Bohai Bay

Bohai Bay (simplified Chinese: 渤海湾; traditional Chinese: 渤海灣; pinyin: Bóhǎi Wān) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeast China. It borders Hebei province and Tianjin Municipality. The three bays are Laizhou Bay to the south, Liaodong Bay to the north, and Bohai Bay to the west.

It is the most southerly sea in the northern hemisphere in which sea ice can form.[1]

The Bohai Bay is the drainage of the Haihe and 15 other rivers.[2] Due to these rivers' muddy runoff, the bay used to be a highly silty water body, but extensive damming of the various river systems has greatly diminish siltage. Nevertheless, the Bohai Bay in effect concentrates the runoff of the whole eastern North China Plain, and the Bay is an intensely polluted body of water.[3]

Bohai Bay, China ESA213619.tiff
Aerial view

Fisheries were traditionally some of the richest in China, fed by enormous sediment runoff and extensive shallows to serve as hatcheries. Pollution, eutrophication, habitat destruction caused by land reclamation, and intense overfishing have resulted in a collapse of stocks, and a decline of trawl catch per unit of effort (CPUE) from 138.8 kg/net.hr to 11.2 kg/net.hr from 1959 to 1998.[4]

The Bohai Bay is ringed by several major ports: the Port of Tianjin, the large Port of Tangshan itself which consists of three ports (Caofedian, Jingtang and Fennan), and the Port of Huanghua, making the Bay into a very crowded waterway. Land reclamation in Tianjin and in Caofeidian have greatly changed the littoral zone, and destroyed much of the area's wetlands. Land reclamation has also affected migratory birds.[5]

As is the case of most of the Bohai Sea, the Bohai Bay is rich in hydrocarbon deposits and has several active offshore oil fields. Jidong Nanpu contains 7,500,000,000 barrels (1.19×109 m3), while the bay as a whole is estimated to contain 146 billion barrels (23.2×109 m3).[6]

On June 4, 2011, a large oil spill occurred related to the China National Offshore Oil Corporation.[7]

Bohaiseamap2

References

  1. ^ "All About Sea Ice". Nsidc.org. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
  2. ^ "Bohai Sea" (PDF). emecs.or.jp. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  3. ^ "Bohai Sea Environmental Risk Assessment". First Institute of Oceanography, China State Oceanic Administration. Jan 2005. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  4. ^ "Bohai Sea Environmental Risk Assessment". First Institute of Oceanography, China State Oceanic Administration. Jan 2005. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  5. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7cfnhD_zrw&feature=em-uploademail
  6. ^ "petroleumworld". petroleumworld. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
  7. ^ F_129. "China needs zero tolerance for concealing major accidents - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
2011 Bohai Bay oil spill

The 2011 Bohai bay oil spill (Chinese: 2011年渤海湾油田溢油事故) was a series of oil spills that began on June 4, 2011 at Bohai Bay. The spill itself however was not publicly disclosed until a month later. There were suspicions of official cover-ups by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA).

Bohai

Bohai may refer to:

Balhae, known as Bohai in Chinese, a former mixed Mohe-Goguryeo empire which existed from 698 to 926 in Manchuria

Bohai Economic Rim

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim is the economic region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of Northern China, rivalling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east.

Bohai Sea

The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (Chinese: 渤海; literally: 'Bo Sea'), is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area. Its proximity to Beijing makes it one of the busiest seaways in the world.

Caofeidian

Caofeidian (Chinese: 曹妃甸; pinyin: Cáofēidiàn) is a land reclamation-converted economic development zone in Bohai Bay located in the eponymous district of Tangshan, Hebei Province, China.It hosts a large coal and ore discharging port, which forms one of the prime ports of Northern China, namely (from South to North) Tianjin - Jing Tang - Caofedian - Qinhuangdao - YingKou - Bayuquan - Dalian). Caofedian and Jingtang ports are often referred together as Tangshan port, though Tangshan is actually a large inland city away from the shore.

