Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler".[2] The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia",[3] also known as the Bogd Khanate.[4]

Three historical currents were at work during this period. The first was the efforts of the Mongolians to form an independent, theocratic state that embraced Inner Mongolia, Barga (also known as Hulunbuir), Upper Mongolia, Western Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai ("pan-Mongolia"). The second was the Russian Empire's determination to achieve the twin goals of establishing its own preeminence in the country but at the same time ensuring Mongolia's autonomy within the newly independent Chinese state. The third was the ultimate success of China in eliminating Mongolian autonomy and creating its sovereignty over the country.

Mongolia

Monggol ulus.svg
Монгол улс
大蒙古國
1911–1919
1921–1924
Mongolia in 1914
Mongolia in 1914
StatusRegional state of the Qing dynasty (1911–1912) and Republic of China (1919–1921) Unrecognised state[note 1]
CapitalNiislel Khüree (modern Ulaanbaatar)
Common languagesMongolian
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Tengriism, Shamanism
GovernmentTheocratic[1] absolute monarchy
Bogd Khaan 
• 1911–1924
The 8th Bogd Gegeen
Prime Minister 
• 1912–1915
Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren
• 1919–1920
Gonchigjalzangiin Badamdorj
Historical era20th century
December 29 1911
1915
1919–1921
August 1921
November 26 1924
CurrencyTael, Mongolian dollar
ISO 3166 codeMN
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongolia under Qing rule
Occupation of Mongolia
Occupation of Mongolia
Mongolian People's Republic

Status

  • Qing Dynasty 1691–1912
  • Bogd Khanate of Mongolia 1912-1919
  • Republic of China 1919-1921
  • Bogd Khanate of Mongolia (MPP rule) 1921-1924

Name

Olnoo urgugdsun Mongol uls
Outer Mongolian tribes in 1910s

The official name of the Bogd Khaanate was "Ikh Mongol Uls", meaning the "Great Mongolian State". The Mongolian name used is generally "Olnoo Örgögdsön Mongol Uls" (Олноо өргөгдсөн Монгол улс, State of Mongolia Elevated by the Many) or "Khaant uls" (хаант улс, khagan country).[5] The official Chinese name was "大蒙古國" (Dà Měnggǔ Guó, "Great Mongol State").

Mongolian Revolution of 1911

On February 2, 1913 the Bogd Khanate sent Mongolian cavalry forces to "liberate" Inner Mongolia from China. The Russian Empire refused to sell weapons to the Bogd Khanate, and Russian Tsar Nicholas II spoke of "Mongolian imperialism".

Government and society

Sharav bogd khan
The Bogd Khaan

At the time, the government was still composed of a feudal Khanate, which held its system in place largely with the power of agriculture, as most traditional pastoral societies of East Asia had been. The new Mongolian state was a fusion of very different elements: Western political institutions, Mongolian theocracy, and Qing imperial administrative and political traditions. December 29 was declared to be independence day and a national holiday. Urga (modern Ulan Bator), until then known to the Mongolians as the "Great Monastery" (Ikh khüree), was renamed "Capital Monastery" (Niislel khüree) to reflect its new role as the seat of government. A state name, "Great Mongolian State" (Ikh Mongol uls), and a state flag were adopted. A parliament (ulsyn khural) was created, comprising upper and lower houses. A new Mongolian government was formed with five ministries: internal affairs, foreign affairs, finance, justice, and the army. Consequently, a national army was created.

The new state also reflected old ways; the Bogd Khaan adopted a reign title, "Elevated by the Many" (Olnoo örgogdsön), a style name used (it was believed) by the ancient kings of Tibet. He promoted the ruling princes and lamas by one grade, an act traditionally performed by newly installed Chinese emperors. Lay and religious princes were instructed to render their annual tribute, the "nine whites". By tradition the "nine whites" were eight white horses and one white camel. On this occasion, the "nine whites" consisted of 3,500 horses and 200 camels[6] sent to the Bogd Khaan instead of the Qing Emperor as in the past. Again, the Bogd Khaan appropriated to himself the right to confer ranks and seals of office upon the Mongolian nobility.[7]

The Bogd Khaan himself was the inevitable choice as leader of the state in view of his stature as the revered symbol of Buddhism in Mongolia. He was famed throughout the country for his special oracular and supernatural powers and as the Great Khan of Mongols. He established contacts with foreign powers, tried to assist development of economy (mainly agriculture and military issues), but his main goal was development of Buddhism in Mongolia.

Ladies at court Bogd Khan. Mongolia, 1911-1924
Ladies at court Bogd Khanate.

