Boian culture

The Boian culture (dated to 4300–3500 BC), also known as the Giuleşti–Mariţa culture or Mariţa culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture of Southeast Europe. It is primarily found along the lower course of the Danube in what is now Romania and Bulgaria, and thus may be considered a Danubian culture.

Boian culture 2011 12
Boian Art
Boian culture
Alternative namesGiuleşti–Mariţa culture
Mariţa culture
Geographical rangeDanube Valley: modern-day Romania and Bulgaria.
PeriodNeolithic
Dates4300–3500 BC
Preceded byDudeşti culture
Linear Pottery culture
Followed byGumelniţa culture
The Neolithic
Mesolithic
Fertile Crescent
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery (A, B)
Qaraoun culture
Tahunian culture
Yarmukian Culture
Halaf culture
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
Ubaid culture
Nile valley
Faiyum A culture
Tasian culture
Merimde culture
El Omari culture
Maadi culture
Badari culture
Amratian culture
Europe
Arzachena culture
Boian culture
Butmir culture
Cardium pottery culture
Cernavodă culture
Coțofeni culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Dudeşti culture
Gorneşti culture
Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture
Hamangia culture
Khirokitia
Linear Pottery culture
Malta Temples
Ozieri culture
Petreşti culture
San Ciriaco culture
Shulaveri-Shomu culture
Sesklo culture
Tisza culture
Tiszapolgár culture
Usatovo culture
Varna culture
Vinča culture
Vučedol culture
Neolithic Transylvania
Neolithic Southeastern Europe
China
Peiligang culture
Pengtoushan culture
Beixin culture
Cishan culture
Dadiwan culture
Houli culture
Xinglongwa culture
Xinle culture
Zhaobaogou culture
Hemudu culture
Daxi culture
Majiabang culture
Yangshao culture
Hongshan culture
Dawenkou culture
Songze culture
Liangzhu culture
Majiayao culture
Qujialing culture
Longshan culture
Baodun culture
Shijiahe culture
Yueshi culture
Tibet
South Asia
Lahuradewa
Mehrgarh
Rakhigarhi
Kalibangan
Chopani Mando
Jhukar
Daimabad
Chirand
Koldihwa
Burzahom
Mundigak
Brahmagiri
Philippine Jade culture
Capsian culture
Savanna Pastoral Neolithic

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion

Chalcolithic

Geography

Steppenvegetation in der Walachei
Native vegetation of the Wallachian Plain.

The Boian culture originated on the Wallachian Plain north of the Danube River in southeastern Romania. At its peak, the culture expanded to include settlements in the Bărăgan Plain and the Danube Delta in Romania, Dobruja in eastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria, and the Danubian Plain and the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The culture's geographical extent went as far west as the Jiu River on the border of Transylvania in south-central Romania, as far north as the Chilia branch of the Danube Delta along the Romanian border with Ukraine and the coast of the Black Sea, and as far south as the Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea in Greece.[1]

The type site of the Boian culture is located on an island on Lake Boian in the region of Muntenia, on the Wallachian Plain north of the Danube River.[2]

Chronology

The Boian culture emerged from two earlier Neolithic groups: the Dudeşti culture that originated in Anatolia (present-day Turkey); and the Musical note culture (also known as the Middle Linear Pottery culture or LBK) from the northern Subcarpathian region of southeastern Poland and western Ukraine.[2]

Periodization

The Boian culture is divided traditionally into four phases, each of which is given a name of one of the archaeological sites that are associated with it:[1][3][4]

  • Phase I – Bolintineanu Phase, 4300–4200 BC.
  • Phase II – Giuleşti Phase (also known as the Giuleşti-Boian culture), 4200–4100 BC.
  • Phase III – Vidra Phase, 4100–4000 BC.
  • Phase IV – Spanţov Phase (also known as the Boian-Gumelniţa culture), 4000–3500 BC.

