philosopher, Christian or not, citing a passage from Bonaventure to make a specifically philosophical point. One must know philosophers to read Bonaventure, but the study of Bonaventure is seldom helpful for understanding philosophers and their characteristic problems. Bonaventure as a theologian is something different again, as is Bonaventure the edifying author. It is in those areas, rather than in philosophy proper, that his continuing importance must be sought.
St. Bonaventure Catholic Church, elementary school, and cemetery, Columbus, Nebraska.
Bonaventuracollege is a Dutch Catholic Highschool situated in Leiden.
This treatise has always been recognized as indubitably authentic. A few years ago, Dieter Hattrup voiced his doubts: 'Bonaventura zwischen Mystik und Mystifikation. Wer ist der Autor von De reductione?' Theologie und Glaube 87 (1997): 541–562. However, the recent research of Joshua Benson indicates the text's authenticity: 'Identifying the Literary Genre of the De reductione artium ad theologiam: Bonaventure's Inaugural Lecture at Paris', Franciscan Studies 67 (2009): 149–178.
|Catholic Church titles|
John of Parma
| Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor
Jerome of Ascoli
| Archbishop of York
Robert Jerry Lanier, Jr. (born September 10, 1948) is an American retired professional basketball player who played for the Detroit Pistons and Milwaukee Bucks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Lanier was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1992.
In his 14 NBA seasons, Lanier averaged 20.1 points, 10.1 rebounds, 3.1 assists, 1.5 blocks and 1.1 steals while shooting 51.4 percent from the field. He played in eight NBA All-Star Games, and was named Most Valuable Player of the 1974 game. He has had his #16 jersey retired by both the Pistons and the Bucks and his #31 jersey retired by St. Bonaventure University. Lanier is an NBA ambassador.Bonaventure (electoral district)
Bonaventure (later known as Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine) was a federal electoral district in the province of Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1997. It was created as "Bonaventure" riding by the British North America Act, 1867.Bonaventure Kalou
Bonaventure "Barry" Kalou (born 12 January 1978) is a retired Ivorian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder, currently serving as elected mayor of Vavoua.Bonaventure—Gaspé—Îles-de-la-Madeleine—Pabok
Bonaventure—Gaspé—Îles-de-la-Madeleine—Pabok (formerly known as Gaspé—Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine) was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1997 to 2004.
It was created in 1996 as "Gaspé—Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine" riding from Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine and Gaspé ridings. It was abolished in 2003 when it was merged into Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine.
The district consisted of the cities of Chandler, Gaspé, Grande-Rivière, Murdochville, New Richmond and Percé, and the Regional County Municipalities of Bonaventure, La Côte-de-Gaspé, Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine and Pabok.Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, 2nd Count of Bucquoy
Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy (Czech: Karel Bonaventura Buquoy, Spanish: Carlos Buenaventura de Longueval, Conde de Bucquoy, full name in French: Charles Bonaventure de Longueval comte de Bucquoy, German: Karl Bonaventura Graf von Buquoy) (Arras, 9 January 1571 – Nové Zámky, 10 July 1621) was a military commander who fought for the Spanish Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War and for the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.HMCS Bonaventure
HMCS Bonaventure was a Majestic-class aircraft carrier, the third and last aircraft carrier in service with Canada's armed forces. The aircraft carrier was initially ordered for construction by Britain's Royal Navy as HMS Powerful during the Second World War. Following the end of the war, construction on the ship was halted and it was not until 1952 that work began once again, this time to an altered design for the Royal Canadian Navy. The ship entered service in 1957 renamed Bonaventure and, until the vessel's decommissioning in 1970, was involved in major NATO fleet-at-sea patrols and naval exercises and participated in the Cuban Missile Crisis. During her career Bonaventure carried three hull identification numbers, RML 22, RRSM 22 and CVL 22. Following her decommissioning Bonaventure was sold for scrap and broken up in Taiwan.Lake Bonavista, Calgary
Lake Bonavista is a neighbourhood in Southeast Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is bounded by Anderson Road to the north, Macleod Trail to the west, Canyon Meadows Drive to the south, and Bow Bottom Trail to the east. The small community of Bonavista Downs resides in the north-east corner of the neighbourhood.Mast (sailing)
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail, spars, and derricks, and giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed.Until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which typically consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were often built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections (also called masts), known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top, topgallant and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood. Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts.
Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers.Place Bonaventure
Place Bonaventure is an office, exhibition, and hotel complex in Downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, adjacent to the city's Central Station. At 288,000 m2 (3,100,000 sq ft) in size, Place Bonaventure was the second largest commercial building in the world at the time of its completion in 1967.Quebec Autoroute 10
Autoroute 10 (A-10) is an Autoroute of Quebec in Canada that links greater Montreal to key population centres in Montérégie and Estrie, including Brossard, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Granby, and Sherbrooke.
The A-10 also provides access to popular winter resorts at Bromont, Owl's Head, Mont Sutton and Mont Orford. Motorists travelling on the A-10 can see eight of nine Monteregian Hills: Mount Royal, Mont Saint-Bruno, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Mont Saint-Grégoire, Mont Rougemont, Mont Yamaska, Mont Shefford and Mont Brome. (The ninth, Mont Mégantic is located beyond the eastern terminus of the autoroute.
At 147 km (91 mi) long, the A-10 is the seventh longest autoroute in Quebec.Reilly Center
Reilly Center is a 5,480-seat multi-purpose arena, in St. Bonaventure, New York, United States. It is home to the St. Bonaventure University Bonnies men's and women's basketball teams. The arena opened in 1966 and is named for Carroll "Mike" Reilly, who coached both varsity football and basketball at the university.
