General elections were held in Bolivia on 18 December 2005. Evo Morales of the Movement for Socialism (MAS) party was elected President of Bolivia with 54% of the vote, the first time a candidate had received an absolute majority since the flawed 1978 elections. Morales was sworn in on 22 January 2006 for a five-year term. The MAS also won a majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and emerged as the largest party in the Senate.
Simultaneously voters elected prefects, the highest executive office in each of Bolivia's nine departments. This was the first time the office had been chosen at the ballot box. Subsequently, departmental elections were held separately from national elections, with the next one held in April 2010.2013 Palmasola prison riot
On August 23, 2013, a prison riot broke out at Palmasola, a maximum-security prison in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The riot started when members of one cell block attacked a rival gang in another, using propane tanks as flame throwers. Thirty-one people were killed, including an 18-month-old child who was living at the prison. Thirty-seven others were seriously injured. The riot led to calls for reform in the Bolivian prison system, which is plagued by overcrowding and long delays in the trial system.Agenzia Fides
Agenzia Fides is the news agency of the Vatican. It is based in the Palazzo de Propaganda Fide in Vatican City. It is part of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. It was formed on June 5, 1927, as the first missionary news agency of the Roman Catholic Church and was approved by Pope Pius XI.Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtonjo xoˈse ðe ˈsukɾe j alkaˈla] (listen); 1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" (English: "Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia. Sucre was one of Simón Bolívar's closest friends, generals and statesmen. The city of Sucre, Bolivia's capital, is named for him, as is a state of Venezuela and a department of Colombia. Both the old and new airports of Ecuador's capital Quito are also named after him.Arturo von Vacano
Arturo von Vacano was born in La Paz, Bolivia in 1938. He is a prominent Bolivian novelist and journalist. He wrote important works of fiction in the 1970s and 1980s during periods of military dictatorship.Bolivarian countries
The Bolivarian countries are six Hispanic American countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Venezuela) whose republican origin is attributed to the ideals of Simón Bolívar and independence war led by the Venezuelan military in the viceroyalties of New Granada and Peru.
Although Bolivar had nothing to do with Independence of Panama from Spain, let alone the emergence of Panama as an autonomous and independent republic (1903), this country is considered Bolivarian as it proclaimed its independence in 1821. Panamanian patriots voluntarily joined the old provinces of Veraguas and Panama into Gran Colombia and once it dissolved in 1830, the territory remained part of Colombia until 1903. In addition, Bolívar chose Panama to host the Amphictyonic Congress. Meanwhile, in 1824 Bolívar consolidated, with the battles of Junín and Ayacucho, the Independence of Peru, which had been initiated by José de San Martín, who in 1821 had declared independence and established the Republic of Peru.
The links between these countries have come through economic alliances and international treaties such as the Andean Community, which since 1939 brought together those countries except Panama and to which belonged Chile and Venezuela. Similarly, there are cultural and sporting organizations such as Bolivarian Sports Organization, that since 1938, have organized the Bolivarian Games every four years.Consejo de Salud Rural Andino
Consejo de Salud Rural Andino (CSRA) is a non profit, non-governmental organization that specializes in administering health networks and it offers services in designing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating health projects with a community-based model. CSRA was established in 1983 by its parent organization, then known as Andean Rural Health Care in the United States and now known as Curamericas Global, Inc. Curamericas Global was founded in 1983 by Duke University and Johns Hopkins University graduate Henry Perry III, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. and Alice Weldon, Ph.D. The organization’s work was initially based in Bolivia and has since expanded its services to Haiti, Liberia and Guatemala. Currently, Consejo de Salud Rural Andino in Bolivia has its headquarters in the city of La Paz, a regional office in El Alto, and a regional office in the city of Montero.
Curamericas Global and CSRA are known for their development of the Census-Based, Impact-Oriented Methodology. The CBIO is a community-based primary health care model that allows to better understand, effectively treat and accurately measure outcomes and impacts for the most common found causes of unnecessary suffering, sickness, including mortality reduction using census information and having collaboration from the community. CBIO implementation will first identify the entire programm population through visits at least biannually to all homes and then target selected high-impact services to those at highest risk of death. The CBIO approach incorporates:
A community census of households and a health assessment of the project area, a drawing of maps and numbering of households, and the development of a program plan with community members that includes both epidemiologically driven health objectives as well as community perceived health priorities.
