Boil

A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue.[1] Boils which are expanded are basically pus-filled nodules.[2] Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles.[3] Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus.

Boils
Furoncle
Furuncle
SpecialtyGeneral surgery

Signs and symptoms

Boils are bumpy, red, pus-filled lumps around a hair follicle that are tender, warm, and very painful. They range from pea-sized to golf ball-sized. A yellow or white point at the center of the lump can be seen when the boil is ready to drain or discharge pus. In a severe infection, an individual may experience fever, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue. A recurring boil is called chronic furunculosis.[1][4][5][6] Skin infections tend to be recurrent in many patients and often spread to other family members. Systemic factors that lower resistance commonly are detectable, including: diabetes, obesity, and hematologic disorders.[7] Boils can be caused by other skin conditions that cause the person to scratch and damage the skin.

Boils may appear on the buttocks or near the anus, the back, the neck, the stomach, the chest, the arms or legs, or even in the ear canal.[8] Boils may also appear around the eye, where they are called styes.[9] A boil on the gum is called intraoral dental sinus, or more commonly, a gumboil.

Complications

The most common complications of boils are scarring and infection or abscess of the skin, spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organs. Infections may also spread to the bloodstream (bacteremia) and become life-threatening.[5][6] S. aureus strains first infect the skin and its structures (for example, sebaceous glands, hair follicles) or invade damaged skin (cuts, abrasions). Sometimes the infections are relatively limited (such as a stye, boil, furuncle, or carbuncle), but other times they may spread to other skin areas (causing cellulitis, folliculitis, or impetigo). Unfortunately, these bacteria can reach the bloodstream (bacteremia) and end up in many different body sites, causing infections (wound infections, abscesses, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, pneumonia)[10] that may severely harm or kill the infected person. S. aureus strains also produce enzymes and exotoxins that likely cause or increase the severity of certain diseases. Such diseases include food poisoning, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, and scalded skin syndrome.[11] Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus. Squeezing or cutting boils in the danger triangle of the face can be particularly dangerous if done outside a medical setting, as blood vessels in this area drain into the brain and can carry serious infections there.

And when burst, a seemingly solid, whitish colored pus initially appears then the pus and some blood follows.

Causes

Bacteria

Naturally the cause is bacteria such as staphylococci that are present on the skin. Bacterial colonisation begins in the hair follicles and can cause local cellulitis and inflammation.[1][5][6] Myiasis caused by the tumbu fly in Africa usually presents with cutaneous furuncles.[12] Risk factors for furunculosis include bacterial carriage in the nostrils, diabetes mellitus, obesity, lymphoproliferative neoplasms, malnutrition, and use of immunosuppressive drugs.[13].

Family history

People with recurrent boils are as well more likely to have a positive family history, take antibiotics, and to have been hospitalised, anemic, or diabetic; they are also more likely to have associated skin diseases and multiple lesions.[14]

Other

Other causes include poor immune system function such as from HIV/AIDS, diabetes, malnutrition, or alcoholism.[15] Poor hygiene and obesity have also been linked.[15] It may occur following antibiotic use due to the development of resistance to the antibiotics used.[16] An associated skin disease favors recurrence. This may be attributed to the persistent colonization of abnormal skin with S. aureus strains, such as is the case in persons with atopic dermatitis.[16] Boils which recur under the arm, breast or in the groin area may be associated with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS).[17]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made through clinical evaluation by a physician, which may include culturing of the lesion.[18]

Treatment

A boil may clear up on its own without bursting, but more often it will need to be opened and drained. This will usually happen spontaneously within two weeks. Regular application of a warm moist compress, both before and after a boil opens, can help speed healing. The area must be kept clean, hands washed after touching it, and any dressings disposed of carefully, in order to avoid spreading the bacteria. A doctor may cut open or "lance" a boil to allow it to drain, but squeezing or cutting should not be attempted at home, as this may further spread the infection. Antibiotic therapy may be recommended for large or recurrent boils or those that occur in sensitive areas (such as the groin, breasts, armpits, around or in the nostrils, or in the ear).[1][4][5][6] Antibiotics should not be used for longer than one month, with at least two months (preferably longer) between uses, otherwise it will lose its effectiveness.[19] If the patient has chronic (more than two years) boils, removal by plastic surgery may be indicated.