The new state was theocratic, and its system suited Mongols, but it was not economically efficient as the leaders were inexperienced in such matters. The Qing dynasty had been careful to check the encroachment of religion into the secular arena; that restraint was now gone. State policy was directed by religious leaders, with relatively little participation by lay nobles. The parliament had only consultative powers; in any event, it did not meet until 1914. The Office of Religion and State, an extra-governmental body headed by a lama, played a role in directing political matters.[8] The Ministry of Internal Affairs was vigilant in ensuring that senior ecclesiastics were treated with solemn deference by lay persons.[9]

The head of the Bogd Khaan's Ecclesiastical Administration (Shav' yamen) endeavoured to transfer as many wealthy herdsmen as he could to the ecclesiastical estate (Ikh shav'), resulting in the population bearing an increasingly heavy tax burden. Ten-thousand Buddha statuettes were purchased in 1912 as propitiatory offerings to restore the Bogd Khaan's eyesight. A cast-iron statue of the Buddha, 84 feet tall, was brought from Dolonnor, and a temple was constructed to house the statue. D. Tsedev, pp. 49–50. In 1914 the Ecclesiastical Administration ordered the government to defray the costs of a particular religious ceremony in the amount of 778,000 bricks of tea (the currency of the day), a gigantic sum.[10]

Tserenchimed

Interior Minister Da Lam Tserenchimed

Ханддорж

Foreign Minister Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj

Г.Бадамдорж

Minister of Religion and State Gonchigjalzangiin Badamdorj

Манлайбаатар Дамдинсүрэн

Deputy Foreign Minister Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren

JalkhanzKhutagt2

Minister for the Pacification of the Western Border Areas Sodnomyn Damdinbazar

Diplomatic maneuvering over Mongolia

The new government under Bogd Khan tried to seek international recognition, particularly from the Russian government. The Tsar however, rejected the Mongolian plea for recognition, due to a common Russian Imperial ambition at the time to take over the central Asian states, and Mongolia was planned for further expansion. Throughout the Bogd Khaan era, the positions of the governments of China and Russia were clear and consistent. China was adamant that Mongolia was, and must remain, an integral part of China. The (provisional) constitution of the new Chinese republic contained an uncompromising statement to this effect. A law dealing with the election of the Chinese National Assembly provided for delegates from Outer Mongolia.[11] For their part, the Russian Imperial government accepted the principle that Mongolia must remain formally part of China; however, Russia was equally determined that Mongolia possess autonomous powers so substantial as to make it quasi-independent, so they recognised the autonomy of the region. Russian Empire could not act on the ambition due to internal struggles, which allowed Russia to claim that Mongolia was under her protection. Thus, in 1912 Russia concluded a secret convention with the Empire of Japan delineating their respective spheres of influence: South Manchuria and Inner Mongolia fell to the Japanese, North Manchuria and Outer Mongolia to the Russians. Bogd Khaan said to Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China "I established our own state before you, Mongols and Chinese have different origins, our languages and scripts are different. You're not the Manchu's descendants, so how can you think China is the Manchu's successor?".[12]

In spite of Chinese and Russian opposition, the Mongols were tireless in their efforts to attract international recognition of their independence. Diplomatic notes were sent to foreign consulates in Hailar; none responded. A delegation went to Saint Petersburg the purpose of which, among other things, was to contact European ambassadors expressing the desire for diplomatic relations. The Russians did not permit these contacts. A later delegation to Saint Petersburg sent notes to Western ambassadors announcing Mongolia's independence and formation of a pan-Mongolian state; again none responded. The Mongols attempted to send a delegation to Japan but the Japanese consul at Harbin prevented it from proceeding further.[13]

While these efforts at obtaining international recognition continued, the Mongols and Russians were negotiating. At the end of 1912, Russia and the Mongols signed a treaty by which Russia acknowledged Mongol autonomy within the Republic of China; it also provided for Russian assistance in the training of a new Mongolian army and for Russian commercial privileges in Mongolia. Nevertheless, in the equivalent Mongolian version of the treaty, the terms designated independence were used. Both versions have the same value; so it was formally recognition of Mongolia as an independent state and its name Great Mongolian State.[14] In 1913 Russia agreed to provide Mongolia with weapons and a loan of two million rubles. In 1913, Mongolia and Tibet signed a bilateral treaty, recognizing each other as independent states.

Two Cossacks in Khuree
Two Cossacks in gymnastyorka uniform, in Khüree ca. 1913.

