Bolitophila

Bolitophila is the sole genus in the Bolitophilidae, a family of Diptera, with around 40 Palaearctic and about 20 Nearctic species, and three species from the Oriental region (Taiwan).[1][2] They are small (6–9 mm.)

Bolitophila
Bolitophila cinerea
Bolitophila cinerea
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Bolitophilidae

Malloch, 1917
Genus:
Bolitophila

Meigen, 1818
Type species
Bolitophila cinerea
Meigen, 1818
Synonyms

Morphology

Bolitophila (Bolitophila) wing veins
Schematic representation of the wing veins in the sub Bolitophila (above) and Cliopisa (below). Note the different termination of R 4 in the two subgenera.
Legenda: Pt: pterostigma; C: costa; Sc: subcosta; R: radio; M: media; Cu: cubitus; A: anal; h: humeral; r-m: radio-medial; m-cu: medio-cubital.
Bolitophila (Cliopisa) wing veins
Bolitophila cinerea wing detail
Conformation of the wing-veins in the subgenus Bolitophila

Biology

The larvae of Bolitophila are mycetophagous and live in decaying wood or other organic debris overgrown by fungal plant substrates. Pupation takes place inside the fungal mycelium in soil or litter. Adults prefer shady and humid environments and can be found in the undergrowth of mixed forests, often near watercourses.