In 2007, the playing surface was named "Bob Lanier Court" in honor of former Bonnies and NBA great Bob Lanier, who led the Bonnies to the Final Four in 1970.
It is the third-largest basketball arena in Western New York (behind the over 18,000 seats in KeyBank Center and the 6,100 seats in Alumni Arena at the University at Buffalo North Campus) and has the highest seating capacity of any sports venue in Cattaraugus County and the western Southern Tier.
In 2001, the facility was named one of the five toughest places to play in college basketball by ESPN's Jay Bilas.
In 2017, fans stormed the court as they thought that they had beaten VCU, 66-65, but there were 0.4 seconds on the clock. St Bonaventure was assessed a technical foul, VCU tied it with a free throw, and then won in OT, 83-77. However, the Atlantic 10 Conference issued a clarification the following day after reviewing videotape, realizing that the students did not storm the court until after the ball was inbounded and the clock had expired. Still, the league, while reprimanding the officials for their handling of the end of the game, upheld the technical foul because a young fan had run onto the court and bumped into an official while the ball was being inbounded.St. Bonaventure, New York
St. Bonaventure is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the town of Allegany in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 2,044 at the 2010 census.This community, located between the village of Allegany and the city of Olean, is established around St. Bonaventure University. Since the campus comprises the majority of the CDP, it has a much lower per capita income than most communities in the state, as do the several other CDPs statewide that are drawn around college campuses. St. Bonaventure also has its own on-campus post office and ZIP code (14778), separate from Allegany and Olean's.St. Bonaventure Bonnies
The St. Bonaventure Bonnies (formerly the St. Bonaventure Brown Indians from 1927 to 1992) are the varsity intercollegiate athletic programs of St. Bonaventure University, based in St. Bonaventure, New York between the two towns of Allegany and Olean. The Bonnies compete in the National Collegiate Athletics Association's Division I Atlantic 10 Conference, of which it has been a member since 1979. The school's athletic director is Tim Kenney, who was hired in early 2015. The programs' mascot is the Bona Wolf and the colors are brown and white.St. Bonaventure Bonnies baseball
The St. Bonaventure Bonnies baseball team (formerly the St. Bonaventure Brown Indians) is a varsity intercollegiate athletic team of St. Bonaventure University in St. Bonaventure, New York, United States. The team is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, which is part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I. The team plays its home games at Fred Handler Park in St. Bonaventure, New York. The Bonnies are coached by Larry Sudbrook.St. Bonaventure Bonnies men's basketball
For information on all St. Bonaventure University sports, see St. Bonaventure BonniesThe St. Bonaventure Bonnies men's basketball (formerly the St. Bonaventure Brown Indians) team is the college basketball team that represents St. Bonaventure University in St. Bonaventure, New York, United States. The school's team currently competes in the Atlantic 10 Conference and plays its home games at the Reilly Center. The "Bonnies" are currently coached by all-time coaching wins leader Mark Schmidt, who during his 12th season surpassed former coach Larry Weise with his 203rd victory.St. Bonaventure High School
St. Bonaventure High School is a private, Catholic, co-educational secondary school in Ventura, California, United States. This college preparatory institution was founded on the spiritual ideals of St. Francis of Assisi and the academic fervor of its namesake, St. Bonaventure. The nearby Mission San Buenaventura was founded by the Franciscan order in 1782 and was also named after Saint Bonaventure. The school's mascot, the seraph, was derived from one of the titles of Bonaventure, "Seraphic Doctor".St. Bonaventure Monastery
The St. Bonaventure Monastery is a complex of religious buildings, built for the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, located at 1740 Mt. Elliott Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.St. Bonaventure University
St. Bonaventure University is a private Franciscan university in Allegany, New York. It has roughly 2,300 undergraduate and graduate students. The Franciscan Brothers established the university in 1858. St. Bonaventure University is the first Franciscan university founded in the U.S.In athletics, the St. Bonaventure Bonnies play National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I sports in the Atlantic 10 Conference. Students and alumni often refer to the university as Bona's, derived from the school's original name, St. Bonaventure's College.Ysaline Bonaventure
Ysaline Bonaventure (born 29 August 1994) is a Belgian professional tennis player.
Bonaventure has won two WTA Tour doubles titles and 7 singles and 9 doubles titles on the ITF tour during her career. On 28 September 2015, she reached her best singles ranking of world number 146. On 1 February 2016, she peaked at world number 57 in the doubles rankings.
Bonaventure is coached by former WTA Tour player Noëlle van Lottum and works with her in the Netherlands.
Playing for Belgium at the Fed Cup, Bonaventure has a win–loss record of 1–3 according to her profile on the tournament website. Bonaventure was selected for the Belgian Fed Cup team for the first time in 2012. She played a doubles match alongside Alison Van Uytvanck in the World Group Play-offs. The team lost 2–6, 4–6 against Rika Fujiwara and Kimiko Date-Krumm of Japan.
She won several ITF titles in her career according to her profile on the WTA Tour website.
She lost in the first round of qualifying at the 2015 Australian Open and at the 2015 French Open. At Wimbledon 2015, she also lost in the first round of qualifying, eventually beaten in 3 sets by Michelle Larcher De Brito. She reached the third round of qualifying in the last Grand Slam tournament of 2015.
Bishops and Archbishops of York
of the faithful
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Late Middle Ages|
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Mysticism and reforms|
See also Renaissance philosophy