Bombing of Tallinn in World War II

The German Luftwaffe and Soviet Long Range Aviation bombed the Estonian capital Tallinn several times during World War II. The first instance was during the Summer War of 1941 (part of Operation Barbarossa). A number of bombing missions followed in 1942–43. The largest of the bombings occurred in March 1944 in connection with the Battle of Narva and is known as March bombing (Estonian: märtsipommitamine). Thousands of Soviet bombs set the town on fire, killed 757 people, of whom 586 were civilians and 75 prisoners of war, wounded 659, and left 25,000 people without shelter in the spring thaw.

TLA 1465 1 973 Varemetes Harju tänav, vasakul Kuld Lõvi varemed 1944
The old town of Tallinn after bombed by the Red Air Force in March 1944
Estonia threatre after bombing
Estonia Theatre after bombing by Red Air Force in March 1944

Luftwaffe raids in 1941

The Soviet Union took control of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in 1940 gaining control over the naval bases in the Baltic Sea, including Tallinn.[1] The German invasion quickly progressed eastward towards the Baltic states where they began to destroy Soviet naval bases.[1] By August 1941, the Soviet’s most westward naval base was in Tallinn making it a main target for the German forces.[1] Luftwaffe commenced bombing of Tallinn from the first days of the war in June, and this intensified in August due to the Soviet attempts to evacuate the city's residents, elements of the Baltic Fleet, formations of the 8th Army, and industrial assets important for war production. The Soviet forces lost control of Estonia in the summer of 1941, when the Germans began to gradually occupy the country.[2]

Red Air Force raids, 1942-43

Tallinn was bombed on several occasions during May and September, 1942. During 1943, several bombing missions were performed by the Red Air Force on Tallinn in February, March, May, August, and September. With German forces now occupying Estonia's capital Tallinn, the Soviet air force began bombing the city which it formerly controlled.[2]

Red Air Force raids in 1944

In February 1944, Germans began storing provisions, supply depots, and reserve units for the front lines in Estonia.[3] Tallinn’s harbor became a main terminal for the German’s transportation of goods that were supplying the front lines.[3] Due to the increase of German activity in Tallinn, the Soviet air force began targeting the city for bombings in an effort to debilitate Germany.[3]

The heaviest of the air assaults was on 9 March. A week before, the Mayor of Tallinn had given an order to the city dwellers to leave the town, but the evacuation failed. The extent of the attack was beyond the expectations of the local people and the headquarters of the Army Group North. A bombing run consisting of 300 aircraft dropping 3068 bombs, 1725 of them explosive and 1300 incendiary, inflicted heavy damage to the city.[4][5] The first attack began at 6:30 p.m. on the night of the ninth, lasting two and a half hours.[3] Bombers hit the capital again at 2 a.m. for an additional hour and a half the same night.[3] The fire brigades were scarce on water, as Soviet saboteurs had blown up the city pumping station before the air raid. Military damage was minor, with a few military installations and supply stores destroyed. The major military loss was the burning of a million litres of fuel in the fuel depot. Of the enterprises with some military importance, the "Luther" plywood factory and the Urania-Werke-run cable factory were destroyed. Most of the bombs fell on the dwellings and public buildings, including the Estonia Theatre, St. Nicholas Church, the city synagogue, four cinemas, and the Tallinn City Archives.[6] A large part of the wooden suburbs burnt down and the city centre suffered major damage. It was reported that about twenty percent of the buildings in Tallinn were burnt down.[3]

According to the official report, 757 people were killed, of whom 586 were civilians, 50 were military personnel, and 121 were prisoners-of-war. 213 had serious injuries, 446 had minor injuries. Amongst the injured were 65 military servicemen and 75 prisoners-of-war. Later, more victims were found, with the number of deaths estimated at up to 800.[5] More than 20,000 people were left without a shelter in the spring thaw, while the military objects were almost untouched.[4][7] Immediately after the bombing raid Finnish air force bombers followed returning Soviet bombers to three military airbases near Leningrad and bombed them.[8] During the attack, about twenty-five Soviet airplanes were shot down in Tallinn with an additional ten destroyed by the Finnish air force later the same night.[3]