Species

  • B. acuta Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. affinis Ostroverkhova, 1971[4]
  • B. alberta Fisher, 1937[5]
  • B. antennata Ševčik & Papp, 2004[1]
  • B. aperta Lundström, 1914[6]
  • B. atlantica Fisher, 1934[7]
  • B. austriaca (Mayer, 1950)[8]
  • B. basicornis (Mayer, 1951)[9]
  • B. bilobata Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. bimaculata Zetterstedt, 1838
  • B. bispinosa Mayer, 1951[9]
  • B. bucera Shaw, 1940[10]
  • B. caspersi Plassmann, 1987[11]
  • B. cinerea Meigen, 1818
  • B. clavata Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. collarti (Tollet, 1943)[12]
  • B. connectans Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. cooremani (Tollet, 1955)[13]
  • B. coronata Mayer, 1951[9]
  • B. curviseta Ostroverkhova, 1979[14]
  • B. disjuncta Loew, 1869
  • B. distus Fisher, 1937[5]
  • B. doerrsteini Plassmann, 1988[15]
  • B. dubia Siebke, 1863
  • B. dubiosa Van Duzee, 1928
  • B. duplus Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. edwardsiana Stackelberg, 1969
  • B. exilis (Kovalev, 1986)
  • B. fumida Edwards, 1941
  • B. fusca Meigen, 1818
  • B. glabrata Loew, 1869
  • B. glabratella Mayer, 1951[9]
  • B. hybrida (Meigen, 1804)
  • B. incisa Ostroverkhova & Grishina, 1974
  • B. ingrica Stackelberg, 1969
  • B. japonica (Okada, 1934)
  • B. latipes Tollet, 1943[12]
  • B. lengersdorfi (Tollet, 1955)[13]
  • B. leruthi (Tollet, 1955)[13]
  • B. limitis Polevoi, 1996
  • B. luteola Plotnikova, 1962
  • B. maculipennis Mayer, 1951[9]
  • B. maculipennis Walker, 1835
  • B. mayeri Plassmann, 1987[11]
  • B. melanoleuci Polevoi, 1996
  • B. miki (Mayer, 1950)[8]
  • B. modesta Lackschewitz, 1937
  • B. montana Coquillett, 1901
  • B. nana (Macquart, 1826)
  • B. nigrolineata Landrock, 1912
  • B. obscurior Stackelberg, 1969
  • B. occlusa Edwards, 1913
  • B. palustris Ostroverkhova, 1979[14]
  • B. patulosa Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. perlata Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. plumicornis (Mayer, 1951)[9]
  • B. pseudohybrida Landrock, 1912
  • B. raca Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. rectangulata Lundström, 1913
  • B. recurva Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. rossica Landrock, 1912
  • B. saundersii (Curtis, 1836)
  • B. scherfi Plassmann, 1970
  • B. sibirica (Ostroverkhova, 1979)[14]
  • B. simplex Garrett, 1925[3]
  • B. spelaeicola Tollet, 1955[13]
  • B. spinigera Edwards, 1925
  • B. subbimaculata Zaitzev, 1994
  • B. subteresa (Garrett, 1925)[3]
  • B. taihybrida Ševčik & Papp, 2004[1]
  • B. tarsata Mayer, 1951[9]
  • B. tarsatiformis Ostroverkhova, 1979[14]
  • B. tenella Winnertz, 1863
  • B. triangulata Edwards, 1941
  • B. trullata Lundström, 1916
  • B. tungusica Ostroverkhova, 1979[14]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ševaík, L.; Papp, J. (2004). "Bolitophilidae (Diptera) from Taiwan: a family new to the Oriental region" (PDF). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 50 (1): 55–62. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  2. ^ Bechev, D. & Chandler, P. 2011. Catalogue of the Bolitophilidae and Diadocidiidae of the World (Insecta: Diptera). Zootaxa 2741: 38–58..
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Garrett, C.B.D. (1925). Sixty-one new Diptera. Cranbrook, British Columbia,: Published by the author. pp. 1–12.
  4. ^ Ostroverkhova, G. P. (1971). "New and little know species of fungus gnats (Diptera, Fungivoridae) from Krasnoyarsk's Reserve Stolby". Trudy Gasudart. zapov. Stolby, Krasnoyarsk (in Russian). 8: 91–99.
  5. ^ a b Fisher, Elizabeth G. (1937). "New North American fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 45: 387–401, 2 pls. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  6. ^ Lundstrom, C. (1914). "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Dipteren Finlands. IX. Supplement 3. Mycetophilidae". Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 39 (2): 1–26.
  7. ^ Fisher, E. G. (1934). "Four new species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera)". Canadian Entomologist. 66: 276–278.
  8. ^ a b Mayer, H. (1950). "Zwei neue Fungivoriden (Diptera, Nematocera) aus der Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien" (PDF). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. 57: 281–283. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Mayer, H. (1951). "Neue Fungivoridae (Diptera, Menatocera) aus der Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien" (PDF). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. 58: 127–136. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  10. ^ Shaw, F. R. (1940). "Some new Mycetophilidae". Canadian Entomologist. 72: 48–51.
  11. ^ a b Plassmann, E. (1987). "Neun neue Pilzmucken aus der Westpalaarktis. (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae)". Spixiana. 9: 143–150.
  12. ^ a b Tollet, R. (1943). "Notes sur les Dipteres Mycetophilidae de Belgique. I. Ditomyiinae, Bolitophilidae". Journal: Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle du Belgique. 19 (59): 1–20.
  13. ^ a b c d Tollet, R. (1955). "Etudes Biospeologiques. XXXVI. Revision des Mycetophilidae cavernicoles de Transylvanicae (Diptera, Nematocera) recueillis par R. Leruth". Mémoires de la Société Royale d'Entomologie de Belgique. 27: 443–469.
  14. ^ a b c d e Ostroverkhova, G. P. (1979). Fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) of Siberia.[In Russian]. Tomsk. pp. 1–308.
  15. ^ Plassmann, E. (1988). "Eine neue Pilzmucke der Gattung Bolitophila Meigen aus Norddeutschland (Diptera: Mycetophilidae)". Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins E.V. Frankfurt A.M. 13: 23–27.