In November 1913, there was a Sino-Russian Declaration which recognised Mongolia as part of China but with internal autonomy; further, China agreed not to send troops or officials to Mongolia, or to permit colonization of the country; it was also to accept the "good offices" of Russia in Chinese-Mongolian affairs. There was to be a tripartite conference, in which Russia, China, and the "authorities" of Mongolia would participate.[15] This declaration was not considered by Mongolia to be legitimate as the Mongolian government had not participated in the decision.

To reduce tensions, the Russians agreed to provide Mongolia with more weapons and a second loan, this time three million rubles. There were other agreements between Russia and Mongolia in these early years concerning weapons, military instructors, telegraph, and railroad that were either concluded or nearly so by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. In April 1914, the northern region of Tannu Uriankhai was formally accepted as a Russian protectorate.[16]

Kyakhta Agreement of 1915

Namnansuren and Delegates, Saint Petersburg
Namnansüren in delegation to St. Petersburg
Mongolia 1915
Mongolia in 1915

A tripartite conference between the Russian Empire, Republic of China and the Bogd Khaan's government convened at Kyakhta in the autumn of 1914. The Mongolian representative, Prime Minister Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, were determined to stretch autonomy into de facto independence, and to deny the Chinese anything more than vague, ineffectual suzerain powers. The Chinese sought to minimize, if not to end, Mongolian autonomy. The Russian position was somewhere in between.[17] The result was the Kyakhta Treaty of June 1915, which recognised Mongolia's autonomy within the Chinese state. Nevertheless, Outer Mongolia remained effectively outside Chinese control[18] and retained main features of the state according to international law of that time.[19]

The Mongolians viewed the treaty as a disaster because it denied the recognition of a truly independent, all-Mongolian state. China regarded the treaty in a similar fashion, consenting only because it was preoccupied with other international problems, especially Japan. The treaty did contain one significant feature which the Chinese were later to turn to their advantage; the right to appoint a high commissioner to Urga and deputy high commissioners to Uliastai, Khovd, and Kyakhta. This provided a senior political presence in Mongolia, which had been lacking.

Decline of Russian influence

In 1913, the Russian consulate in Urga began publishing a journal titled Shine tol' (the New Mirror), the purpose of which was to project a positive image of Russia. Its editor, a Buryat-born scholar and statesman Ts. Zhamtsarano, turned it into a platform for advocating political and social change. Lamas were incensed over the first issue, which denied that the world was flat; another issue severely criticized the Mongolian nobility for its exploitation of ordinary people.[20] Medical and veterinary services, part of Russian-sponsored reforms, met resistance from the lamas as this had been their prerogative. Mongols regarded as annoying the efforts of the Russians to oversee use of the second loan (the Russians believed the first had been profligately spent) and to reform the state budgetary system.[21] The Russian diplomat Alexander Miller, appointed in 1913, proved to be a poor choice as he had little respect for most Mongolian officials, whom he regarded as incompetent in the extreme.[22] The chief Russian military instructor successfully organized a Mongolian military brigade. Soldiers from this brigade manifested themselves later on in combat against Chinese troops.

The outbreak of the World War I in 1914 required Russia to redirect its energies to Europe. By the middle of 1915, the Russian military position had deteriorated so badly that the Russian government had no choice but to neglect its Asian interests. China soon took advantage of the Russian distractions which increased dramatically following the Bolshevik revolution in 1917.

Chinese attempts to "reintegrate" Mongolia

Yuan shikai
Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China

In December 1915, Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China, sent gifts to the Bogd Khaan and his wife. In return, the Bogd Khaan dispatched a delegation of 30 persons to Beijing with gifts for Yuan: four white horses and two camels (his wife Ekh Dagina sent four black horses and two camels). The delegation was received by Yuan Shikai himself, now proclaimed ruler of a restored Empire of China.[23] The delegation met Yuan Shikai on February 10, 1916.[24] In China this was interpreted in the context of the traditional tributary system, when all missions with gifts to Chinese rulers were considered as signs of submission. In this regard, Chinese sources stated that a year later, the Bogd Khaan agreed to participate in an investiture ceremony – a formal Qing ritual by which frontier nobles received the patent and seal of imperial appointment to office; Yuan awarded him China's highest decoration of merit; lesser but significant decorations were awarded to other senior Mongolian princes.[25] Actually, after the conclusion of the Kyakhta agreement in 1914, Yuan Shikai sent a telegram to the Bogd Khaan informing him that he was bestowed a title of "Bogd Jevzundamba Khutuktu Khaan of Outer Mongolia" and would be provided with a golden seal and a golden diploma. The Bogd Khaan responded: "Since the title of Bogd Jevzundamba Khutuktu Khaan of Outer Mongolia was already bestowed by the Ikh Juntan, there was no need to bestow it again and that since there was no provision on the golden seal and golden diploma in the tripartite agreement, his government was not in a position to receive them".[26] The Bogd Khaan had already been granted said golden seal, title and diploma by the Qing dynasty.

