Boetius of Dacia

Boetius de Dacia, OP (also spelled Boethius de Dacia) was a 13th-century Danish philosopher.

Name

The rendering of his name Danske Bo ("Bo the Dane") into Medieval Latin as Boetius de Dacia stems from the fact that the toponym Dania, meaning Denmark, was occasionally confused with Dacia during the Middle Ages.

Life and accomplishments

Boetius was born in the first half of the 13th century. Not much is known of his early life. The attempt to connect him to known persons from Denmark or Sweden has been unsuccessful.[1] All that is known is that he went to France to teach philosophy at the University of Paris. At the university, he associated with Siger of Brabant. He continued to teach for some time as arts masters rather than quickly moving on to study in the theology faculty or finding non-academic employment. He shared this unusual career path with Siger and others like Roger Bacon and Jean Buridan. He was condemned by Stephen Tempier in 1277 for being a leading member of the Averroist movement.[2] Boetius fled Paris with Siger and appealed to Pope Nicholas III. He was detained at the pontifical curia at Orvieto. He went on to join the Dominicans in Denmark.

Boetius was a follower of Aristotle and Averroes. He wrote on logic, natural philosophy, metaphysics, and ethics, though some of his works have not survived. His central position was that philosophy had to follow where the arguments led, regardless of their conflict with religious faith. For him, philosophy was the supreme human activity, and in this world only philosophers attained wisdom. In his book On the Highest Good, or On the Life of the Philosopher he offers a fervently Aristotelian description of man's highest good as the rational contemplation of truth and virtue. Among the controversial conclusions that he reached are the impossibility of creation ex nihilo, the eternity of the world and of the human race, and that there could be no resurrection of the dead.

Despite his radical views, Boetius remained a Christian; he attempted to reconcile his religious beliefs with his philosophical positions by assigning the investigation of the world and of human nature to philosophy, while to religion he assigned supernatural revelation and divine miracles. He was condemned for holding the doctrine of "double truth", though he was careful to avoid calling philosophical conclusions that ran contrary to religion true simpliciter: in each branch of knowledge, one must be careful to qualify one's conclusions. The conclusions that the philosopher reaches are true "according to natural causes and principles" (De Aeternitate Mundi, p. 351).

Works and translations

  • Boethii Daci Opera:
    • Modi significandi sive quaestiones super Priscianum maiorem, edited by John Pinborg & Henry Roos with the collaboration of Severino Skovgaard Jensen, Hauniae (Copenhague), G. E. C. Gad, Corpus Philosophorum Danicorum Medii Aevi, 4, 1969.
    • Quaestiones de generatione et corruptione -- Quaestiones super libros physicorum, edited by Géza Sajó, Hauniae (Copenhague), G. E. C. Gad, Corpus Philosophorum Danicorum Medii Aevi, 5, 1976.
    • Topica - Opuscola, Pars 1. Quaestiones super Librum Topicorum, edited by Nicolas George Green-Pedersen and John Pinborg; Pars 2. Opuscula: De aeternitate mundi. De summo bono. De somniis, edited by Nicolas George Green-Pedersen, Hauniae (Copenhague), G. E. C. Gad, Corpus Philosophorum Danicorum Medii Aevi, 6, 1976.
    • Quaestiones super IV Meteorologicorum, edited by Gianfranco Fioravanti, Hauniae (Copenhague), G. E. C. Gad, Corpus Philosophorum Danicorum Medii Aevi, 8, 1979.
  • Boethius of Dacia, On the Supreme Good; on the Eternity of the World; on Dreams. Edited by John F. Wippel, Mediaeval Sources in Translation. Toronto, Ont. Canada: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1987.
  • Boetius of Dacia, "The Sophisma 'Every Man Is of Necessity an Animal'", in Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump [edd & trans.] The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical texts. Volume One: Logic and the Philosophy of Language (1988, Cambridge University Press; ISBN 0-521-28063-X)

Notes

  1. ^ Boethius de Dacia, Verdens evighed, Det lille forlag, 2001, p. 8 (in Danish)
  2. ^ Maurer, Armand (1955-01-01). "Boetius of Dacia and the Double Truth". Mediaeval Studies. 17: 233–239. doi:10.1484/J.MS.2.306768. ISSN 0076-5872.

References

  • G. L. Bursill-Hall, Speculative Grammars of the Middle Ages: The Doctrine of the partes orationis of the Modistae, Mouton: The Hague, 1971.
  • John Marenbon, Later Medieval Philosophy (1150-1350), New York: Routledge, 1991 ISBN 0-415-06807-X.
  • Armand A. Maurer, "Boetius of Dacia", in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Paul Edwards, Collier Macmillan, 1967.
Averroism

Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.

