Bolu Province

Bolu Province (Turkish: Bolu ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. It's an important midpoint between the capital, Ankara and the largest city in the country, Istanbul. It covers an area of 7,410 km², and the population is 271,208.

This is an attractive forested mountain district centered on the city of Bolu, which has a long history.

There is plenty of forest but little agricultural land. There is some garden produce and dairy production including good cheeses and cream, most of this is consumed or sold locally, especially as Bolu has a large passing trade: Bolu Mountain is the major topographical obstacle on the Istanbul-Ankara highway, and until 2007, when the Bolu Mountain Tunnel is being opened, most travelers stopped here for food and refreshment. Bolu has a long tradition of high quality cuisine. Annual cookery competitions are held in Mengen.

Bolu Province

Bolu ili
Location of Bolu Province in Turkey
Location of Bolu Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionEast Marmara
SubregionKocaeli
Government
 • Electoral districtBolu
Area
 • Total7,410 km2 (2,860 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total311,810
 • Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
Area code(s)0374
Vehicle registration14

Geography

The province is drained by the Bolu River (Boli Su) and the Koca River.

The forests, lakes and mountains are rich in wildlife including three deer species and very popular weekend and holiday retreats for walkers and climbers.

Parts of the province are vulnerable to earthquakes.

History

It is not definitely known when Bolu was first founded. There are some archaeological findings dating back about 100,000 years that suggest the region was inhabited then.

The area now in Bolu Province was in eastern Bithynia and southwestern Paphlagonia. The town of Bithynium from which the area takes its name is the modern Bolu. By about 375 BCE, Bithynia had gained its independence from Persia, and King Bas subsequently defeated Alexander's attempt to take it.[2] The Bithynian region with parts of Paphlagonia remained its own kingdom until 88 BCE when it briefly came under Mithridates VI and the Kingdom of Pontus. With Roman help the last Bithynian king, Nicomedes IV regained his throne, but on his death bequeathed the kingdom to Rome. This led to the Third Mithridatic War and the fall of Pontus, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a single province joining Paphlagonia with Bithynia. Under the folling Byzantine Empire the Bolu area was divided from western Bithynia at the Sakarya River, with western Bithynia keeping the name. The Sakarya is still the southern and western boundary of the province.

The Byzantine Empire briefly lost the Bolu area to the Seljuk Turks after the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, but recovered it under the Komnenian restoration. After the end of the Komnenos dynasty, the Turks gradually took the Bolu area back.

About 1240 the Seljuk Turks took the eastern part of the Bolu area (i.e. the Paphlagonian part) from the Byzantine Empire and incorporated it into the Sultanate of Rum. Due to their assistance in taking it and Sinop, the Chobanids were given that territory and adjacent areas to the north and east to rule. The Chobanids were relatively independent of the Sultan. That eastern area fell under the Isfendiyarids between 1292 and 1461. In 1461 it was incorporated into the rest of the Ottoman Empire.

By 1265, the western part of the Bolu area was again acquired by the Seljuk Turks, but it fell to the arms of Orhan I and the Ottoman Empire in the early to mid-1300s. The two areas were reunited in 1461, under Mehmed II. In the 1864 Ottoman Empire administrative reorganization, Bolu was created as an independent sanjak,[3] although it was geographically part of the Kastamonu Vilayet.

Administrative divisions

Bolu province is divided into nine districts, four sub-districts, thirteen municipalities and 491 villages.

Districts

Main sights

  • Lake Abant, an attractive mountain lake resort and hot springs.
  • Yedigöller National Park. The name means "seven lakes" in Turkish, referring to the number of lakes in this forest park.
  • The Köroğlu Mountains, said to be the scene of the folk Epic of Köroğlu.
  • There are many hot springs and mineral baths in the province (kaplıcaları in Turkish).
  • Kartalkaya, one of Turkey's most popular ski resorts.
  • Sarıalan, a lake high in the mountains above Kartalkaya.
  • The Aladağ mountains, including the trail and picnic area of Gölcük.
  • Seben Çeltikler
  • Göynük Akshemseddin Mausoleum

Attractive towns include:

Gallery

Bolu-08523 nevit

Mist early in the morning

Infrared 08705 yedigoller-exposure

A scene from Yedigöller

See also

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Memnon, History of Heracleia, 12
  3. ^ Naval staff, Intelligence Department (Royal Navy) (1919). A handbook of Asia Minor. 1. London. p. 226.