Revolution and civil war in Russia

The Bolshevik revolution in 1917 and the resultant outbreak of civil war in Russia provided new opportunities for China to move into Mongolia. The Bolsheviks established workers' councils in Siberia, a process essentially completed by the summer of 1918. The presence of the Bolsheviks so close to the Mongolian border unsettled both the Mongolians and the Chinese High Commissioner, Chen Yi. Rumours were rife of Bolshevik troops preparing to invade Mongolia. The Cossack consular guards at Urga, Uliastai, and Khovd, traditionally loyal to the Imperial House of Romanov, had mutinied and left. The Russian communities in Mongolia were themselves becoming fractious, some openly supporting the new Bolshevik regime.[27] The pretext was the penetration of the White Russian troops from Siberia.[28] Chen Yi sent telegrams to Beijing requesting troops and, after several efforts, was able to persuade the Bogd Khaan's government to agree to the introduction of one battalion. By July 1918, the Soviet threat from Siberia had faded and the Mongolian foreign minister told Chen Yi that troops were no longer needed. Nevertheless, the Chinese battalion continued to move and in August arrived to Urga.

Anti-Bolshevik forces in Asia were fragmented into a number of regiments. One was led by the Supreme Commander of the Baikal Cossacks, Grigory Semyonov, who had assembled a detachment of Buryats and Inner Mongolian nationalists for the creation of a pan-Mongolian state. Semyonov and his allies made several unsuccessful efforts to encourage the Bogd Khaan's government to join it. The Khalkha people regarded themselves as the natural leaders of all Mongols and feared being submerged into a new political system that likely would be led by Buryats, whom the Khalkhas deeply mistrusted.[29] When inducements failed, Semyonov threatened to invade Mongolia to force compliance.[30]

The Bogd Khaanate was in a difficult position. On the one hand, it lacked the strength to repel a pan-Mongolist attack; on the other, they were profoundly disquieted by the thought of more Chinese troops in Mongolia. The first detachment of Chinese troops arrived to Urga in July 1919. Prince N.A Kudashev, the old Imperial Russian ambassador to Beijing, indicated a violation of the Kyakhta Agreement by China.[31] This step in conflict with the Kyakhta agreement was considered by the Chinese as the first step toward Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia.[32] In any event, the threatened pan-Mongolian invasion never materialized because of dissension between the Buryats and Inner Mongolians, and Semyonov's dream of a pan-Mongolian state died.[33]

Abolition of Mongolian autonomy

On August 4, 1919, an assembly of princes took place in Urga to discuss Semyonov's invitation to join the pan-Mongolian movement; this was because Khalkhas were threatened by a pan-Mongolist group of one Mongolian and two Buryat regiments advancing from Dauria.[31] While that military campaign failed, China continued to increase troop numbers in Mongolia. On August 13, 1919 Commissioner Chen Yi received a message from "representatives of the four aimags", requesting that China come to Mongolia's aid against Semyonov; it also expressed the desire of the Khalkha nobility to restore the previous Qing system. Among other things, they proposed that the five ministries of the Mongolian government be placed under the direct supervision of the Chinese high commission rather than the Bogd Khaan.[34] According to an Associated Press dispatch, some Mongol chieftains signed a petition asking China to retake administration of Mongolia and end Outer Mongolia's autonomy.[35]

Pressure from Chen Yi on Mongolian princes followed; representatives of the Bogd Khaan also participated in negotiations. Eventually, the princes agreed on a long list of principles, sixty-four points "On respecting of Outer Mongolia by the government of China and improvement of her position in future after self-abolishing of authonomy". This document offered the replacement of the Mongolian government with Chinese officials, the introduction of Chinese garrisons and keeping of feudal titles. According to ambassador Kudashev, the majority of princes supported the abolition of autonomy. The Bogd Khaan sent a delegation to the President of China with a letter complaining that the plan to abolish autonomy was a contrivance of the High Commissioner alone and not the wish of the people of Mongolia. On October 28, 1919, the Chinese National Assembly approved the articles. President Xu Shichang sent a conciliatory letter to the Bogd Khaan, pledging respect for Mongolian feelings and reverence for the Jebtsundamba Khututktu and the Buddhist faith.[36][37]