Latin translations of Averroes' work became widely available at the universities which were springing up in Western Europe in the 13th century, and were received by scholasticists such as Siger of Brabant, Boetius of Dacia who examined Christian doctrines through reasoning and intellectual analysis.The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas in the restricted sense of the Averroists' "unity of the intellect" doctrine in his book De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas.

Based on this, Averroism came to be near-synonymous with atheism in late medieval usage.As a historiographical category, Averroism was first defined by Ernest Renan in Averroès et l'averroïsme (1852) in the sense of

radical or heterodox Aristotelianism.The reception of Averroes in Jewish thought has been termed "Jewish Averroism".

Jewish Averroist thought flourished in the later 14th century, and gradually declined in the course of the 15th century.

The last representative of Jewish Averroism was Elia del Medigo, writing in 1485.

Boethius (disambiguation)

Boethius was a Roman philosopher of the early 6th century.

Boethius or Boëthius may also refer to:

Boethius (consul 522), son of the Roman philosopher, consul in 522

Boetius of Dacia, medieval Danish or Swedish philosopher

Hector Boece (or Boethius, or Boyce) (1465–1536) Scottish philosopher and historian

Boëthius (family), for members of the Swedish family

Boethius (lunar crater), located on the east edge of Mare Undarum near the eastern lunar limb

Boethius (Mercurian crater), located on Mercury

Catholic moral theology

Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics. Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory. It can be distinguished as dealing with "how one is to act", in contrast to dogmatic theology which proposes "what one is to believe".

Devotio Moderna

Devotio Moderna, or Modern Devotion, was a movement for religious reform, calling for apostolic renewal through the rediscovery of genuine pious practices such as humility, obedience, and simplicity of life. It began in the late fourteenth-century, largely through the work of Gerard Groote, and flourished in the Low Countries and Germany in the fifteenth century, but came to an end with the Protestant Reformation. It is most known today through its influence on Thomas à Kempis, the author of The Imitation of Christ, a book which proved highly influential for centuries.

Emmanuel Mounier

Emmanuel Mounier (; French: [munje]; 1 April 1905 – 22 March 1950) was a French philosopher, theologian, teacher and essayist.

Index of medieval philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri

Abhinavagupta

Abner of Burgos

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham ibn Daud

Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī

Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abu Yaqub Sijistani

Acharya Hemachandra

Active intellect

Actus et potentia

Actus primus

Actus purus

Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio

Adam de Buckfield

Adam de Wodeham

Adam of Łowicz

Adam Parvipontanus

Adam Pulchrae Mulieris

Adelard of Bath

Adi Shankara

Ahmad Sirhindi

Al-Farabi

Al-Ghazali

Al-Jahiz

Al-Kindi

Al-Shahrastani

Al Amiri

Alain de Lille

Albert of Saxony (philosopher)

Albertus Magnus

Alcuin

Alessandro Achillini

Alexander Bonini

Alexander Neckam

Alexander of Hales

Alfred of Sareshel

Alhazen

Altheides

Amalric of Bena

André of Neufchâteau

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Laon

Antonio Beccadelli

Arab transmission of the Classics to the West

Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī

Auctoritates Aristotelis

Augustine Eriugena

Augustine of Hippo

Averroes

Averroism

Avicenna

Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani

Barlaam of Seminara

Bartholomew of Bologna (philosopher)

Bartolommeo Spina

Basilios Bessarion

Bernard of Chartres

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Trilia

Bernard Silvestris

Berthold of Moosburg

Boethius

Boetius of Dacia

Bonaventure

Brethren of Purity

Brunetto Latini

Byzantine philosophy

Byzantine rhetoric

Cahal Daly

Caigentan

Cardinal virtues

Carolus Sigonius

Catherine of Siena

Celestial spheres

Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)

Choe Chung

Christine de Pizan

Condemnations of 1210–1277

Consolation of Philosophy

Constantine of Kostenets

Contra principia negantem disputari non potest

Convivio

Cosmographia (Bernard Silvestris)

