Bohai Sea

The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (Chinese: 渤海; literally: 'Bo Sea'), is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area. Its proximity to Beijing makes it one of the busiest seaways in the world.

Coordinates: 38°42′N 119°54′E / 38.7°N 119.9°E

Bohai Sea
Bohaiseamap2
Chinese name
Chinese渤海
Korean name
Hangul발해
Hanja渤海
Locatie Bohaizee
The location of the Bo Hai.

History

Until the early 20th century, Bo Hai was often called the Gulf of Chihli (Chinese: 直隸海灣; pinyin: Zhílì Hǎiwān) or the Gulf of Pechihli or Pechili (北直隸海灣; Běizhílì Hǎiwān). Zhili and Beizhili (North Zhili) were historic provinces in the area surrounding Beijing.

Geography

The Bohai Sea is bounded by the Changshan Islands chain between the Liaodong and Shandong Peninsulas. It has become one of busiest sea routes in recent times. There are three major bays inside the Bohai Sea: Laizhou Bay to the south, Liaodong Bay to the north, and Bohai Bay to the west. At the easternmost end of the Bohai Sea, between the southernmost end of the Liaodong Peninsula and northernmost end of the Shandong Peninsula, is the Bohai Strait (渤海海峡), historically also known as the Lau-ti-shan Channel. A few of the rivers entering the gulf include the Yellow, Hai, Liao, and Luan Rivers. There are a few important oil reserves in the vicinity of the gulf, including the Shengli Field. Important island groups or islands in the gulf include the Changshan Islands (长山列岛), Changxing Island (长兴岛), and Xizhong Island (西中岛). The PRC provincial-level divisions that have a Bohai Sea coastline are, from the south, going clockwise: Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin, Hebei again, and Liaoning.

Major ports

There are five major ports along the Bohai Sea rim, with throughputs over 100 million tons, though the port of Tangshan is further subdivided into Jingtang and Caofedian:

Seaways Plan for the Bohai Sea
China MSA's Seaways Plan for the Bohai Sea. Planned routes follow closely the seaways currently in use

Caofeidian and Jingtang are usually treated as one port for statistical purposes. The ports of Dalian and Yantai are also traditionally considered part of the Bohai rim, even though strictly speaking they lie outside the limits of the sea. The Port of Longkou reached 70 million tons of cargo in 2013, and is expected to reach the 100 million ton landmark in the near future.[1]

Major cities along the Bohai Sea coast

Rocky shore in Dalian
Rocky shore in Dalian, Liaoning Province

Hydrocarbon resources

The Bohai Bay contains significant oil and gas reserves, providing much of China's offshore production. The main field in the region is named Shengli and has been exploited since the 1960s. It is still producing about half a million barrels a day, but is declining.[2] Production is dominated by Chinese majors (China National Offshore Oil Corporation was mostly created for this region) but foreign companies are also present, like ConocoPhilips,[3] Roc Oil,[4] and others.

The Gudao Field, located in the Zhanhua sedimentary basin, was discovered in 1968, based on gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys between 1963-1964.[5] The reservoir includes the Guantao (Miocene) and Minghuazhen (Pliocene) geologic formations within the dome-like anticline.[5] The Suizhong 36-1 Oil Field was discovered in 1987, and produces from Oligocene fluvial-deltaic and lacustrine sandstones.[6]:459

Oil spills have been reported frequently in this region: three spills occurred in a two-month timeframe in 2011.[7]

Tunnel crossing

In February 2011, the PRC announced that it would build a road and rail tunnel across the Bohai Strait to connect the Liaodong and Shandong peninsulas. When completed, the tunnel would be 106 kilometres (66 mi) long.[8] This plan seems have been superseded as of July 2013, with a modified plan involving a 123-kilometre (76 mi) tunnel between Dalian, Liaoning and Yantai, Shandong.[9]

The overall concept had its origins in a 1994 plan, which had been intended for completion by 2010 at a cost of $10 billion.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2013/12-23/5652663.shtml
  2. ^ China. Background. US Energy Information Administration
  3. ^ China. Key facts. conocophillips.com
  4. ^ Roc Oil begins Bohai Bay oil production Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Bairdmaritime. 14 May 2009
  5. ^ a b Sizhong, C., and Ping, W., 1980, Geology of Gudao Oil Field and Surrounding Areas, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968-1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813063, Pp. 471-486
  6. ^ Gustavson, J.B., and Gang, X.S., 1992, The Suizhong 36-1 Oil Field, Bohai Gulf, Offshore China, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978-1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813330
  7. ^ China: Third Oil Spill in Bohai Sea in Less than Two Months. Offshore Energy Today (2011-07-12). Retrieved on 2011-08-03.
  8. ^ Asahi Shimbun, "China To Build Undersea Tunnel Crossing Bohai Strait", 18 February 2011.
  9. ^ "'China plans world's longest sea tunnel at $42 billion -report". Reuters. 11 July 2013.

External links

Bohai Bay

Bohai Bay (simplified Chinese: 渤海湾; traditional Chinese: 渤海灣; pinyin: Bóhǎi Wān) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeast China. It borders Hebei province and Tianjin Municipality. The three bays are Laizhou Bay to the south, Liaodong Bay to the north, and Bohai Bay to the west.