Native doctors, nurses, community health workers, and volunteers then conduct regularly scheduled home visits to targeted households whose census information reveals a high risk of illness or death. During these home visits, health knowledge and practices are measured and vital events are recorded so that families’ illnesses, health experiences, deaths, births, and migrations are tracked. This information is entered into a health information system so; program interventions can be measured and then analyzed with the participation of local people and leaders of the community.El Mutún
El Cerro Mutún (Spanish for "the Mountain Mutún") is an iron ore deposit. Located in the Germán Busch Province in the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia, near Puerto Suárez, it extends across the border into Brazil, where it is called the Serrania de Jacadigo. Also known as the "Serrania Mutún", it has an area of about 75 square kilometers. Its estimated reserves are about 40.205 billion (40.205 × 109) tons of iron ore of 50% iron, mainly in hematite and magnetite form, and in lesser quantities in siderite and manganese minerals. This can be compared with an estimate of the total world reserves of iron ore: 800 billion tons of crude ore containing more than 230 billion tons of iron.Gabriela Montaño
Lilly Gabriela Montaño Viaña (born 2 December 1975) is a Bolivian physician, politician, and former senator. She is the elected President of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, a position she accepted and will hold until 2020 while still the presidential representative of Santa Cruz de la Sierra for the Movement for Socialism (MAS) party. In 2012, Montaño was made the first female interim President of Bolivia since Lidia Gueiler Tejada for a short time. Montaño is a feminist and vocal defender of the rights of the LGBT community. She has been a regular guest and speaker at forums and conferences in different parts of the world. She married Argentine citizen Fabián Restivo, with whom she has had two daughters.Gustavo Álvarez Martínez
Gustavo Adolfo Álvarez Martínez (12 December 1937 - 25 January 1989) was a Honduran military officer. He was head of the armed forces of Honduras from January 1982 until his ouster on 31 March 1984 by fellow officers when he sought to expand his control over the armed forces. The notorious Honduran Battalion 3-16 army unit, reporting directly to Álvarez Martínez, was active during this period, in which Honduras was a base for the Contras who opposed the Sandinistas in neighbouring Nicaragua. Álvarez Martínez was awarded the Legion of Merit by the US government in 1983 for "encouraging the success of democratic processes in Honduras." In March 1984 fellow generals accusing him of abuses sent him into exile. He became a consultant to the Pentagon, and lived in Miami until 1988, when he returned to Honduras. Álvarez Martínez was assassinated in Honduras in 1989 by leftwing guerillas.List of news agencies
News agencies were created to provide newspapers with information about a wide variety of news events happening around the world. Initially the agencies were meant to provide the news items only to newspapers, but with the passage of time the rapidly developing modern mediums such as radio, television and Internet too adapted the services of news agencies.
Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, and changing its' name in 1944 Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the world's oldest news agency, and is the third largest news agency in the modern world after the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters. Founded in 1846, Associated Press (AP) was founded in New York in the U.S. as a not-for-profit news agency. Associated Press was challenged by the 1907 creation of United Press Associations by E.W. Scripps and the International News Service in 1909 by William Randolph Hearst. United Press absorbed INS to form United Press International in 1958. In 1851 Reuters was founded in England and is now the second largest news agency in the world with over 2000 offices across the globe. With the advent of communism in Russia, Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) was founded in 1925. Xinhua was later founded as Red China News Services in the Chinese Soviet Republic. Political change in the Third World resulted in a new wave of information dissemination and a series of news agencies were born out of it. These agencies later formed their own Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP), which served as a premiere information service in the Third World.Miguel Facussé Barjum
Miguel Facussé Barjum (August 14, 1924 – June 23, 2015) was a Honduran businessman and landowner. He was Executive President of Corporación Dinant, a consumer products manufacturing company he founded in Honduras in 1960. Dinant sells its products throughout Central America and the Dominican Republic, and also exports to global markets. A 2006 study by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation named Facussé one of the three "most powerful men in Honduras". Facussé was the chief economic advisor to President Roberto Suazo Córdova during his term in office from 1982 to 1986 and vice-president of APROH, a "right-wing grouping of business interests and members of the armed forces" from the early 1980s to at least 2001. Facussé was married and had nine children. His nephew, Carlos Roberto Flores, was President of Honduras from 1998 to 2002. His son-in-law, Fredy Nasser, is a prominent Honduran businessman. In May 2009, Facussé was awarded the Orden Mérito a la Democracia en el Grado de Gran Caballero by the Senate of Colombia. In August 2014, he was awarded the CEAL Founders' Award for his pioneering role in promoting business between Latin American nations.Palmasola
Centro de Rehabilitación Santa Cruz "Palmasola" is a maximum security prison in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. It is Bolivia's largest prison and holds about 3,500 prisoners. Like many prisons in Latin America, guards exhibit minimal control over what happens within the prison, leading it to being described as a "prison town". Guards instead concentrate only on securing the perimeter of the facility. According to former inmates, almost anything can be obtained in the prison, and businesses operate inside the prison to supply weapons and drugs. Prisoners of Palmasola have created an organization called the Disciplina Interna to oversee some affairs.Under Bolivian law, children under the age of six may live in a prison with their parent. As such, Palmasola is home to a number of children. The United Nations has criticized the policy. Four out of five prisoners in Palmasola are awaiting trial. On May 11, 2012, ABC News - Nightline featured a story about American businessman Jacob Ostreicher who was held in Palmasola for 11 months without a trial.Pope Francis visited the prison on July 10, 2015 during his papal visit to Ecuador, Bolivia, and Paraguay .Pinolillo
Pinolillo is a sweet cornmeal and cacao-based traditional drink in Nicaragua, also consumed in Costa Rica. It is made of ground toasted corn and a small amount of cacao. It can be mixed with water or milk, and served sweetened or unsweetened. If unsweetened, it is rather bitter. It can also be used in cooking some local dishes, such as garrobo con pinol or pinol de hola. The drink usually has a rough, gritty texture.