Xu Shuzheng2
General Xu Shuzheng

A few months earlier the Chinese government had appointed as new Northwest Frontier Commissioner Xu Shuzheng, an influential warlord and prominent member of the pro-Japanese Anhui clique in the Chinese National Assembly. Xu had a vision for Mongolia very different from that reflected in the Sixty-four points. It presented a vast plan for reconstruction. Arriving with a military escort in Urga on October 29, he informed the Mongolians that the Sixty-four points would need to be renegotiated. He submitted a much tougher set of conditions, the "Eight Articles," calling for the express declaration of Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia, an increase in Mongolia's population (presumably through Chinese colonization), and the promotion of commerce, industry, and agriculture.[38] The Mongols resisted, prompting Xu to threaten to deport the Bogd Khaan to China if he did not immediately agree to the conditions.[39] To emphasize the point, Xu placed troops in front of the Bogd Khaan's palace.[40] The Japanese were the ones who ordered these pro-Japanese Chinese warlords to occupy Mongolia in order to halt a possibly revolutionary spillover from the Russian revolutionaries into Mongolia and Northern China.[37] After the Chinese completed the occupation, the Japanese then abandoned them and left them on their own.

The Eight Articles were placed before the Mongolian Parliament on November 15. The upper house accepted the Articles; the lower house did not, with some members calling for armed resistance, if necessary. The Buddhist monks resisted most of all, but the nobles of the upper house prevailed.[41] A petition to end autonomy, signed by the ministers and deputy ministers of the Bogd Khaan's government, was presented to Xu.[42] The Bogd Khaan refused to affix his seal until compelled by the fact that new Prime Minister Gonchigjalzangiin Badamdorj, installed by order of Xu Shuzheng, and conservative forces were accepting the Chinese demands. The office of the high commission was abolished, and Chen Yi was recalled. Xu's success was broadly celebrated in China. January 1 and the following days were declared holidays and all governmental institutions in Beijing and in the provinces were closed.

Xu Shuzheng returned to Mongolia in December for the Bogd Khaan's "investiture", which took place on January 1, 1920. It was an elaborate ceremony: Chinese soldiers lined both sides of the road to the palace; the portrait of the President of China was borne on a palanquin, followed by the national flag of China and a marching band of cymbals and drums. Mongols were obliged to prostrate themselves before these emblems of Chinese sovereignty.[43] That night herdsmen and lamas gathered outside the palace and angrily tore down the flags of the Chinese Republic hanging from the gate.[44]

Xu moved immediately to implement the Eight Articles. The doors of the former Mongolian ministries were locked, and Chinese sentries posted in front. A new government of eight departments was formed. The Mongolian army was demobilized, its arsenal seized, and both lay and religious officials banned from using the words "Mongolian state" (Mongol uls) in their official correspondence.[45]

The Tusiyetu Khan Aimak's Prince Darchin Ch'in Wang was a supporter of Chinese rule while his younger brother Tsewang was a supporter of Ungern-Sternberg.[46]

Conclusion

Flag of Bogd Khaant Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia, preserved in the National Museum of Mongolia

The late Qing government had embarked on a grand plan, the "New Policies", aimed at an integration of Mongolia into China and opened Han Chinese colonization and agricultural settlement. Many Mongols considered this act as a violation of the old agreements when they recognized authority of the Manchu dynasty, particularly the preservation of traditional social order on Mongolian lands, and thus began to seek independence. The collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, conducted under the nationalistic catchwords of the Han Chinese, led to the formation of the Republic of China; later the initial concept was called "Five Races Under One Union".[47] The newly founded Chinese state laid claim to all imperial territory, including Mongolia. Mongolian officials were clear that their subordination was to the Qing monarch and thus owed no allegiance to the new Chinese republic. While some Inner Mongols showed willingness to join the Republic of China, Outer Mongols, together with part of Inner Mongolia, declared independence of China. The Outer Mongols were helped by the White Russian troops of Baron R.F. von Ungern-Sternberg incursions following the Russian Revolution of 1917.[48][49] The abolition of Mongolian autonomy by Xu Shuzheng in 1919 reawakened Mongolian the national independence movement. Two small resistance groups formed, later to become the Mongolian People's Party (renamed the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party), which sought independence and Soviet cooperation.