Decline

The Boian culture ended through a smooth transition into the Gumelniţa culture,[3] which also borrowed from the Vădastra culture.[2] However, a segment of the Boian society ventured to the northeast along the Black Sea coast, encountering the late Hamangia culture, which they eventually merged with[1] to form the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.[5]

The time when the Boian culture developed into the Gumelniţa culture is referred to as a transitional period, during which there are commonalities found on both sides of the chronological divide between the two cultures; as such, Boian Phase IV and Gumelniţa Phase A1 may be considered as a single, uninterrupted, transitional phase.[3][note 1] As a result, there are frequent references to this by scholars, who use the term Boian-Gumelniţa culture to describe this specific period.[2] Sometimes, though, this term is mis-used by some to include both the entire Boian culture and Gumelniţa culture periods, not just the transitional period overlapping the two cultures. Since each culture is distinct from the other during its main phases, they should each be considered and named separately, with the exception (as just mentioned) of the transitional phases of their development.

Settlements

Denube Delta Bank
The Danube Delta in Romania.

Boian archaeological sites have tended to be found next to rivers and lakes that had rich floodplains that provided fertile soil for agriculture.[1] There were three different types of structures found in Boian sites. During Boian phases I and II the dwellings of this culture were thrown-together, oval-shaped lean-to or dugout pit-house shelters built into river banks and ledges.[2] In Boian phases III and IV the dwellings became more sophisticated, resulting in structures that were small with raised wooden platform floors. The third type of houses were larger, rectangular (up to 7 by 3.5 meters, or 23 by 11.5 feet) wattle and daub structures with wooden platform floors covered in clay, and roughly-thatched roofs, built at ground level.[1][2]

During phases III and IV the first settlements began to appear, resulting in the first of this region's archaeological tells.[2] These settlements were typically built on high, steep terraces or headlands above the floodplain of the rivers or lakes that were always nearby.[2] At this time the houses began to incorporate more sophisticated elements, such as raised platform floors, painted interior walls exhibiting geographic designs in red and white patterns, painted clay furniture, and indoor clay ovens.[1] Later settlements also sometimes showed signs of possible fortification in the form of deep, wide defensive ditches.[2]

The settlements in Phase III showed indications of having intersettlement and intrasettlement hierarchy, based on the sizes and locations of the residential buildings, which were built in nucleated rows around a central location. In Phase IV surface houses became dominant over subterranean, and the settlements grew to include up to 150 people.[1]

Economy

Their economy was characterized by the practice of agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, gathering and fishing.[2] The proximity of their settlements to deciduous forests and steppe vegetation provided a good supply of wild game for their diet and fuel for their fires, tools, and homes. In addition, their nearness to rivers, lakes, and marshes provided a good source of game fowl and fish, as well as a source of lithic materials (stone and clay) from the banks.[1]

Archaeological evidence indicates that members of the Boian culture included the following animals in their diet, or used their furs, bones, or flesh for making tools and clothes:[6]

Material culture

BoianCulturePottery
Typical Boian culture pottery

Boian pottery exhibited influences from the earlier cultures from which it arose: chequers and flutings from the Dudeşti culture, and small triangles bordering the lines it inherited from the Musical Note Linear culture.[3] The pottery was polished after firing, and was decorated with carved or raised geometric designs, often with white clay used as an inlaid relief to offset the charcoal grey or black clay used in the rest of the work.[2] In addition to the black/grey and white pottery, a few localized examples of red-inlaid clay decoration were found.[3] Beginning in Phase III, they began to use graphite paint to decorate their pottery, a method probably borrowed from the south Balkan Marica culture.[note 2][4] The Boian culture continued to improve its ceramic technology until it reached its height during Phase III, after which it began to decline in quality and workmanship.[3]

The use of lithic technology occurred throughout this culture's existence, attested to by the presence of debitage found next to various types of shaped flint and polished stone tools. Towards the end of its existence copper artifacts began to be found,[2] made from the high-grade copper found in the Balkan Mountains of Bulgaria.[7] There is evidence that the Boian culture acquired the technology for copper metallurgy;[2] as a result, this culture bridged the change from the Neolithic to the Copper Age.[2]