China National Offshore Oil Corporation

China National Offshore Oil Corporation, or CNOOC Group (Chinese: 中国海洋石油总公司 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Háiyáng Shíyóu Zǒnggōngsī), is one of the largest national oil companies in China. It is the third-largest national oil company in the People's Republic of China, after CNPC (parent of PetroChina) and China Petrochemical Corporation (parent of Sinopec). The CNOOC Group focuses on the exploitation, exploration and development of crude oil and natural gas in offshore China, alongwith its subsidiary COOEC.

The company is owned by the government of the People's Republic of China, and the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC) assumes shareholder rights and obligations on the government's behalf. One subsidiary, CNOOC Limited, is listed on the Hong Kong exchange; the other, China Oilfield Services, is listed on the Hong Kong and New York exchanges.

Deposition (geology)

Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass. Wind, ice, water, and gravity transport previously weathered surface material, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy in the fluid, is deposited, building up layers of sediment.

Deposition occurs when the forces responsible for sediment transportation are no longer sufficient to overcome the forces of gravity and friction, creating a resistance to motion; this is known as the null-point hypothesis. Deposition can also refer to the buildup of sediment from organically derived matter or chemical processes. For example, chalk is made up partly of the microscopic calcium carbonate skeletons of marine plankton, the deposition of which has induced chemical processes (diagenesis) to deposit further calcium carbonate. Similarly, the formation of coal begins with deposition of organic material, mainly from plants, in anaerobic conditions.

Hebei

Hebei (河北; formerly romanised as Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928.

Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.

A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Jiaoliudao Subdistrict

Jiaoliudao (Chinese: 交流岛街道; pinyin: jiāoliúdǎo jiēdào) is a subdistrict of Wafangdian city, Liaoning, China, it is located on the Bohai Bay in the southwest of the city. The subdistrict covers 97 km2 (37 sq mi) with a population of 16.5 thousand. Jiaoliudao is surrounded by the sea, and has an industry of well-developed seawater aquaculture. The place is one of seafood breeding bases in Dalian or Liaoning, and it was honoured as the "famous producing area of clams" in China (中国沙蚬子之乡).Jiaoliudao was originally a township. On May 24, 2007, it was entrusted to govern by the management committee of Changxing Island Economic and Technological Development Zone. On January 2, 2008, the township was changed to a subdistrict, which is the other type of township-level division.

Jidong Nanpu oil field

The Jidong Nanpu oil field is an oil field located in Bohai Bay. It was discovered in 2005 and developed by China National Petroleum Corporation. It began production in 2006 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Jidong Nanpu oil field are around 7.45 billion barrels (1000×106tonnes), and production is centered on 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m3/d).

Jingjinji

The Jingjinji Metropolitan Region or Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ), also known as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BJ-TJ-HE), is the national capital region of the People's Republic of China. It is the biggest urbanized megalopolis region in Northern China. It includes an economic region surrounding the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, along the coast of the Bohai Sea. This emerging region is rising as a northern metropolitan region rivaling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east. In 2016 Jingjinji had total population of 112 million people and was as populated as Guangdong.

Laizhou

Laizhou, formerly romanized as Laichow, is a county-level city in Yantai Prefecture, Shandong Province, China. As of 2008, Laizhou had a population of 902,000, out of which 188,000 are urban residents.

Laizhou traditionally boasts strong economy due to its abundant natural resources, such as gold, magnesium, granite, and salt. Laizhou produces about 15% of the gold production of the whole nation, around 55,000 pounds annually. It is ranked 37th among the similar size cities in the nation and the top 10 in Shandong Province. In 2010, the GDP of Laizhou reached $7.3 billion USD. Laizhou Port is one of the major ports in the Yellow River Delta.

Laizhou embraces Bohai Bay to its west border and is famous for swimming crabs and razor clams. Claimed as the Capital of the Chinese Rose, Laizhou hosts Chinese Rose Festival on May 25 every year, attracting thousands of visitors. Laizhou is also well known for its creative straw handmade crafts, one of Laizhou's main exporting commodities. Li Denghai, a Laizhou native, is called Godfather of Compact Planting Hybrid Maize for his contribution. Apple orchards and apple seedling nursery are popular in eastern part of Laizhou, led by one of the best apple seedling nurseries in China, Laizhou All Nature Horticultural Nursery in Xiao Caogou Village.