Credo ut intelligam

Cristoforo Landino

Daniel of Morley

Dante Alighieri

David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

De divisione naturae

Demetrius Chalcondyles

Denis the Carthusian

Divine apathy

Doctrine of the Mean

Dōgen

Dominicus Gundissalinus

Duns Scotus

Dynamics of the celestial spheres

Early Islamic philosophy

Elia del Medigo

Ethica thomistica

Étienne Tempier

Eustratius of Nicaea

Euthymius of Athos

Everard of Ypres

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Federico Cesi

Five wits

Francesco Filelfo

Francis of Marchia

Francis of Mayrone

Francis Robortello

Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco Suárez

Franciscus Bonae Spei

Fujiwara Seika

Gabriel Biel

Galileo Galilei

Garlandus Compotista

Gasparinus de Bergamo

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers

Gemistus Pletho

George of Trebizond

Gerard of Abbeville

Gerard of Bologna

Gerard of Brussels

Gerard of Cremona

Gerardus Odonis

Gersonides

Gilbert de la Porrée

Giles of Lessines

Giles of Rome

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Godfrey of Fontaines

Gonsalvus of Spain

Great chain of being

Gregor Reisch

Gregory of Rimini

Grzegorz of Stawiszyn

Guarino da Verona

Guido Terrena

Guillaume Pierre Godin

Guru Nanak Dev

Haecceity

Haribhadra

Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Henry Aristippus

Henry Harclay

Henry of Ghent

Herman of Carinthia

Hermannus Alemannus

Hervaeus Natalis

Heymeric de Campo

Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi

Hisdosus

Hōnen

How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

Hugh of Saint Victor

Hugh of St Cher

Hylomorphism

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn al-Rawandi

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Bajjah

Ibn Hazm

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Masarrah

Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Tufail

Immanuel the Roman

Insolubilia

Intellectualism

Intelligible form

Ioane Petritsi

Ippen

Isaac Abrabanel

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon

Isagoge

Isotta Nogarola

Jacob ben Nissim

Jacopo Zabarella

Jakub of Gostynin

Jan Szylling

Jayatirtha

Jean Buridan

Jean Capréolus

Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi

Jien

Jinul

Jiva Goswami

Jocelin of Soissons

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Argyropoulos

John Blund

John de Sècheville

John Dumbleton

John Halgren of Abbeville

John Hennon

John Italus

John Major (philosopher)

John of Damascus

John of Głogów

John of Jandun

John of Mirecourt

John of Paris

John of Salisbury

John of St. Thomas

John Pagus

John Peckham

Joseph Albo

Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta

Judah ben Moses Romano

Judah Halevi

Julius Caesar Scaliger

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Kwon Geun

Lambert of Auxerre

Lambertus de Monte

Leo the Mathematician

Leon Battista Alberti

Leonardo da Vinci

List of scholastic philosophers

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī

Madhvacharya

Maimonides

Manuel Chrysoloras

Marcus Musurus

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilius of Inghen

Marsilius of Padua

Matheolus Perusinus

Matthew of Aquasparta

Medieval philosophy

Meister Eckhart

Michael of Ephesus

Michael of Massa

Michael Psellos

Michał Falkener

Miskawayh

Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in

Moralium dogma philosophorum

Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Myōe

Nahmanides

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Nasir Khusraw

Neo-medievalism

Niccolò Machiavelli

Nichiren

Nicholas of Autrecourt

Nicholas of Kues

Nicole Oresme

Nikephoros Choumnos

Odo of Châteauroux

Omar Khayyám

Oxford Calculators

Oxford Franciscan school

Palla Strozzi

Paolo da Pergola

Passive intellect

Patriarch Gennadios II of Constantinople

Paul of Venice

Peripatetic axiom

Peter Abelard

Peter Aureol

Peter Ceffons

Peter Crockaert

Peter de Rivo

Peter Helias

Peter Lombard

Peter of Auvergne

Peter of Capua

Peter of Corbeil

Peter of Poitiers

Peter of Spain (author)

Peter Olivi

Petrarch

Petrus Aureolus

Petrus Ramus

Photios I of Constantinople

Pierre d'Ailly

Pierre de Bar

Pietro Alcionio

Pietro d'Abano

Policraticus

Porphyrian tree

Praepositinus

Primum movens

Problem of universals

Proslogion

Qotb al-Din Shirazi

Quiddity

Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Radulfus Ardens

Radulphus Brito

Ralph of Longchamp

Ralph Strode

Ramanuja

Ramism

Ramon Llull

Remigius of Auxerre

Renaissance

Renaissance humanism

Renaissance philosophy

Richard Brinkley

Richard Kilvington

Richard of Campsall

Richard of Middleton

Richard of Saint Victor

Richard Rufus of Cornwall

Richard Swineshead

Richard Wilton

Robert Alyngton

Robert Cowton

Robert Grosseteste

Robert Holcot

Robert Kilwardby

Robert of Melun

Robert Pullus

Rodolphus Agricola

Roger Bacon

Roland of Cremona

Roscelin of Compiègne

Roscellinus

Rota Fortunae

Scholasticism

School of Saint Victor

Scotism

Sensus communis

Sentences

Seosan

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi

Shinran

Siger of Brabant

Simon of Faversham

Simon of Tournai

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Sophismata

Sperone Speroni

Stephen of Alexandria

Substantial form

Sum of Logic

Summa

Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica

Summum bonum

Supposition theory

Synderesis

Temporal finitism

Term logic

Theodore Metochites

Thierry of Chartres

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Gallus

Thomas of Sutton

Thomas of Villanova

Thomas of York (Franciscan)