Regarding the high number of civilian casualties and low damage to military and strategic installations in the cities, the Soviet bombing raids were conducted primarily in order to destroy the morale of local civilians opposed to a return of Soviet occupation forces.[5][7][9] Regardless of Soviet intentions, the high civilian casualty toll of the raids had significantly increased the hostility of the Estonian public towards the Soviet army. On 27 February, a Soviet air raid had hit children playing in the school yard of Luunja Parish, killing four. The date of their burial was turned into a national memorial day, accompanied by the poem "Uus Herodes" ("Modern Herod") published by Henrik Visnapuu.[10][11] More Estonians felt an urge to fight against the Soviet advance.[9][12] A slogan:[11]

Varemeist tõuseb kättemaks! (Vengeance Will Rise from the Ruins!)

was written on the ruins of the Estonia Theatre. The slogan became the title of the newspaper of the 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian).[11]

The last Red Air Force bomb raid to Tallinn was commenced at night before 22 September 1944. The Soviet Union annexed Estonia as one of its republics for a second time in September 1944.[2]

Memorials

The last ruins—along the Harju Street in the Old Town—served as a memorial to the victims of the raid; but the ruins were filled in 2007 and a park built over them after careful archaeological work.

References

  1. ^ a b c "The Soviet Dunkirk: The Tallinn Offensive". warfarehistorynetwork.com. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  2. ^ a b c "Estonia". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Estonica.org - Bombing of Tallinn in March 1944". www.estonica.org. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  4. ^ a b Kivimäe, Jüri; Kõiv, Lea (1997). Tallinn tules. Dokumente ja materjale Tallinna pommitamisest 9/10. märtsil 1944. (Tallinn on Fire. Documents and materials on the bombing of Tallinn 9/10 March 1944.) (in Estonian). Tallinn City Archives.
  5. ^ a b c Toomas Hiio (2006). "Combat in Estonia in 1944". In Toomas Hiio; Meelis Maripuu; Indrek Paavle. Estonia 1940–1945: Reports of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn. pp. 1035–1094.
  6. ^ Tallinn City Archives (20 April 2012). "History of the Tallinn City Archives". Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  7. ^ a b Enn Sarv & Peep Varju (2005). "Survey of Occupation Regimes". The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991 (PDF). p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-14.
  8. ^ Jaakkonen, Pasi (2016-03-25). "Lentorykmentti 4:n pommikoneet nousivat vihollisen siivelle". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Sanoma Media. Retrieved 2016-06-07.
  9. ^ a b Laar, Mart (2005). "Battles in Estonia in 1944". Estonia in World War II. Tallinn: Grenader. pp. 32–59.
  10. ^ Henrik Visnapuu (5 March 1944). "Uus Herodes" (in Estonian). Eesti Sõna.
  11. ^ a b c Mart Laar (2006). Sinimäed 1944: II maailmasõja lahingud Kirde-Eestis (Sinimäed Hills 1944: Battles of II World War in Northeast Estonia (in Estonian). Tallinn: Varrak.
  12. ^ A.Aasmaa (1999). Tagasivaateid.(Looking Back. In Estonian) In: Mart Tamberg (Comp.). Eesti mehed sõjatules. EVTÜ, Saku
Battle of Tallinn

Battle of Tallinn may refer to:

Battle at the Iron Gate, a possible 1032 Novgorod failed naval attack near the Estonian stronghold.

Battle of Lindanise, a 1219 Danish conquest of the Estonian stronghold in the Livonian Crusade.

Siege of Tallinn, a 1221 failed Estonian siege of the Danish stronghold in the Livonian Crusade.

Siege of Lindanise, a 1223 failed Estonian siege of the Danish stronghold in the Livonian Crusade.

Siege of Lindanise, a 1223 failed Russian and Estonian siege of the Danish stronghold in the Livonian Crusade.

Battle of Lindanise, a 1227 Livonian Brothers of the Sword capture of the Danish stronghold in the Livonian Crusade.

Battle of Sõjamäe, a 1343 Livonian Order attack on Estonian forces near the town in the St. George's Night Uprising.

Battle of Jerusalem Hill, two 1560 de facto independent Reval attacks against Muscovite forces near the town in the Livonian War.

Battle of Reval, a 1569 Danish and Lübecker naval bombardment and sack of Reval Harbour in the Livonian War.