It is the most southerly sea in the northern hemisphere in which sea ice can form.The Bohai Bay is the drainage of the Haihe and 15 other rivers. Due to these rivers' muddy runoff, the bay used to be a highly silty water body, but extensive damming of the various river systems has greatly diminish siltage. Nevertheless, the Bohai Bay in effect concentrates the runoff of the whole eastern North China Plain, and the Bay is an intensely polluted body of water.

Fisheries were traditionally some of the richest in China, fed by enormous sediment runoff and extensive shallows to serve as hatcheries. Pollution, eutrophication, habitat destruction caused by land reclamation, and intense overfishing have resulted in a collapse of stocks, and a decline of trawl catch per unit of effort (CPUE) from 138.8 kg/net.hr to 11.2 kg/net.hr from 1959 to 1998.The Bohai Bay is ringed by several major ports: the Port of Tianjin, the large Port of Tangshan itself which consists of three ports (Caofedian, Jingtang and Fennan), and the Port of Huanghua, making the Bay into a very crowded waterway. Land reclamation in Tianjin and in Caofeidian have greatly changed the littoral zone, and destroyed much of the area's wetlands. Land reclamation has also affected migratory birds.As is the case of most of the Bohai Sea, the Bohai Bay is rich in hydrocarbon deposits and has several active offshore oil fields. Jidong Nanpu contains 7,500,000,000 barrels (1.19×109 m3), while the bay as a whole is estimated to contain 146 billion barrels (23.2×10^9 m3).On June 4, 2011, a large oil spill occurred related to the China National Offshore Oil Corporation.

Bohai Economic Rim

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim is the economic region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of Northern China, rivalling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east.

Changdao County

The Changdao County simplified Chinese: 长岛县; traditional Chinese: 長島縣; pinyin: Chángdǎo Xiàn; literally: 'long island county') is a county in Yantai, an area of Shandong in the People's Republic of China. It consists of the Changshan Islands (zh:长山列岛) in the Bohai Sea, north of Penglai. They are known for their sandy beaches and picturesque limestone cliffs. The total land area is only 56 square kilometers (22 sq mi), but the coastline is 146 km (91 mi) long.

Changxing Island, Dalian

Changxing Island (simplified Chinese: 长兴岛; traditional Chinese: 長興島; pinyin: Chángxīng Dǎo) is a major island located in the eastern part of Bohai Sea, off the coast of Wafangdian, Dalian, Liaoning, China. It has a population of around 60,000.

China Seas

The China Seas consist of a series of marginal seas in the Western Pacific Ocean, around China. They are the major components signifying the transition from the continent of Asia to the Pacific Ocean. They have been described in terms of their collective vastness and complexity:

The four seas of China, the Bohai Sea, the Huanghai Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, occupy a total area of about 4.7 million km2, half of the area of China mainland. These seas are located in the southeastern margin of the Eurasian continent and subject to the interactions between the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indian-Australian plates. The seas have complicated geology and rich natural resources.

Seas included in the China Seas are:

The Yellow Sea (including Bohai Sea and Korea Bay)

The East China Sea

The South China Sea

Hai River

The Hai River (lit."Sea River"), formerly known as the Peiho, Pei He or Pei Ho ("White River"), is a Chinese river connecting Beijing to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea.

The Hai River at Tianjin is formed by the confluence of five rivers, the Southern Canal, Ziya River, Daqing River, Yongding River, and the Northern Canal. The southern and northern canals are parts of the Grand Canal. The Southern Canal is joined by the Wei River at Linqing. The Northern Canal joins with the Bai He (or Chaobai River) at Tongzhou. The Northern Canal (sharing a channel with Bai He) is also the only waterway from the sea to Beijing. Therefore, early Westerners also called the Hai He the Bai He.

At Tianjin, through the Grand Canal, the Hai connects with the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. The construction of the Grand Canal greatly altered the rivers of the Hai He basin. Previously, the Wei, Ziya Yongding and Bai Rivers flowed separately to the sea. The Grand Canal cut through the lower reaches of these rivers and fused them into one outlet to the sea, in the form of the current Hai He.

Hai He is 1,329 kilometres (826 mi) long measured from the longest tributary. However, the Hai He is only around 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Tianjin to its estuary. Its basin has an area of approximately 319,000 km2 (123,000 sq mi).

JL-3

The JL-3 (Chinese: 巨浪-3; pinyin: Jù Làng Sān; literally: 'Giant Wave 3' is a Chinese third-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) in development. It will likely deploy on the Type 096, a predicted future class of Chinese ballistic missile submarine.The missile is solid-fuelled and has a reported range of over 9,000 km (5,600 mi).The first test flight occurred on 24 November 2018 in the Bohai Sea; it was likely a test of the launch tube's cold-launch ejection system.

Kwantung Leased Territory

The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (Japanese: 遼東半島) in the Qing Empire and later the Republic of China which existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the territorial concessions that the Chinese government under the Qing Dynasty was compelled to award to foreign countries during the second half of the 19th century. The territory included the militarily and economically significant ports of Lüshunkou (Port Arthur, Port-Artur in Russian, or Ryojun in Japanese) and Dalian (Dalniy, Dal'nii in Russian, or Dairen in Japanese).