Unlike later cultures that followed, there have not been many artifacts found in Boian culture sites of sculptures or figurines. However, the oldest bone figurine in Romania was found at the Cernica site, dating back to Phase I.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Coincidentally, the Gumelniţa culture is also divided into four separate phases, A1, A2, B1 and B2. (See Boardman reference.)
  2. ^ The Marica culture (also known as Maritsa or Maritza) is now equated with the Karanovo V culture, and considered by Todorova to be early and middle Eneolithic (see Ehrich reference).

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Peregrine, Peter Neal; Ember, Melvin, eds. (October 1, 2001). "Subtraditions: Boian III (Vidra Phase) – Boian IV (Spanţov Phase or "Transitional")". Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4 : Europe. New York: Springer. p. 359. ISBN 0-306-46258-3. OCLC 60343445. Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Hârsova, the Chalcolithic village". Direction du Patrimoine, Sous-Direction de l'Archéologie. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Boardman, John (May 9, 1973). "The Neolithic-Eneolithic Period". In I.E.S. Edwards; et al. (eds.). The Cambridge ancient history, The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1800–1380 BC. Volume 3, Part 1 (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 0-521-08230-7. OCLC 69212345.
  4. ^ a b Ehrich, Robert W; Bankoff, H. Arthur (March 15, 1993). "Chapter 21: Geographical and Chronological Patterns in East Central and Southeastern Europe". In Ehrich, Robert W (ed.). Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (PDF) (1st ed.). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. pp. 375–394. ISBN 0-226-19447-7. OCLC 394989. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
  5. ^ Mellish, Liz; Nick Green (December 2005). "Late Neolithic period, 5000 BC". South East Europe pre-history summary to 700BC. Elznik Web Pages. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  6. ^ Bălăşescu, Adrian; Valentin Radu (2003). Neagu, Marian (ed.). "Paleoeconomia animalieră a comunităţilor Bolintineanu" [The paleo-economic livestock of the Neolithic Bolintineanu settlement]. Neoliticul Mijlociu la Dunărea de Jos (CCDJ) (in Romanian). Călărași, Romania: Muzeul Dunării de Jos din Călărași. 20: 73–87. OCLC 70909630.
  7. ^ Cowen, Richard (April 1999). "Some essays on Geology, History, and People, originally drafted for Geology 115 at UC Davis, chapter 3: Fire and Metals: Copper". UCD Geology, Richard Cowen. University of California Davis. Retrieved 6 February 2010.

External links

Apolyanka

Apolyanka, Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 3600 - 2700 B.C. belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was for the time very large, covering an area of 90 - 120 hectares. This proto-city are just one of 2440 Cucuteni-Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000 - 2700 B.C. and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100 - 300 - 450 Hectares.

Boian

Boian may refer to:

Boian, a village in Ceanu Mare Commune, Cluj County, Romania

Boian, a village in Bazna Commune, Sibiu County, Romania

Boianu Mare, a commune in Bihor County, Romania

Boian (river), a river in Bihor County, Romania

Boiany, a village in Chernivtsi Oblast, Ukraine

Boian, Alberta, a mostly ethnic Romanian hamlet in Canada

Boian culture, an archaeological culture

Dudești culture

The Dudeşti culture is a farming/herding culture that occupied part of Romania in the 6th millennium BC, typified by semi-subterranean habitations (Zemlyanki) on the edges of low plateaus. This culture contributed to the origin of both the subsequent Hamangia culture and the Boian culture. It was named after Dudeşti, a quarter in the southeast of Bucharest.

Fedorovka, Ukraine

Fedorivka, Ukraine (in the present-day Dobrovelychkivka Raion), is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4100 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was very large for that time, covering an area of 50–100 hectares (120–250 acres) and an estimated population of 6700.This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni-Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 hectares.