It was proposed that Zhang Zuolin's domain (the Chinese "Three Eastern Provinces") take Outer Mongolia under its administration by the Bogda Khan and Bodo in 1922 after pro-Soviet Mongolian Communists seized control of Outer Mongolia.[46]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Only recognized by the Russian Empire, Russian Republic, Russian SFSR and USSR

References

  1. ^ Timothy Michael May, Culture and customs of Mongolia, Greenwood Press, 2008, p. 22.
  2. ^ Thomas E. Ewing, Revolution on the Chinese Frontier: Outer Mongolia in 1911, Journal of Asian History (Wiesbaden), v. 12, pp. 101–119 (1978).
  3. ^ Академия наук СССР History of the Mongolian People's Republic, p.232
  4. ^ William Elliott Butler. The Mongolian legal system: contemporary legislation and documentation. p.255
  5. ^ Батсайхан О. 2008. Монголын суулчийн эзэн хаан VIII Богд Жавзандамба. Ulaanbaatar: Admon
  6. ^ Ts. Nasanbaljir, Jibzandama khutagtyn san ["The treasury of the Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu"], Tüükhiin sudlal ("Historical studies"). Ulan Bator, 1970. Vol. 8, p. 150.
  7. ^ Thomas E. Ewing. Between the Hammer and the Anvil. Chinese and Russian Policies in Outer Mongolia, 1911–1921 Bloomington, IN, 1980. p. 36.
  8. ^ Sh. Sandag, Mongolyn uls töriin gadaad khariltsaa, 1850–1919 [Foreign relations of Mongolia, 1850–1919], (Ulan Bator, 1971), p. 284.
  9. ^ A contemporary, "Old Jambal," in the Soviet time has supplied a fascinating description of the sordid affairs of the Bogd Khaan's court and his court. Tsendiin Damdinsüren, ed., Övgön Jambalyn yaria ("Tales of Old Jambal") Ulan Bator, 1959.
  10. ^ Tsedev, pp. 40, 46.
  11. ^ Jou Kuntien, Bienjiang chengtse ("Frontier policy"). Taipei, 1962. pp. 42–43.
  12. ^ History of Mongolia, Volume 5. Mongolian Institute of History, 2003.
  13. ^ Ewing, Between the Hammer and the Anvil, pp. 49–50.
  14. ^ Kuzmin S.L. Russian – Mongolian Agreement of 1912 and the Independence of Mongolia. – Vestnik Moskovskogo Gorodskogo Pedagogicheskogo Universiteta, Ser. Istoricheskie Nauki, 2015, no 1, p. 80-87
  15. ^ John V.A. MacMurray, comp., Treaties and Agreements with and concerning China, 1894–1919 (New York, 1921), v. 2, no. 1913/11, pp. 1066–67.
  16. ^ Istoriya Tuvy [History of Tuva], v. 1, pp. 354–55.
  17. ^ Chen Lu, the Chinese representative, has provided a detailed chronicle of discussions in Jishi biji [Reminiscences], (Shanghai, 1919), pp. 16–41.
  18. ^ Batsaikhan, O. The Last King of Mongolia, Bogdo Jebtsundamba Khutuktu. Ulaanbaatar: Admon, 2008, p.290-293 – ISBN 978-99929-0-464-0
  19. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. Сentenary of the Kyakhta Agreement of 1915 between Russia, Mongolia and China. – Asia and Africa Today (Moscow), 2015, no 4, p. 60-63
  20. ^ Korostovetz, p. 251.
  21. ^ Korostovetz, p. 286.
  22. ^ Ewing, Between the Hammer and the Anvil, p. 81.
  23. ^ Bügd nairamdakh Mongol ard ulsyn tüükh [History of the Monglian People's Republic], (Ulan Bator, 1966–69), v. 2, pp. 536–37.
  24. ^ Badarchi, O.S. and Dugarsuren, Sh.N. Bogd khaany amdrallyn on daraalyn tovchoon. Ulaanbaatar: Khadyn san, 2000, p. 125.
  25. ^ Chen Chungzu, Wai mengu jinshi shi [The modern history of Outer Mongolia], (Shanghai, 1926; repr. Taipei, 1965), bien 2, p. 69.
  26. ^ Batsaikhan, O. The Last King of Mongolia, Bogdo Jebtsundamba Khutuktu. Ulaanbaatar: Admon, 2008, p.293 – ISBN 978-99929-0-464-0
  27. ^ Burdukov, pp. 151, 393.
  28. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. 2011. The History of Baron Ungern. An Experience of Reconstruction. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press, ISBN 978-5-87317-692-2, p. 128.
  29. ^ B. Shirendyb, Mongolia na rubezhe XIX-XX vekov [Mongolia on the eve of the 19th and 20th centuries], (Ulan Bator, 1963), pp. 173–74.
  30. ^ Zhung-O guanxi shiliao: Wai menggu [Historical sources on Chinese-Russian relations: Outer Mongolia], (Taipei, 1959),, no. 159, p. 415.
  31. ^ a b Kuzmin, S.L. 2011. The History of Baron Ungern. An Experience of Reconstruction. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press, ISBN 978-5-87317-692-2, p. 134
  32. ^ Ewing, Between the Hammer and the Anvil, p. 118.
  33. ^ Ewing, Russia, China, p. 407.
  34. ^ Zhung-O, no. 253, 461–61.
  35. ^ "Outer Mongolia, Tired of Autonomy, Asks China to Pay Her Princes and Take Her Back" (PDF). The New York Times. Peking. Associated Press. October 31, 1919. Archived from the original on 2014.
  36. ^ Thomas E. Ewing, Russia, China, and the Origins of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1911–1921: A Reappraisal, The Slavonic and East European Review (London), v. 58, pp. 407–08 (1980).
  37. ^ a b John S. Major (1990). The land and people of Mongolia. Harper and Row. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-397-32386-9. in 1919, a Japanese influenced faction in the Chinese government mounted an invasion of Outer Mongolia and forced its leaders to sign a "request" to be taken over by the government of China. Japan's aim was to protect its own economic, political, and military interests in North China be keeping the Russian Revolution from influencing Mongolia.
  38. ^ Ts. Puntsagnorov, Mongolyn avtonomit üyeiin tüükh [History of Mongolia in the autonomous period], (Ulan Bator, 1955), p. 205.
  39. ^ Zhung-O, no. 420, p. 593.
  40. ^ D. Gongor, Ts. Dolgorsüren, eds., D. Sükhbaataaryn tukhai durdatgaluud [Memories of D. Sukhbaatar], (Ulan Bator, 1965), p. 71.
  41. ^ L. Bat-Ochir, D. Dashjamts, Damdiny Sukhe-Bator. Biografiya [Biography of Damdin Sukhbaatar], (Moscow, 1971), pp. 31–32.
  42. ^ Chen Chungzu, pien 3, pp. 5–7.
  43. ^ Xu Daolin, Xu shuzheng hsien-sheng wenji nienpu hokan [The life of Mr. Xu Shuzheng], (Taipei, 1962), p. 261.
  44. ^ Bat-Ochir, Dashjamts, p. 34.
  45. ^ Bügd nairamdakh Mongol ard ulsyn tüükh [History of the Monglian People's Republic], (Ulan Bator, 1966–69), v. 3, p. 65.
  46. ^ a b Owen Lattimore; Sh Nachukdorji (1955). Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia. Brill Archive. pp. 171–. GGKEY:4D2GY636WK5.
  47. ^ Esherick J.W. 2006. How the Qing became China. – В кн.: Empire to Nation. Historical Perspectives on the Making of the Modern World (eds. J.W. Esherick, H. Kayali, E. van Young). Lanham, Maryland, p.240-255
  48. ^ See also Thomas E. Ewing, Ch'ing Policies in Outer Mongolia 1900–1911, Modern Asian Studies, pp. 145–157 (1980).
  49. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. 2011. The History of Baron Ungern. An Experience of Reconstruction. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press, ISBN 978-5-87317-692-2, pp. 120–199.
Dynasty