Further reading

  • Amorim D. S. & Rindal E., 2007 Phylogeny of the Mycetophiliformia, with proposal of the subfamilies Heterotrichinae, Ohakuneinae, and Chiletrichinae for the Rangomaramidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha). Zootaxa 1535: 1–92.
  • Hutson A.M., Ackland, D.M., & Kidd, L.N. (1980) Diptera: Mycetophilidae. Royal Entomological Society of London Handbook 9(3).
  • Plassmann E., 1988 Bolitophilidae, in Soós A. & Papp L. (eds), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 3. Ceratopogonidae — Mycetophilidae. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest: 193–196.
  • Séguy, E. (1940) Diptères: Nématocères. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 36. BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique
  • Søli, G.E.E., Vockeroth J.R., & Matile L. (2000) "Families of Sciaroidea." in Papp, L. & Darvas B. (eds) Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with Special Reference to Flies of Economic Importance). Budapest: Science Herald, pp. 49–92.
  • Séguy, E. (1940) Diptères: Nématocères. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 36 BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique

External links

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This list of fossil arthropods described in 2019 is a list of new taxa of trilobites, fossil insects, crustaceans, arachnids and other fossil arthropods of every kind that are scheduled to be described during the year 2019, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to arthropod paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2019.

Arachnocampa

Arachnocampa is a genus of nine fungus gnat species which have a bioluminescent larval stage, akin to the larval stage of glowworm beetles. The species of Arachnocampa are endemic to Australia and New Zealand, dwelling in caves and grottos, or sheltered places in forests.

A previous synonym was "Bolitiphila," meaning "mushroom lover," in the past. The name was changed in 1924 to Arachnocampa, meaning "spider-worm," for the way the larvae hang sticky silk threads to ensnare prey. The genus Arachnocampa belongs in the family Keroplatidae.

Arachnocampa luminosa

Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse, 1891), commonly known as New Zealand glowworm or simply glowworm, is a species of fungus gnat endemic to New Zealand. The larval stage and the imago produce a blue-green bioluminescence. The species is known to dwell in caves and on sheltered banks in native bush where humidity is high. Its Māori name is titiwai, meaning "projected over water".

The first written record of the species dates from 1871 when it was collected from a gold mine in New Zealand's Thames region. At first it was thought to be related to the European glowworm beetle (Lampyris noctiluca) but, in 1886, a Christchurch teacher showed it was a larva of a gnat, not a beetle. The species was first formally described in 1891 with the species name Bolitiphila luminosa and was assigned to the family Mycetophilidae. In 1924, it was placed within a new genus of its own, Arachnocampa, because the wing venation of the adults and the behaviour of the larvae differed significantly from other Bolitophila fly species. It was given the genus name (meaning "spider-worm") on the basis of its building a silk nest and using silk threads to capture prey.

Bolitophila cinerea

Bolitophila cinerea is a Palearctic (Ireland to South Siberian mountains) species of 'fungus gnat' in the family Bolitophilidae.

The eucephalic larvae of Bolitophila are mycetophagous and live in decaying wood or other organic debris overgrown by fungal plant substrates.The pupa lacks a puparium. Bolitophila cinerea feeds on a variety of Hypholoma and Pholiota species also on species of Agaricus, Amanita, Armillaria, Boletus, Collybia, Flammulina, Hebeloma, Lacrymaria and Marasmius. . Adults have been obtained in emergence traps in a range of situations including rotting wood and soil litter.

Bolitophila saundersii

Bolitophila saundersii is a Palearctic species of 'fungus gnat' in the family Bolitophilidae.

The larvae of Bolitophila are mycetophagous and live in decaying wood or other organic debris overgrown by fungal plant substrates. The name honours William Wilson Saunders.

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Laetiporus montanus is a species of polypore fungus in the family Fomitopsidaceae. It is found in mountainous areas of central Europe and in China, where it grows on conifers.

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Suillus bovinus

Suillus bovinus, also known as the Jersey cow mushroom or bovine bolete, is a pored mushroom of the genus Suillus in the family Suillaceae. A common fungus native to Europe and Asia, it has been introduced to North America and Australia. It was initially described as Boletus bovinus by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and given its current binomial name by Henri François Anne de Roussel in 1806. It is an edible mushroom, though not highly regarded.

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Extant Diptera families

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