Giulești

Giulești (Romanian pronunciation: [dʒjuˈleʃtʲ]) is a neighbourhood in northwestern Bucharest, located in Sector 6. The Giulești Stadium, Giulești Theatre, Podul Grant are located in Giulești. Also, the Grivița Railway Yards and Lacul Morii are located nearby.

Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period

The Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period (ca. 5500/5400 to 5200/5000 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. It lies chronologically between the Halaf period and the Ubaid period. It is still a complex and rather poorly understood period. At the same time, recent efforts were made to study the gradual change from Halaf style pottery to Ubaid style pottery in various parts of North Mesopotamia.

Hamangia culture

The Hamangia culture is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of Dobruja (Romania and Bulgaria) between the Danube and the Black Sea and Muntenia in the south. It is named after the site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1952 along Golovița Lake.

Karanovo culture

The Karanovo culture is a neolithic culture (Karanovo I-III ca. 62nd to 55th centuries BC) named after the Bulgarian village of Karanovo (Караново, Sliven Province 42°30′41″N 25°54′54″E). The culture, which is part of the Danube civilization, is considered the largest and most important of the Azmak River Valley agrarian settlements.Archaeologists discovered the Karanovo settlement in the 1930s when a tell - a settlement mound - was excavated at Karanovo. The hilltop settlement is constituted of 18 buildings, which housed some 100 inhabitants. The site was inhabited more or less continuously from the early 7th to the early 2nd millennia BC.

The layers at Karanovo are employed as a chronological system for Balkans prehistory.

Kharkivka

Kharkivka, in Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4300 - 4000 B.C. belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was for the time very large, covering an area of 100 hectares. This proto-city are just one of 2440 Cucuteni-Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000 - 2700 B.C. and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100 - 300 - 450 Hectares.

Kosenivka

Kosenivka, in Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 3200–2700 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was very large for the time, covering an area of 120 hectares (300 acres). This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 hectares.

Neolithic Tibet

Neolithic Tibet refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Tibet.

Tibet has been inhabited since the Late Paleolithic. During the mid-Holocene, Neolithic immigrants from northern China largely replaced the original inhabitants, bringing with them elements of Neolithic culture and technology, although a degree of genetic continuity with the Paleolithic settlers still exists.

Peiligang culture

The Peiligang culture was a Neolithic culture in the Yi-Luo river basin (in modern Henan Province, China) that existed from 7000 to 5000 BC. Over 100 sites have been identified with the Peiligang culture, nearly all of them in a fairly compact area of about 100 square kilometers in the area just south of the river and along its banks.

Romanian archaeology

Romanian archaeology begins in the 19th century.

Shushkovka

Shushkovka, Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4000 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was very large for the time. This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 hectares.

Sushkivka

Sushkivka, Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 3600 3200 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was very large for the time, covering an area of 100 hectares (250 acres). This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 hectares.

Trihedral Neolithic

Trihedral Neolithic is a name given by archaeologists to a style (or industry) of striking spheroid and trihedral flint tools from the archaeological site of Joub Jannine II in the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. The style appears to represent a highly specialized Neolithic industry. Little comment has been made of this industry.

Vil’khovets

Vil’khovets Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4300–4000 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was for the time very large, covering an area of 100 hectares (250 acres). This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 Hectares.

Vladyslavcyk

Vladyslavcyk, in Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 4000–3600 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was for the time very large, covering an area of 100 hectares. This proto-city are just one of 2440 Cucuteni-Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100 - 300 - 450 Hectares.

Yaltushkiv

Yaltushkiv Ukraine, is the site of an ancient mega-settlement dating to 3600 3200 BC belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The settlement was very large for the time, covering an area of 100–120 hectares (250–300 acres). This proto-city is just one of 2440 Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements discovered so far in Moldova and Ukraine. Some 194 (8%) of these settlements had an area of more than 10 hectares between 5000–2700 BC and more than 29 settlements had an area in the range 100–450 hectares.

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