Furuncles at risk of leading to serious complications should be incised and drained if antibiotics or steroid injections are not effective. These include furuncles that are unusually large, last longer than two weeks, or occur in the middle of the face or near the spine.[1][6] Fever and chills are signs of sepsis and indicate immediate treatment is needed.[20]

Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance easily, making treatment difficult. Knowledge of the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus is important in the selection of antimicrobials for treatment.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Furuncle
  2. ^ "Causes and Cures of Skin". Healthguidance.org. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  3. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Carbuncle
  4. ^ a b Blume JE, Levine EG, Heymann WR (2003). "Bacterial diseases". In Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatology. Mosby. p. 1126. ISBN 0-323-02409-2.
  5. ^ a b c d Habif, TP (2004). "Furuncles and carbuncles". Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy (4th ed.). Philadelphia PA: Mosby.
  6. ^ a b c d e Wolf K; et al. (2005). "Section 22. Bacterial infections involving the skin". Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  7. ^ Steele RW, Laner SA, Graves MH (February 1980). "Recurrent staphylococcal infection in families" (PDF). Arch Dermatol. 116 (2): 189–90. doi:10.1001/archderm.1980.01640260065016. PMID 7356349.
  8. ^ "Boils, Carbuncles and Furunculosis". Patient.info. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  9. ^ "Boils, Kidshealth". Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  10. ^ Lina G, Piémont Y, Godail-Gamot F, Bes M, Peter MO, Gauduchon V, Vandenesch F, Etienne J (November 1999). "Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia". Clin Infect Dis. 29 (5): 1128–32. doi:10.1086/313461. PMID 10524952.
  11. ^ "Staph Infection Causes, Symptoms, Treatment – Staph Infection Diagnosis – eMedicineHealth". eMedicineHealth.
  12. ^ Tamir J, Haik J, Schwartz E (2003). "Myiasis with Lund's fly (Cordylobia rodhaini) in travellers". J Travel Med. 10 (5): 293–95. doi:10.2310/7060.2003.2732. PMID 14531984.
  13. ^ Scheinfeld NS (2007). "Furunculosis". Consultant. 47 (2).
  14. ^ El-Gilany AH, Fathy H (January 2009). "Risk factors of recurrent furunculosis". Dermatol Online J. 15 (1): 16. PMID 19281721.
  15. ^ a b Demos, M; McLeod, MP; Nouri, K (Oct 2012). "Recurrent furunculosis: a review of the literature". The British Journal of Dermatology. 167 (4): 725–32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.11151.x. PMID 22803835.
  16. ^ a b Laube S, Farrell M (2002). "Bacterial skin infection in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment". Drugs and Aging. 19 (5): 331–42. doi:10.2165/00002512-200219050-00002. PMID 12093320.
  17. ^ "What is this boil like abscess under your arm, breast or groin". The Hidradenitis Suppurativa Trust. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  18. ^ "Furuncles and Carbuncles". Merck Manuals. August 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  19. ^ Mayo Clinic Archived 15 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ Nagaraju U, Bhat G, Kuruvila M, Pai GS, Babu RP (2004). "Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired pyoderma". Int J Dermatol. 43 (6): 412–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02138.x. PMID 15186220.

External links

External resources
Boil-in-bag

Boil-in-bags are a form of packaged food products in which bagged food is heated or cooked in boiling water. Plastic bags can be solid and impermeable for holding frozen foods; alternatively, bags can be porous or perforated to allow boiling water into the bag.

Food packaged in this manner is often sold as boil-in-the-bag.

Boil-water advisory

A boil-water advisory or boil-water order is a public health advisory or directive given by government or health authorities to consumers when a community's drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens.Under a boil-water advisory (BWA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that water be brought to a rolling boil for one minute before it is consumed in order to kill protozoa, bacteria and viruses. At altitudes above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), boiling should be extended to 3 minutes, as the lower boiling point at high altitudes requires more time to kill such organisms.