Siege of Reval, a 1570–1571 failed "Livonian" and Muscovite siege of the Swedish town in the Livonian War.

Siege of Reval, a 1577 failed Muscovite siege of the Swedish town in the Livonian War.

Battle of Reval, a 1602 Polish-Lithuanian attack on Swedish forces near the town in the Polish–Swedish War (1600–11).

Siege of Reval, a 1710 Russian siege to capture the Swedish town.

Battle of Reval, a 1790 failed Swedish naval attack on the Russian town in the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790).

Bombing of Tallinn in World War II, 1941–1944 German and Soviet aerial bombing raids of the city.

Two battles during the Summer War of World War II:

Battle of Tallinn, a 1941 German capture of the city from Soviet forces.

Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, a 1941 naval evacuation of the city and the Gulf of Finland.

Tallinn Offensive, a 1944 offensive to retake the city from German forces in World War II.

Attempt to restore independence, a 1944 failed Estonian attempt to recapture the city from German forces and to hold it against Soviet forces.

Battle of Tallinn, the final battle of that offensive.

Index of World War II articles (B)

B-17 Flying Fortress

B-17, Queen of the Skies

B-24 Liberator

B-29 Superfortress

B-Reactor

Błyskawica radiostation

Błyskawica submachine gun

Børge Mathiesen

BA-10

BA-11

BA-20

BA-21

BA-27

BA-3

BA-30

BA-6

BA-64

BA-I armoured car

Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel

Babi Yar

Baldur von Schirach

Bali Holocaust Conference

Balkan ethnic conflict in the 1940s

Balkans Campaign German order of battle

Balkans Campaign

Baltic Sea Campaigns (1939-1945)

Banat (1941–1944)

Band of Brothers (TV miniseries)

Banjica concentration camp

Banka Island massacre

Bardufoss concentration camp

Barefoot Gen

Baron Blitzkrieg

Battery Lothringen

Battery Moltke

Battle at Borodino Field

Battle between HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Battle for Australia

Battle for Brest

Battle for Caen

Battle for Czech Radio

Battle for Germany

Battle for Henderson Field

Battle for Kharkov

Battle for Soviet Ukraine

Battle for The Hague

Battle for Velikiye Luki (1943)

Battle of Łódź (1939)

Battle of Åndalsnes

Battle of Aachen

Battle of Alam el Halfa

Battle of Ambon

Battle of Angaur

Battle of Anzio

Battle of Arawe

Battle of Arracourt

Battle of Arras (1940)

Battle of Badung Strait

Battle of Balikpapan (1942)

Battle of Balikpapan (1945)

Battle of Bamianshan

Battle of Baoying

Battle of Barking Creek

Battle of Bataan (1945)

Battle of Bataan

Battle of Bautzen (1945)

Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Battle of Beirut (1941)

Battle of Belgorod

Battle of Berlin (air)

Battle of Białystok-Minsk

Battle of Biak

Battle of Bir Hakeim

Battle of Blackett Strait

Battle of Bloody Gulch

Battle of Borneo (1941–42)

Battle of Borowa Góra

Battle of Brisbane

Battle of Britain (film)

Battle of Britain Aircraft

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Battle of Britain II: Wings of Victory

Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

Battle of Britain Memorial, Capel-le-Ferne

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Battle of Britain RAF squadrons

Battle of Britain

Battle of Brody (1941)

Battle of Broekhuizen

Battle of Bryansk (1941)

Battle of Brześć Litewski

Battle of Budapest

Battle of Bukit Timah

Battle of Buna-Gona

Battle of Calabria

Battle of Cape Bon (1941)

Battle of Cape Esperance

Battle of Cape Gloucester

Battle of Cape Matapan

Battle of Cape Passero (1940)

Battle of Cape Spada

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Battle of Cape St. George

Battle of Carentan

Battle of Central Henan

Battle of Changde

Battle of Changsha (1939)

Battle of Changsha (1941)

Battle of Changsha (1942)

Battle of Changsha (1944)

Battle of Cherbourg

Battle of Chojnice (1939)

Battle of Christmas Island

Battle of Cisterna

Battle of Cocos

Battle of Corregidor (1945)

Battle of Corregidor

Battle of Crete

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Battle of Dakar

Battle of Dalushan Islands

Battle of Damascus (1941)