External links

Coordinates: 40°40′45″N 31°33′30″E / 40.67917°N 31.55833°E

1957 Abant earthquake

The 1957 Abant earthquake occurred at 08:33 on 26 May. The earthquake had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 7.1 and a maximum felt intensity of IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing 52 casualties.

Apsoda

Apsoda was a town of ancient Bithynia, inhabited in Byzantine times.Its site is located south of Çatak, Asiatic Turkey.

Bolu

Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264 (2012 census).The city has been governed by mayor Alaaddin Yılmaz (AK Party) since local elections in 2004. It was the site of Ancient Claudiopolis and has also been called Eskihisar ("old fortress") (and as such has several Turkish namesakes).

Bolu is on the old highway from Istanbul to Ankara, which climbs over Mount Bolu, while the new motorway passes through Mount Bolu Tunnel below the town.

Bolu Museum

Bolu Museum is a museum in Bolu, Turkey. Bolu was a leading city of the Bithynia kingdom of the antiquity.

Cenon Gallicanon

Cenon Gallicanon was a town of ancient Bithynia, inhabited during Roman times. Its name does not occur in ancient authors but is inferred from epigraphic and other evidence.Its site is located near Göynük in Asiatic Turkey.

Cratia (Bithynia)

Cratia, Crateia or Krateia (Ancient Greek: Κρατεία) was a town in the interior of ancient Bithynia, which also bore the name Flaviopolis, which clearly dates from the imperial period, and probably the time of Vespasian. The Antonine Itinerary places it between Claudiopolis and Ancyra of Galatia, 24 M. P. from the former. An autonomous coin with the epigraph κρη is attributed to this place; and there are coins of the imperial period, from Antoninus Pius to Gallienus. It became an episcopal see. Under the name Cratia it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. It may also have borne the name Agrippeia.Its site is located near Gerede in Asiatic Turkey.

Dadokome

Dadokome was a town of ancient Bithynia, inhabited in Roman times.Its site is located near Köroğluderbend, Asiatic Turkey.

Gerede

Gerede is a town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located on the highway from Istanbul to Ankara (approximately 150 km (93.21 mi) from Ankara, where the road to the Black Sea coast branches off). It covers an area of 1,255 km2 (484.56 sq mi), and the population (2000) is 41,391 of which 25,200 live in the town of Gerede. Elevation is about 1,450 m. The mayor is Ömer Baygın (AKP).

Gerede is a large area of hill country surrounded by pine-covered mountains, on a passage from central Anatolia to the Black Sea coast. The climate is notoriously cold and wet, enough to make it a centre for cross-country skiing, and traffic on the highway often has to negotiate fog, rain and ice around Gerede.

Gölköy Dam

Gölköy Dam is a dam in Bolu, Turkey, built between 1965 and 1970. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Göynük

For the village in Azerbaijan, see Göynük, Azerbaijan.Göynük is a town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It covers an area of 1,436 km², and the population (2000) is 18,589 of which 4,894 live in the town of Göynük. The mayor is Kemal Kazan (AKP). Its neighbours are Mudurnu from north-east, Nallıhan from south-east, Sarıcakaya from south, Yenipazar from south-west, Taraklı from west and Akyazı from north-west.

Lake Abant Nature Park

Lake Abant (Turkish: Abant Gölü) is a freshwater lake in Turkey's Bolu Province in northwest Anatolia, formed as a result of a great landslide. The lake lies at an altitude of 1,328 m (4,357 ft) at a distance of 32 km (20 mi) from the provincial seat of Bolu city. It is a vacation and excursion spot for both Turkish and foreign travellers due to the natural environment, forests, and accessibility by car. (It is served by a 21 km (13 mi) road leaving from the İstanbul-Ankara motorway O-4 E80 or the highway D.100 at the level of Mount Bolu, three hours' drive from these two largest cities of Turkey). Lake Abant is a natural park.

The lake covers an area of 1.28 km2 (0.49 sq mi) and its deepest spot is 18 m (59 ft). The lake area has two large hotels in the immediate vicinity of the shores, as well as other amenities and services for visitors, who sometimes alternatively opt for the family guesthouses available in the nearby town of Mudurnu 18 km to the south. To the north of the lake, at a distance of 8 km (5.0 mi) from Bolu city, is the main campus of Abant Izzet Baysal University.