A dynasty (UK: , US: ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "imperial", "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", "baronial" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BC–AD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (for example, "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (i.e., "a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. This also happened in the case of Queen Maria II of Portugal, who married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but whose descendants remained members of the House of Braganza, per Portuguese law. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.

Flag of Mongolia

The flag of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол улсын төрийн далбаа, romanized: Mongol ulsyn töriin dalbaa, lit. 'State flag of Mongolia') is a vertical tricolour with two reds at in sides and a blue in the middle, with the Soyombo symbol defacing the left red stripe. The blue stripe is described as the eternal blue sky and the red stripes symbolise thriving forever. The Soyombo symbol is a geometric abstraction that represents fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and a round shape as dualist aspect. The current flag was adopted on January 12, 1992, with the current official colour standards since July 8, 2011. Prior to that, the flag had a communist star above the Soyombo during the final 47 years of the Mongolian People's Republic.

Khatanbaatar Magsarjav

Khatanbaatar Magsarjav (Mongolian: Хатанбаатар Магсаржав, "firm hero" Magsarjav, 1877 – September 3, 1927) was a Mongolian general and a leading figure in Mongolia's struggle for independence. His contingent of 800 elite Mongol soldiers fought White Russian and Chinese forces over 30 times between 1912 and 1921, without a single defeat. He served as acting prime minister from February 15, 1921 to March 13, 1921, under Roman Ungern von Sternberg's puppet regime and then later as minister of the army in the 1920s. He received the additional title Ardyn Khatanbaatar Magsarjav (Mongolian: Ардын Хатанбаатар Магсаржав, People's firm hero Magsarjav) in 1924.