Battle of Damour

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Battle of Debrecen

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Battle of Demyansk (1943)

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Battle of Dražgoše

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Battle of Dunkirk

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Battle of El Guettar

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Battle of Eniwetok

Battle of Flers-Courcelette

Battle of Fort Eben-Emael

Battle of France

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Battle of Gazala

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Battle of Gemmano

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Battle of Gratangen

Battle of Greece

Battle of Grodno (1939)

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Battle of Guam (1941)

Battle of Guam (1944)

Battle of Guanzhong (1946–1947)

Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou

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Battle of Iwo Jima

Battle of Jarosław

Battle of Java (1942)

Battle of Jezzine (1941)

Battle of Jianmenguan

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Battle of Jordanów

Battle of Kępa Oksywska

Battle of Königsberg

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Battle of Kaiapit

Battle of Kampar

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Battle of Keren

Battle of Khalkhin Gol

Battle of Kissoué

Battle of Kobryń

Battle of Kock (1939)

Battle of Kohima

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Battle of Kollaa

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Battle of Kos

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Battle of Krasnobród

Battle of Krasny Bor

Battle of Kufra (1941)

Battle of Kula Gulf

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Battle of Kwajalein

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Battle of Lenino

Battle of Leros

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Battle of Leyte

Battle of Lingbi

Battle of Lone Tree Hill (1944)

Battle of Los Angeles

Battle of Luzon

Battle of Lwów (1939)

Battle of Mława

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Battle of Mairy

Battle of Makassar Strait

Battle of Makin

Battle of Malaya

Battle of Manado

Battle of Manila (1945)

Battle of Manners Street

Battle of Marseille

Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay

Battle of Memel

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Battle of Midtskogen

Battle of Midway

Battle of Mikołów

Battle of Milne Bay

Battle of Mindanao

Battle of Mindoro

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Battle of Mokra

Battle of Mont Sorrel

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Battle of Monte Castello

Battle of Morotai

Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse

Battle of Muar

Battle of Mura

Battle of Murowana Oszmianka

Battle of Nan'ao Island

Battle of Nanchang

Battle of Nancy (1944)

Battle of Nanking

Battle of Nanpēng Archipelago

Battle of Nanpéng Island

Battle of Nanri Island

Battle of Narva - Battle for the Narva Bridgehead (1944)

Battle of Narva - Battle of the Tannenberg Line (1944)

Battle of Narva (1944)

Battle of Neretva

Battle of New Georgia

Battle of Niangziguan

Battle of Nietjärvi

Battle of Nikolayevka

Battle of Noemfoor

Battle of North Borneo

Battle of North Cape

Battle of Northern and Eastern Henan

Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan

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Battle of Pęcice

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Battle of Pasir Panjang

Battle of Peleliu

Battle of Petsamo (1939)

Battle of Phoenix Peak

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Battle of Piva Forks

Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations

Battle of Poljana

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Battle of Poznań (1945)

Battle of Prachuab Khirikhan

Battle of Prokhorovka

Battle of Przemyśl (1939)

Battle of Pszczyna

Battle of Różan

Battle of Raate road

Battle of Rabaul (1942)

Battle of Radom

Battle of Radzymin (1944)

Battle of Ramree Island

Battle of Raseiniai

Battle of Rehe

Battle of Remagen

Battle of Rennell Island

Battle of Rovaniemi

Battle of Rugao-Huangqiao

Battle of Rugao

Battle of Saipan order of battle

Battle of Saipan

Battle of Salla (1939)

Battle of San Pietro Infine

Battle of Saranda

Battle of Saumur (1940)

Battle of Savo Island

Battle of Shangcai

Battle of Shanggao

Battle of Shanghai

Battle of Shaobo

Battle of Shicun

Battle of Sidi Bou Zid

Battle of Singapore

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Battle of Skerki Bank

Battle of Slater's Knoll

Battle of Slim River

Battle of South Guangxi

Battle of South Henan

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Battle of Stalingrad in the media

Battle of Stalingrad

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Battle of Sunda Strait

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Battle of Szack

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Battle of Taiyuan

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Battle of Tarakan (1942)