European black pine, Scots pine, oaks, ashes, hornbeams, willows, junipers, tamarisks, hazels, common medlar, and strawberry trees are among the tree species that make up the lake's woodlands, and there are wild boars, fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, brown bears, wolves, red foxes, jackals and rabbits in the surrounding forests, which makes the lake a prized location for hunters during the season. The lake is inhabited by the Abant trout Salmo abanticus, a (sub)species of trout which is strictly endemic to this lake only.

Lake Sünnet Nature Park

Lake Sünnet Nature Park (Turkish: Sünnet Gölü Tabiat Parkı) is a nature park declared protected area at Lake Sünnet in Bolu Province, northwestern Turkey.

Lake Sünnet is located about 27 km (17 mi) east of Göynük and 105 km (65 mi) southwest of Bolu

in Bolu Province. It was formed by landslide in a narrow and deep valley between Kurudağ and Erenler Hill. The lake covers an area of 18 ha (44 acres) at 820 m (2,690 ft) high above mean sea level. Its depth reaches up to 22 m (72 ft). The lake is fed by creeks and springs around.A 80 ha (200 acres)-area at the lake was registered as A-grade Forest Recreational Area in 1973. On July 11, 2011, the area was declared a nature park by the Ministry of Environment and Forest.The nature park offers outdoor recreational activities like hiking, biking and picnicking.A hotel with 45 rooms and 115 beds, a restaurant, an outdoor coffeehouse and a sport court are available at the nature park.

List of populated places in Bolu Province

Below is the list of populated places in Bolu Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Mantineion

Mantineion was a town of ancient Bithynia, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times.Its site is located near Ada Köy, Asiatic Turkey.

Mengen, Bolu

Mengen is a rural town and district in Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of western Turkey, 58 km (36 miles) from the provincial center city of Bolu. It covers an area of 895 km² (346 mi²), and the population as of 2000 is 16,504, of which 5,500 live in the central town of Mengen. The mayor is Turhan Bulut (CHP).

Mengen is famous for its cooks and its annual cookery festival; chefs trained in Mengen can be found in the best hotels all over Turkey. The town is along the historical travel route between the large cities of Istanbul and Ankara, and a popular lodging destination for travelers between the cities. The cookery school in Mengen has traditionally trained chefs for the Turkish president in Ankara and other high government officials.

Mengen is a forested district and the largest plain in the mountainous area surrounding it, where the traditional lifestyle has persisted. It is one of the few places in Turkey where the tradition of the köçek (male belly dancers) at village weddings remains widespread. The köçek also perform at the food festival in August.

Mengen is 180 km (112 mi) from Ankara and is a popular weekend retreat for the people of the city. Hunting is a popular visitor sport in the district. In the summer, walking trails in the high country above the town become popular.

The town prominently advertises its cookery tradition; it dons many billboards and statues of smiling chefs throughout the district. Dinner in Mengen is typically grilled meats and pilav rice served with lashings of Turkish rakı, the traditional aniseed beverage. However, although Mengen trains and exports chefs to Turkey as a whole, there are not that many restaurants in the small town itself.

Modra (Bithynia)

Modra (Ancient Greek: τὰ Μόδρα) was a town of ancient Bithynia. According to Strabo, the town was situated in Phrygia Epictetus, at the sources of the river Gallus; but as this river flows down from the northern slope of the Bithynian Olympus, which there forms the boundary between Phrygia and Bithynia, Strabo must be mistaken, and Modra probably belonged to the southwest of Bithynia. It became the seat of a bishop; no longer a residential see it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. The district about Modra was called Modrene.Its site is located near Mudurnu in Asiatic Turkey.

Mudurnu

Mudurnu is a small town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 52 km south-west of the city of Bolu. It covers an area of 1,349 km², and the population (2011) is 20,528 of which 4,936 live in the town of Mudurnu. As of 2010, the mayor was Mehmet İnegöl (CHP).

State road D.750 (Turkey)

D.750 is a north to south state road in Turkey. It starts at Zonguldak at the Black sea coast and ends at the junction of D.400 near Tarsus in the Mediterranean Region. It crosses many state roads (like D.100, D.715, D.300, D.330 and D.805).

Yedigöller National Park

The Yedigöller National Park (Turkish: Yedigöller, "seven lakes") also known as Seven Lakes National Park is located in the northern part of Bolu Province in Turkey. The park is categorized under IUCN II and was established in 1965. The park is best known for the seven lakes formed by landslides and for its profusion of plant life.

Bolu Province of Turkey
Districts

Languages

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