BWAs are typically issued when monitoring of water being served to consumers detects Escherichia coli or other microbiological indicators of sewage contamination. Another reason for a BWA is a failure of distribution system integrity evidenced by a loss of system pressure. While loss of pressure does not necessarily mean the water has been contaminated, it does mean that pathogens may be able to enter the piped-water system and thus be carried to consumers. In the United States, this has been defined as a drop below 20 pounds per square inch (140 kPa).

Boil (album)

Boil is a live album by Foetus released in 1996. Boil is culled from Foetus' Rednecropolis 96 European tour.

Boiled egg

Boiled eggs are eggs, typically from a chicken, cooked with their shells unbroken, usually by immersion in boiling water. Hard-boiled eggs are cooked so that the egg white and egg yolk both solidify, while soft-boiled eggs may leave the yolk, and sometimes the white, at least partially liquid and raw. Boiled eggs are a popular breakfast food around the world.

Besides a boiling water immersion, there are a few different methods to make boiled eggs. Eggs can also be cooked below the boiling temperature, i.e. coddling, or they can be steamed. The egg timer was named for commonly being used to time the boiling of eggs.

Boiling

Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. There are two main types of boiling: nucleate boiling where small bubbles of vapour form at discrete points, and critical heat flux boiling where the boiling surface is heated above a certain critical temperature and a film of vapor forms on the surface. Transition boiling is an intermediate, unstable form of boiling with elements of both types. The boiling point of water is 100 °C or 212 °F but is lower with the decreased atmospheric pressure found at higher altitudes.

Boiling water is used as a method of making it potable by killing microbes that may be present. The sensitivity of different micro-organisms to heat varies, but if water is held at 70 °C (158 °F) for ten minutes, many organisms are killed, but some are more resistant to heat and require one minute at the boiling point of water.

Boiling is also used in cooking. Foods suitable for boiling include vegetables, starchy foods such as rice, noodles and potatoes, eggs, meats, sauces, stocks, and soups. As a cooking method, it is simple and suitable for large-scale cookery. Tough meats or poultry can be given a long, slow cooking and a nutritious stock is produced. Disadvantages include loss of water-soluble vitamins and minerals. Commercially prepared foodstuffs are sometimes packed in polythene sachets and sold as "boil-in-the-bag" products.

Cajun cuisine

Cajun cuisine (French: Cuisine cadienne, [kɥizin kadʒæ̃n]) is a style of cooking named for the French-speaking Acadian people deported by the British from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine; locally available ingredients predominate and preparation is simple.

An authentic Cajun meal is usually a three-pot affair, with one pot dedicated to the main dish, one dedicated to steamed rice, special made sausages, or some seafood dish, and the third containing whatever vegetable is plentiful or available. Crawfish, shrimp, and andouille sausage are staple meats used in a variety of dishes.

The aromatic vegetables green bell pepper (poivron), onion, and celery are called the holy trinity by Cajun chefs in Cajun and Louisiana Creole cuisines. Roughly diced and combined in cooking, the method is similar to the use of the mirepoix in traditional French cuisine which blends roughly diced carrot, onion, and celery. Characteristic aromatics for the Creole version may also include parsley, bay leaf, green onions, dried cayenne pepper, and dried black pepper.

Clambake

The clambake or clam bake, also known as the New England clambake is a traditional method of cooking seafood, such as lobster, mussels, crabs, soft-shell clams, and quahogs. The food is traditionally cooked by steaming the ingredients over layers of seaweed. The shellfish can be supplemented with vegetables, such as onions, carrots, and corn on the cob. Clambakes are usually held on festive occasions along the coast of New England.

Crab boil

Crab boil usually refers to a spice mixture that is used to flavor the water in which crabs or other shellfish are boiled. But Crab boil can also refer to a social event in which boiled crabs are featured (see seafood boil). Crab boils are known in the Ville Platte areas of Louisiana as "dome lobster boils," stemming from the local term "dome lobster" based on the shape and composition of crabs and their likeness to a domed lobster. The largest of these gatherings is the Crayon d'Orange festival (French for 'Orange Pencil') in Evangeline Parish.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (also known as oriental sore, tropical sore, chiclero ulcer, chiclero's ulcer or Aleppo boil, ’’’Delhi Boil’’’) is the most common form of leishmaniasis affecting humans. It is a skin infection caused by a single-celled parasite that is transmitted by the bite of a phlebotomine sandfly. There are about twenty species of Leishmania that may cause cutaneous leishmaniasis.