Laizhou No. 1 High School ranks among the top 100 high schools in China, has sent thousands of graduates to top universities all over the nation. Laizhou Martial Arts Institute was selected to participate in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Opening Ceremony.

Over the years, Laizhou has been awarded including:

Top Longevity Cities of China,

Excellent Tourist City in China,

The Happiest City in China,

Nation's Cleanest City,

Best Corn Seed Region in China,

Capital of Handmade Straw Crafts in China,

Liaodong Bay

Liaodong Bay (simplified Chinese: 辽东湾; traditional Chinese: 遼東灣; pinyin: Liáodōng Wān) is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, in northeast China. It borders Liaoning province.

The three bays are Laizhou Bay to the south, Liaodong Bay to the north, and Bohai Bay to the west.

People's Liberation Army Navy Organization

The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the naval branch of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The PLAN force consists of about 250,000 men and over a hundred major combat vessels, organized into three fleets: the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet, and the South Sea Fleet. Below is the organizational structure of the PLAN.

Port of Huanghua

The Port of Huanghua, also known as the Port of Cangzhou Huanghua is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Huanghua, Cangzhou Prefecture, Hebei, People's Republic of China. It is located on the south side of the Bohai Bay, 90 km from Cangzhou city. Huanghua port is one of the largest and fastest growing ports in North China,with a throughput of 171.03 million tons of total cargo in 2013, an increase of 35.42% year on year.Throughput increased to 204 million tonnes in the first ten months of 2016, largely due to coal transportation. Investment in the port is over $8 billion, and over 20 shipping companies opened 13 shipping lines from the port.Huanghua Port is owned by China Shenhua Energy, its port division provides all coal transportation services at Huanghua.

Singapore Petroleum Company

Singapore Petroleum Company Limited (SPC,a PetroChina company) is a Singaporean oil company. SPC is involved in the exploration and production of petroleum, refining, trading and petroleum product distribution.

Taizi River

The Taizi River (Chinese: 太子河) is a major river in the Liaoning province of Northeastern China. The river was historically also known as Yan River (衍水) or Liang River (梁水). It was originally the third largest tributary of the Liao River, southern Northeast's principal river, draining with the neighboring Hun River into a confluence known as "Trident River" near Haicheng, until a river engineering project in 1958 cut off the eastern distributary of the river delta from the Liao River's main course, making the Hun River and Taizi Rivers a separate system that drains into the Bohai Bay independently from the Liao River. However, both sister rivers are still usually considered a part of the Liao River system because they are both within the historical Liao River drainage basin.

Yang River

Yang River may refer to:

Yang River (洋河, Yanghe, "Sheep River"), which flows into Bohai Bay in northern China

Yang River (洋河), a tributary of the Hai River in northern China

Yang River (阳河, Yanghe, "Sunny River"), a tributary of the Xiaoqing River in northern China

Lam Nam Yang (Thai: ลำน้ำยัง) in northeastern Thailand

Yantai CIMC Raffles Shipyard

Yantai CIMC Raffles Shipyard (Chinese: 烟台中集来福士海洋工程有限公司) is a shipbuilding company in Yantai, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The shipyard is one of three operated by CIMC Raffles Offshore Ltd.

Yantai Raffles specializes in offshore and marine fabrication, and shares in the company have been traded on the Oslo OTC system in Norway since May 2006.

In 1994, Singaporean of South African descent Brian Chang founded Yantai Raffles at the junction of Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea. The shipyard is in close proximity to Korea and Japan, an area that accounts for 80% of the global shipbuilding capacity. YRS is the only shipyard in China to be majority foreign-owned. It has agreed to acquire 100% of the Sanlian Longkou shipyard in Shandong, China.The company since March 2013 is now a wholly own subsidiary of CIMC.

Notable bays of China

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