It is traditionally served out of a gourd made of the shell of the jicaro fruit. Decorative gourds are also made for purchase by tourists as souvenirs; such decorations are rarely found in the homes of native Nicaraguans.Plurinational Legislative Assembly
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Spanish: Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
The assembly is bicameral, consisting of a lower house (the Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados) and an upper house (the Senate, or Cámara de Senadores). The Vice President of Bolivia also serves as the President of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly. Each house elects its own directorate: a President, first and second Vice Presidents, and three or four Secretaries (for the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, respectively). Each party is said to have a seat (Spanish: bancada) consisting of its parliamentarians. The representatives of each department comprise a brigade (brigada). Each house considers legislation in standing committees.
The Senate has 36 seats. Each of the country's nine departments returns four senators elected by proportional representation (using the D'Hondt method). (From 1985 to 2009, the Senate had 27 seats: three seats per department: two from the party or formula that receives the most votes, with the third senator representing the second-placed party.) Senators are elected from party lists to serve five-year terms, and the minimum age to hold a Senate seat is 35 years.
The Chamber of Deputies comprises 130 seats, elected using the additional member system: 70 deputies are elected to represent single-member electoral districts, 7 of which are Indigenous or Campesino seats elected by the usos y costumbres of minority groups, 60 are elected by proportional representation from party lists on a departmental basis. Deputies also serve five-year terms, and must be aged at least 25 on the day of the election. Party lists are required to alternate between men and women, and in the single-member districts, men are required to run with a female alternate, and vice versa. At least 50% of the deputies from single-member districts are required to be women.
Both the senate, and the proportional part of the Chamber of Deputies is elected based on the vote for the presidential candidates, while the deputies from the single-member districts are elected separately.The legislative body was formerly known as the National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional).Roberto Iván Aguilar Gómez
Roberto Ivan Aguilar Gómez (born 19 May 1958 in La Paz, Bolivia) is an economist, former university official, politician, and Bolivia's Minister of Education since November 7, 2008. Aguilar served as docent, general secretary, and rector in the Universidad Mayor de San Andres in La Paz. In 2006, he was elected as a plurinominal member of the Bolivian Constituent Assembly for the Movement for Socialism and served as its vice president. In November 2008, he was appointed by Evo Morales as Minister of Education, succeeding Magdalena Cajías.Rubén González (pianist)
Rubén González Fontanills (May 26, 1919 – December 8, 2003) was a Cuban pianist. Together with Lilí Martínez and Peruchín he is said to have "forged the style of modern Cuban piano playing in the 1940s".Between the 1940s and his retirement in the 1980s, he played with Cuba's most successful acts, including Paulina Álvarez, Arsenio Rodríguez, Orquesta América del 55, Orquesta Riverside and Enrique Jorrín. In the 1990s, he came out of retirement to play in the revival ensembles Afro-Cuban All Stars and Buena Vista Social Club, also recording solo material and performing live until 2002.Water resources management in Bolivia
Bolivia has traditionally undertaken different water resources management approaches aimed at alleviating political and institutional instability in the water sector. The so-called water wars of 2000 and 2006 in Cochabamba and El Alto, respectively, added social unrest and conflict into the difficulties of managing water resources in Bolivia. Evo Morales’ administration is currently developing an institutional and legal framework aimed at increasing participation, especially for rural and indigenous communities, and separating the sector from previous privatization policies. In 2009, the new Environment and Water Resources Ministry was created absorbing the responsibilities previously under the Water Ministry. The Bolivian Government is in the process of creating a new Water Law – the current Water Law was created in 1906 – and increasing much needed investment on hydraulic infrastructure.YPF
YPF S.A. (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales ; English: "Fiscal Oilfields") is a vertically integrated Argentine energy company, engaged in oil and gas exploration and production, and the transportation, refining, and marketing of gas and petroleum products.
Founded in 1922 under President Hipólito Yrigoyen's administration, YPF was the first oil company established as a state enterprise outside of the Soviet Union, and the first state oil company to become vertically integrated.Its founder and first director was Enrique Mosconi, who advocated economic independence and starting in 1928, nationalization of oil supplies; the latter, however, was never achieved due to a 1930 military coup against Yrigoyen backed by, among others, foreign oil interests. YPF was privatized in 1993 and bought by the Spanish firm Repsol S.A. in 1999; the resulting merger produced 'Repsol YPF'. The renationalization of 51% of the firm was initiated in 2012 by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. The government of Argentina eventually agreed to pay $5 billion compensation to Repsol.