Thomas Wilton

Thomism

Thought of Thomas Aquinas

Timeline of Niccolò Machiavelli

Ulrich of Strasburg

University of Constantinople

Univocity

Urso of Calabria

Vācaspati Miśra

Vijnanabhiksu

Vincent Ferrer

Vital du Four

Voluntarism (metaphysics)

Voluntarism (theology)

Walter Burley

Walter Chatton

Walter of Bruges

Walter of Mortagne

Walter of St Victor

Walter of Winterburn

Wang Yangming

William Crathorn

William de la Mare

William of Alnwick

William of Auvergne (bishop)

William of Auxerre

William of Champeaux

William of Conches

William of Falgar

William of Heytesbury

William of Lucca

William of Moerbeke

William of Ockham

William of Saint-Amour

William of Sherwood

William of Ware

Works by Thomas Aquinas

Yi Hwang

Yohanan Alemanno

Zhang Zai

Zhu Xi

Johann Baptist Metz

Johann Baptist Metz (born 5 August 1928) is a German Catholic theologian. He is Ordinary Professor of Fundamental Theology, Emeritus, at Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster, Germany.

Joseph Maréchal

Joseph Maréchal (1 July 1878 – 11 December 1944) was a Belgian Jesuit priest, philosopher, theologian and psychologist. He taught at the Higher Institute of Philosophy of the University of Leuven and was the founder of the school of thought called transcendental Thomism, which attempted to merge the theological and philosophical thought of St. Thomas Aquinas with that of Immanuel Kant.

List of Catholic philosophers and theologians

This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.

List of scholastic philosophers

This is a list of philosophers and scholars working in the Christian tradition in Western Europe during the medieval period, including the early Middle Ages. See also scholasticism.

Luigi Taparelli

Luigi Taparelli (born Prospero Taparelli d'Azeglio; 1793–1862) was an Italian Catholic scholar of the Society of Jesus who coined the term social justice.

Luis de Molina

Luis de Molina (; 29 September 1535, Cuenca, Spain – 12 October 1600, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish Jesuit priest and scholastic, a staunch defender of free will in the controversy over human liberty and God's grace. His theology is known as Molinism.

Léon Bloy

Léon Bloy (1846–1917) was a French novelist, essayist, pamphleteer, and poet.

Michał Heller

Michał Kazimierz Heller (born 12 March 1936 in Tarnów) is a Polish professor of philosophy at the Pontifical University of John Paul II in Kraków, Poland, and an adjunct member of the Vatican Observatory staff. He also serves as a lecturer in the philosophy of science and logic at the Theological Institute in Tarnów. A Roman Catholic priest belonging to the diocese of Tarnów, Heller was ordained in 1959. In 2008 he received the Templeton Prize for his works in the field of philosophy.

Modistae

The Modistae (Latin for "Modists"), also known as the speculative grammarians, were the members of a school of grammarian philosophy known as Modism or speculative grammar, active in northern France, Germany, England, and Denmark in the 13th and 14th centuries. Their influence was felt much less in the southern part of Europe, where the somewhat opposing tradition of the so-called "pedagogical grammar" never lost its preponderance.

Peter Kreeft

Peter John Kreeft (; born 1937) is a professor of philosophy at Boston College and The King's College. He is the author of over a hundred books on Christian philosophy, theology and apologetics. He also formulated, together with Ronald K. Tacelli, "Twenty Arguments for the Existence of God".

Scott Hahn

Scott W. Hahn (born October 28, 1957) is an American Roman Catholic theologian. A former Presbyterian who converted to Catholicism, Hahn's popular works include Rome Sweet Home and The Lamb's Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth. His lectures have been featured in multiple audio distributions through Lighthouse Catholic Media. Dr. Hahn is known for his research on early Christianity during the Apostolic Age and various theoretical works concerning the early Church Fathers.

Hahn presently teaches at the Franciscan University of Steubenville, a Catholic university in the United States. He has also lectured at the Pontifical College Josephinum in Columbus, Ohio. Hahn is married to Kimberly Hahn, who co-runs their Catholic apostolate, the Saint Paul Center for Biblical Theology.

Siger of Brabant

Siger of Brabant (Sigerus, Sighier, Sigieri or Sygerius de Brabantia; c. 1240 – before 10 November 1284) was a 13th-century philosopher from the southern Low Countries who was an important proponent of Averroism. He was considered a radical by the conservative members of the Roman Catholic Church, but it is suggested that he played as important a role as his contemporary Thomas Aquinas in the shaping of Western attitudes towards faith and reason.

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