List of wars involving Mongolia

The following is an incomplete list of major wars fought by Mongolia, by Mongolian people or regular armies during periods when independent Mongolian states existed, from antiquity to the present day.

The list gives the name, the date, combatants, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

Mongolian victory

Mongolian defeat

Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)

Ongoing conflict

Malaysia–Mongolia relations

Malaysia–Mongolia relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Mongolia; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–منغوليا; Mongolian: Малайз-Монголын харилцаа Malaiz-Mongolyn khariltsaa) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Malaysia and Mongolia. Malaysia has an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar, and Mongolia honorary consulate in Bangkok was accredited to Malaysia.

Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɢɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

The Mongols are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

Occupation of Mongolia

The occupation of Outer Mongolia by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China began in October 1919 and lasted until early 1921, when Chinese troops in Urga were routed by Baron Ungern's White Russian (Buryats, Russians etc.) and Mongolian forces. These, in turn, were defeated by the Red Army and its Mongolian allies by June 1921.

Although the Beiyang government abolished the autonomy of the Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia and subsequently expanded its occupation to include Tuva, it was not able to secure its claim over Outer Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai (Tuva).

Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon. He defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades. The conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, and while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus. They also adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories.

During the Qianlong Emperor reign (1735–1796) the dynasty reached its apogee, but then began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi. When the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912.

Satellite state

A satellite state is a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990, for example. As used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. In some contexts it also refers to other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War—such as North Korea (especially in the years surrounding the Korean War of 1950–1953) and Cuba (particularly after it joined the Comecon in 1972). In Western usage, the term has seldom been applied to states other than those in the Soviet orbit. In Soviet usage, the term applied to the states in the orbit of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan.

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of the phrase satellite state in English back at least as far as 1916.

In times of war or political tension, satellite states sometimes serve as buffers between an enemy country and the nation exerting control over the satellites. "Satellite state" is one of several contentious terms used to describe the (alleged) subordination of one state to another. Other such terms include puppet state and neo-colony. In general, the term "satellite state" implies deep ideological and military allegiance to the hegemonic power, whereas "puppet state" implies political and military dependence, and "neo-colony" implies (often abject) economic dependence. Depending on which aspect of dependence is being emphasised, a state may fall into more than one category.

Soviet intervention in Mongolia

The Soviet intervention in Mongolia was a period of time from 1921 to 1924 when Soviet troops fought at the request of the communist government of the Mongolian People’s Party. And they fought against the anti-communist government of White Russian Baron Ungern. The period saw the quick establishment of the Mongolian People's Republic, and the formation of modern ideas of Mongolian nationalism and fully pulled Mongolia out of Beiyang government of China's influence, and under Soviet Russia's.

Timeline of historical geopolitical changes

This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and significant changes in territory such as the annexation, cession, or secession of land.

The types of changes listed here usually include (but are not limited to) the alteration of borders, the creation and fall of states, changes of geographical names, as well as a few geographical changes caused by unusually destructive natural disasters. Through the knowledge of such dates and events, the approximate year and age of a world map could be calculated and estimated.

Not all maps of the world created during a given age or period will be the same across the globe, as different mapmakers – or their employers – may have different views on the sovereignty or territorial integrity of the countries of the world or possess different levels of technological sophistication or geographical insight. Even maps created by the same mapmaker around the same time can differ significantly.The timeline below presents its information in reverse chronological order, beginning in the modern era and working backwards. Geopolitical changes are grouped and color-coded by the continent on which they occurred.

This article uses the Common Calendar System, which was established as the new Christian Calendar by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The Common Calendar uses the designation Common Era (CE or AD for Anno Domini) for years starting 1 January 1 CE, and Before Common Era (BCE or BC for Before Christ) for years before that date. The Common Calendar also follows the ordinal numbers rather than the cardinal numbers, so there was no "year zero" in this format; that is, the date 1 January 1 CE immediately followed the date 31 December 1 BCE. For the same reason, while the 2000s began on Saturday, 1 January 2000 CE, the official Third Millennium began on Monday, 1 January 2001 CE.

Tsagaan Sar

The Mongolian Lunar New Year, commonly known as Tsagaan Sar (Mongolian: Цагаан сар, Cagán sar / ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠠ, Mongolian pronunciation: [t͡sʰaɢaːŋ sar] or literally White Moon), is the first day of the year according to the Mongolian lunisolar calendar. The festival of the Lunar New Year is celebrated by the Mongols along with the people in the Arctic and some Turkic peoples.

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