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Battle of Taranto

Battle of Tarawa

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Battle of Tehumardi

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Battle of the Ancre Heights

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Battle of the Bulge order of battle

Battle of the Bulge

Battle of the Bzura

Battle of the Caribbean

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Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle of the Denmark Strait

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Battle of the Malacca Strait

Battle of the Mediterranean

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Battle of the Oder-Neisse

Battle of the Philippine Sea

Battle of the Philippines (1941–42)

Battle of the pips

Battle of the Reichswald

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Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

Battle of the Scheldt

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Battle of the St. Lawrence

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Battle of the Tenaru

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Battle of the Treasury Islands

Battle of the Visayas

Battle of Thermopylae (1941)

Battle of Tianmen

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Battle of Timor

Battle of Tinian

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Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo

Battle of Târgul Frumos

Battle of Uman

Battle of Vella Gulf

Battle of Verrières Ridge

Battle of Vevi (1941)

Battle of Villers-Bocage

Battle of Vimy Ridge

Battle of Vinjesvingen

Battle of Voronezh (1942)

Battle of Voronezh (1943)

Battle of Vuosalmi

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Battle of Wake Island

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Battle of West Henan-North Hubei

Battle of West Hubei

Battle of West Hunan

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Battle of West Ukraine (1944)

Battle of Westerplatte

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Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons Of WWII

Battlefield 1942

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Battlehawks 1942

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Berlin: The Downfall 1945

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Beyond Castle Wolfenstein

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Big Stink (B-29)

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Black Fox: The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler

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Bombing of Chongqing

Bombing of Cologne in World War II

Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II

Bombing of Darwin (February 1942)

Bombing of Dresden in World War II

Bombing of Dublin in World War II

Bombing of Duisburg in World War II

Bombing of Essen in World War II

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Bombing of Gelsenkirchen in World War II

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

Bombing of Hanau in World War II

Bombing of Helsinki in World War II

Bombing of Hildesheim in World War II

Bombing of Innsbruck in World War II

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Bombing of Kobe in World War II

Bombing of Konigsberg in World War II

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Bombing of Mannheim in World War II

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Bombing of Nagoya in World War II

Bombing of Naples in World War II

Bombing of Osaka in World War II

Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II

Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II

Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

Bombing of Prague in World War II

Bombing of Prague

Bombing of Rabaul (1942)

Bombing of Rabaul (November 1943)

Bombing of Romania in World War II

Bombing of Rome in World War II

Bombing of Rothenburg in World War II

Bombing of Schaffhausen in World War II

Bombing of Schwäbisch Hall in World War II

Bombing of Sofia in World War II

Bombing of Stalingrad in World War II

Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II

Bombing of Tallinn in World War II

Bombing of Tokyo in World War II

Bombing of Treviso in World War II

Bombing of Ulm in World War II

Bombing of Vienna in World War II

Bombing of Warsaw in World War II

Bombing of Wesel in World War II

Bombing of Wewak

Bombing of Wieluń

Bombing of Würzburg in World War II

Bombing of Wuppertal in World War II

Bombing of Zara in World War II

Bombings of Heilbronn in World War II

Bombings of Switzerland in World War II

Bon Voyage (1944 film)

Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy

Borneo Campaign (1945) order of battle

Borneo campaign (1945)

Bougainville campaign (1943–45)

Bowmanville POW camp

Brazzaville Conference of 1944

Bredtvet concentration camp

Breendonk

Breitenau concentration camp

Breton nationalism and World War II

Breton Social-National Workers' Movement

Bretteville-sur-Laize Canadian War Cemetery

Brigadeführer

Bristol Beaufighter

Bristol Blitz

Britannia Theatre

British 51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

British anti-invasion preparations of World War II

British Armies in World War II

British armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II

British armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

British Army Aid Group

British Army Groups in World War II

British Army Groups in WWII

British Army of the Rhine

British Brigades in World War II

British Commandos

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

British Commonwealth Occupation Force

British Corps in World War II

British Divisions in World War II

British Expeditionary Force order of battle (1940)

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

British Far East Command

British First Army order of battle, 20 April 1943

British First Army order of battle, 4 May 1943

British Free Corps

British Guards Division

British hardened field defences of World War II

British Home Guard

British Motor Minesweepers (BYMS)