This disease is considered to be a zoonosis (an infectious disease that is naturally transmissible from animals to humans), with the exception of Leishmania tropica — which is often an anthroponotic disease (an infectious disease that is naturally transmissible from humans to vertebrate animals).

Death by boiling

Death by boiling is a method of execution in which a person is killed by being immersed in a boiling liquid. While not as common as other methods of execution, boiling to death has been used in many parts of Europe and Asia.

Executions of this type were often carried out using a large vessel such as a cauldron or a sealed kettle that was filled with a liquid such as water, oil, tar, or tallow, and a hook and pulley system.

How to Boil Water

How to Boil Water is an American television program. One of the first shows on the Food Network, it began broadcasting in 1993 and was first hosted by Emeril Lagasse. The focus of the show is simple cooking, as the show's title suggests, and is directed at those who have little cooking skill or experience.

In the beginning of the history of Food Network, How to Boil Water was the trademark show of the network. As Emeril's personal popularity grew, he eventually moved on to his own show, Essence of Emeril. How to Boil Water continued with the tandem of comedian Sean Donnellan and chef Cathy Lowe. With this duo, the show followed the formula of a chef teaching somebody with no experience.

After Donnellan and Lowe, Frederic van Coppernolle along with comedian Lynne Koplitz, then later Jack Hourigan, were the show's hosts. The show's format followed a formula similar to when Emeril hosted. It later returned to the chef-and-student model with chef Tyler Florence and Jack continuing as co-host.

LNG carrier

An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG). As the LNG market grows rapidly, the fleet of LNG carriers continues to experience tremendous growth.

Louisiana Creole cuisine

Louisiana Creole cuisine (French: Cuisine créole, Spanish: Cocina criolla) is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana, United States, which blends French, Spanish, West African, Amerindian, Haitian, German, Italian, influences, as well as influences from the general cuisine of the Southern United States.

Creole cuisine revolves around influences found in Louisiana from populations present in Louisiana before the sale of Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

Parboiling

Parboiling (or leaching) is the partial boiling of food as the first step in cooking. The word is from the Old French 'parboillir' (to boil thoroughly) but by mistaken association with 'part' it has acquired its current meaning .

The word is often used when referring to parboiled rice. Parboiling can also be used for removing poisonous or foul-tasting substances from foods, and to soften vegetables before roasting them.

Saint-Boil

Saint-Boil is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.

Sand boil

Sand boils or sand volcanoes occur when water under pressure wells up through a bed of sand. The water looks like it is "boiling" up from the bed of sand, hence the name.

Seafood boil

Seafood boil is the generic term for any number of types of social events in which shellfish is the central element. Regional variations dictate the kinds of seafood, the accompaniments and side dishes, and the preparation techniques (boiling, steaming, baking, or raw). In some cases, a boil may be sponsored by a community organization as a fund-raiser or a mixer. In this way, they are like a fish fry, barbecue, or church potluck supper. But boils are also held by individuals for their friends and family for weekend get-togethers and on the summer holidays of Memorial Day and the Fourth of July. There are also companies that can cater a boil for large and small events. While boils and bakes are traditionally associated with coastal regions of the United States, there are notable exceptions. For example, the Fiesta Oyster Bake (San Antonio) began in 1916 as an alumni fund raiser for St. Mary's University. It is now attended by over 70,000 people during its two-day run and is a major music and cultural event in the city.

Still

A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and then cooling to condense the vapor. A still uses the same concepts as a basic distillation apparatus, but on a much larger scale. Stills have been used to produce perfume and medicine, water for injection (WFI) for pharmaceutical use, generally to separate and purify different chemicals, and to produce distilled beverages containing ethanol.

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