Laizhou Bay

Laizhou Bay (simplified Chinese: 莱州湾; traditional Chinese: 萊州灣; pinyin: Láizhōu Wān) is the southern arm of the Bohai Sea (also known as the Bohai Gulf, or just Bo Hai), which is a large relatively shallow extension of Korea Bay (Northern Yellow Sea) behind the Liaodong Peninsula to the north, and the Shandong Peninsula to the south. Both peninsulas are roughly triangular in shape and point towards the Bohai Strait, the mouth opening out to the Yellow Sea via the southern region of Korea Bay.

Liaodong Bay

Liaodong Bay (simplified Chinese: 辽东湾; traditional Chinese: 遼東灣; pinyin: Liáodōng Wān) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeast China. It borders Liaoning province.

The three bays are Laizhou Bay to the south, Liaodong Bay to the north, and Bohai Bay to the west.

North China Plain

The North China Plain (Chinese: 華北平原; pinyin: Huáběi Píngyuán) is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, and to the east by the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea.

Below the Sanmenxia Dam is the multipurpose Xiaolangdi Dam, located in the river's last valley before the North China Plain, a great delta created from silt dropped at the Yellow River's mouth over the millennia. The North China Plain extends over much of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces. and merges with the Yangtze Delta in northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. The Yellow River meanders over the fertile, densely populated plain emptying into the Bohai Sea. The plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing corn, sorghum, winter wheat, vegetables, and cotton. Its nickname is "Land of the yellow earth."

The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain (pinyin: Zhōngyuán), which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.The plain covers an area of about 409,500 square kilometers (158,100 sq mi), most of which is less than 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. This flat yellow-soil plain is the main area of sorghum, millet, maize, and cotton production in China. Wheat, sesame seed, and peanuts are also grown here. The plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world.

Beijing, the national capital, is located on the northeast edge of the plain, with Tianjin, an important industrial city and commercial port, near its northeast coast. Shengli Oil Field in Shandong is an important petroleum base. It is also home to the Yellow River.

North China Sea Fleet

North China Sea Fleet, China Marine Surveillance (Chinese: 中国海监北海总队), founded on August 18, 1999, was under command of both North China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration and China Marine Surveillance.

North Sea Fleet

The Northern Theater Command Navy (Chinese: 北部战区海军), or the North Sea Fleet (NSF; Chinese: 北海舰队) is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, under the Northern Theater Command. In September 1950 the Qingdao Army Base was redesignated as a naval base. Following the departure of the Soviet Navy from Lüshunkou (Port Arthur), the North Sea Fleet was established in 1960 with naval bases in Qingdao and Lüshunkou.

It includes nuclear-powered submarines: five Han class attack submarines and China's single Xia class submarine ballistic missile submarine, all based at Qingdao.

The NSF has historically received primacy during the allocation of the destroyers and frigates, as its role was to defend northeast China (including Beijing) against any amphibious attacks by Soviet Union. However, unlike the East Sea and South Sea Fleets, it has never been involved in combat.

Port of Jinzhou

The Port of Jinzhou is a seaport on the Bohai Sea in the vicinity of Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Qinhuangdao Port

Port of Qinhuangdao is a seaport on the Bohai sea in vicinity of Qinhuangdao, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Together with the Port of Huanghua, Qinhuangdao Port is a major port for coal transportation.Qinhuangdao is the nation's coal shipping center which is also seen as a barometer of the economy. The daily transport capacity was at least 50 vessels per day in the past.

Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.

Wudi County

Wudi County (simplified Chinese: 无棣县; traditional Chinese: 無棣縣; pinyin: Wúdì Xiàn) is a county in the northwest of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hebei province to the northwest and the Bohai Sea to the north. It is the northernmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Binzhou.

The population in 1999 was 424,456.

Xiaoqing River

Xiaoqing River (Chinese: 小清河; pinyin: Xiǎoqīng Hé) is a river in Shandong Province, China. It is part of the Bohai Sea basin and empties into the Bohai Sea. The river flows through the major cities of Jinan, Zibo, Binzhou, Dongying, and Weifang. It is 216 kilometres (134 mi) long and drains a 10,336-square-kilometre (3,991 sq mi) basin.

Ziya River

The Ziya River is one of the five major tributaries of Hai River system in northern China. The total length of Ziya River is 730 km (450 mi) and the size of its drainage basin is 78,700 square kilometers (30,400 sq mi). The discharge rate of Ziya River is about 1 m3/s.

The Ziya River flows from Mount Wutai until it reaches the Hai River near Xian County. Notable tributaries of the Ziya include the Ming, the Hutuo, the Fuyang, and the Qingshui. It shares the same channel with the Hai near the Southern Canal. A new artificial channel was constructed to connect it to Bohai Sea near Tianjin under the name New Ziya River.

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Hanyu PinyinBó hǎi
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RomanizationPoh hae
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationBuht hói
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