British Ninth Army

British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II

British Official Armour Specification

British propaganda during World War II

British S-class submarine (1914)

British S-class submarine (1931)

British Salonika Army

British U-class submarine

British V-class submarine (1914)

British V-class submarine

British World War II destroyers

Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial

Bronze Star Medal

Brotherhood of War (novel series)

Brothers in Arms (N-Gage 2.0)

Brothers in Arms DS

Brothers in Arms: Art of War

Brothers in Arms: D-Day

Brothers in Arms: Double Time

Brothers in Arms: Earned in Blood

Brothers in Arms: Hell's Highway

Brothers in Arms: Road to Hill 30

Buchenwald concentration camp

Budapest ghetto

Budapest Offensive

Bugs & Daffy: The Wartime Cartoons

Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips

Bulgarian Air Force

Bulgarian National Socialist Party

Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II

Burma Campaign 1942-1943

Burma Campaign 1944-1945

Burma Campaign 1944

Burma Campaign

Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery

List of World War II battles

This is a list of World War II battles.

St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn

Not to be confused with St Nicholas' Church, Tallinn (Russian Orthodox).St. Nicholas' Church (Estonian: Niguliste kirik) is a medieval former church in Tallinn, Estonia. It was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the patron of the fishermen and sailors. Originally built in the 13th century, it was partially destroyed in Soviet Bombing of Tallinn in World War II. It has since been restored and today houses a branch of the Art Museum of Estonia, focusing mainly on ecclesiastical art from the Middle Ages onward. The former church is also used as a concert hall.

Tallinn Town Hall

The Tallinn Town Hall (Estonian: Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square. It is the oldest town hall in the whole of the Baltic region and Scandinavia.The building is located in the south side of the ancient market square and is 36.8 metres long. The west wall is 14.5 metres in length, and the east is 15.2 meters. It is a two-storey building with a spacious basement.The vane Old Thomas (Estonian: Vana Toomas) on the top of the Town Hall's tower, that has been there since 1530, has become one of the symbols of Tallinn. The height of the tower is 64 metres. Tallinn Town Hall is located on the Town Hall Square, where the streets Kullassepa street, Dunkri street and Vanaturu kael lead. One of the shortest streets of Tallinn is Raekoja tänav, which is located behind the Town Hall.

The town hall was built by what was then the market square. The town hall square got its current length in the 1370s. Covered with a board roof in 1374, the town hall was probably a single-decked stone building with a basement. The attic was used as a storeroom. The facade of this long and narrow building is now a rear wall of the arcade, where you can still see some of the simple statuary framed windows from this time.A Town Hall with a huge meeting room was firstly mentioned in a Real Estate book in 1322 as a "consistorium", which had a giant warehouse (cellarium civitatis) for that time. Some walls in the eastern part of the modern town hall and seven windows in the basement and on the ground floor have remained from that time. In 1364, it was called a playhouse (teatrum) and in 1372 a town hall (rathus).The Town council controlled the town's political, economic and partly even parlour action. The Town Hall was often a courthouse and a place to introduce goods; sometimes it was even used as a room for theatre, as you can conclude from the word "teatrum". Therefore, it was very important to be placed in the heart of the town and to look representative.Although the city power worked in the Town Hall until 1970, it still holds the role of a representational building of a city administration and welcomes visitors as a concert venue and a museum, where you can get to know the centuries-long historical and architectural value of the Tallinn Town Hall. In conjunction with the Tallinn Old Town, the Town Hall has been on the UNESCO world Heritage Sites list since 1997. In 2004, Tallinn Town Hall celebrated its 600th birthday.In 2005, the Tallinn town hall received a high recognition – 2nd prize, in the category of conservation of Architectural Heritage for the revival of the last surviving Gothic Town Hall in Northern Europe and the exemplary revealing of all the historical layers of this icon of the great European tradition of municipal power. The prize was presented to Elvira Liiver Holmström, the director of Tallinn Town Hall by Queen Sofía of Spain at the European Heritage Awards Ceremony which was held on 27 June 2006 at the Palacio Real de El Pardo, Madrid. Europa Nostra medal was presented to Tallinn Town Hall at the ceremony on 15 September 2006 by Siim Kallas, Vice President of the European Commission, and Thomas Willoch, Europa Nostra board member.

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