Boeing X-37

The Boeing X-37, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), is a reusable uncrewed spacecraft. It is boosted into space by a launch vehicle, then re-enters Earth's atmosphere and lands as a spaceplane. The X-37 is operated by the United States Air Force for orbital spaceflight missions intended to demonstrate reusable space technologies.[4] It is a 120%-scaled derivative of the earlier Boeing X-40.

The X-37 began as a NASA project in 1999, before being transferred to the U.S. Department of Defense in 2004. Its first flight was during a drop test in 2006. There have been five X-37 orbital missions. The spaceplane's first mission, USA-212, was launched in April 2010 and returned to Earth in December 2010. A second X-37 was launched on mission USA-226 in March 2011 and returned in June 2012. The third mission was USA-240, which launched in December 2012 and landed in October 2014. The fourth mission, USA-261, launched in May 2015 and landed in May 2017. The fifth and latest X-37 mission, USA-277, launched on 7 September 2017.

X-37
Boeing X-37B inside payload fairing before launch
The OTV-1 X-37B in April 2010, inside its payload fairing prior to launch
Role Uncrewed spaceplane
National origin United States
Manufacturer Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 7 April 2006 (first drop test)
Introduction 22 April 2010 (first spaceflight)
Status
Primary user
Number built
  • X-37A: 1
  • X-37B: 2
Developed from Boeing X-40

Development

Origins

In 1999, NASA selected Boeing Integrated Defense Systems to design and develop an orbital vehicle, built by the California branch of Boeing's Phantom Works. Over a four-year period, a total of $192 million was spent on the project, with NASA contributing $109 million, the U.S. Air Force $16 million, and Boeing $67 million. In late 2002, a new $301-million contract was awarded to Boeing as part of NASA's Space Launch Initiative framework.[5]

X-37 spacecraft, artist's rendition.jpeg
1999 artist's rendering of the X-37 spacecraft

The X-37's aerodynamic design was derived from the larger Space Shuttle orbiter, hence the X-37 has a similar lift-to-drag ratio, and a lower cross range at higher altitudes and Mach numbers compared to DARPA's Hypersonic Technology Vehicle.[6] An early requirement for the spacecraft called for a total mission delta-v of 7,000 mph (3.1 km/s) for orbital maneuvers.[7] An early goal for the program was for the X-37 to rendezvous with satellites and perform repairs.[8] The X-37 was originally designed to be carried into orbit in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay, but underwent redesign for launch on a Delta IV or comparable rocket after it was determined that a shuttle flight would be uneconomical.[9]

The X-37 was transferred from NASA to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on 13 September 2004.[10] Thereafter, the program became a classified project. DARPA promoted the X-37 as part of the independent space policy that the United States Department of Defense has pursued since the 1986 Challenger disaster.

Glide testing

The vehicle that was used as an atmospheric drop test glider had no propulsion system. Instead of an operational vehicle's payload bay doors, it had an enclosed and reinforced upper fuselage structure to allow it to be mated with a mothership. In September 2004, DARPA announced that for its initial atmospheric drop tests the X-37 would be launched from the Scaled Composites White Knight, a high-altitude research aircraft.[11]

Scaled-wk-070711-08-16
The Scaled Composites White Knight was used to launch the X-37A on glide tests.

On 21 June 2005, the X-37A completed a captive-carry flight underneath the White Knight from Mojave Spaceport in Mojave, California.[12][13] Through the second half of 2005, the X-37A underwent structural upgrades, including the reinforcement of its nose wheel supports. Further captive-carry flight tests and the first drop test were initially expected to occur in mid-February 2006. The X-37's public debut was scheduled for its first free flight on 10 March 2006, but was canceled due to an Arctic storm.[14] The next flight attempt, on 15 March 2006, was canceled due to high winds.[14]

On 24 March 2006, the X-37 flew again, but a datalink failure prevented a free flight, and the vehicle returned to the ground still attached to its White Knight carrier aircraft. On 7 April 2006, the X-37 made its first free glide flight. During landing, the vehicle overran the runway and sustained minor damage.[15] Following the vehicle's extended downtime for repairs, the program moved from Mojave to Air Force Plant 42 (KPMD) in Palmdale, California for the remainder of the flight test program. White Knight continued to be based at Mojave, though it was ferried to Plant 42 when test flights were scheduled. Five additional flights were performed,[N 1] two of which resulted in X-37 releases with successful landings. These two free flights occurred on 18 August 2006 and 26 September 2006.[16]

X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle

On 17 November 2006, the U.S. Air Force announced that it would develop its own variant from NASA's X-37A. The Air Force version was designated the X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV). The OTV program was built on earlier industry and government efforts by DARPA, NASA, and the Air Force under the leadership of the U.S. Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office in partnership with NASA and the Air Force Research Laboratory. Boeing was the prime contractor for the OTV program.[7][17][18] The X-37B was designed to remain in orbit for up to 270 days at a time.[19] The Secretary of the Air Force stated that the OTV program would focus on "risk reduction, experimentation, and operational concept development for reusable space vehicle technologies, in support of long-term developmental space objectives".[17]

The X-37B was originally scheduled for launch in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, but following the 2003 Columbia disaster, it was transferred to a Delta II 7920. The X-37B was subsequently transferred to a shrouded configuration on the Atlas V rocket, following concerns over the unshrouded spacecraft's aerodynamic properties during launch.[20] Following their missions, X-37B spacecraft primarily land on a runway at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, with Edwards Air Force Base as a secondary site.[21] In 2010, manufacturing work began on the second X-37B, OTV-2,[22] which conducted its maiden launch in March 2011.[23]

On 8 October 2014, NASA confirmed that X-37B vehicles would be housed at Kennedy Space Center in Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF) 1 and 2, hangars previously occupied by the Space Shuttle. Boeing had said the space planes would use OPF-1 in January 2014, and the Air Force had previously said it was considering consolidating X-37B operations, housed at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, nearer to their launch site at Cape Canaveral. NASA also stated that the program had completed tests to determine whether the X-37B, one-fourth the size of the Space Shuttle, could land on the former Shuttle runways.[24] NASA furthermore stated that renovations of the two hangars would be completed by the end of 2014; the main doors of OPF-1 were marked with the message "Home of the X-37B" by this point.[24]

Most of the activities of the X-37B project are secret. The official U.S. Air Force statement is that the project is "an experimental test program to demonstrate technologies for a reliable, reusable, unmanned space test platform for the U.S. Air Force".[4] The primary objectives of the X-37B are twofold: reusable spacecraft technology, and operating experiments which can be returned to Earth.[4] The Air Force states that this includes testing avionics, flight systems, guidance and navigation, thermal protection, insulation, propulsion, and re-entry systems.[25]

Speculation regarding purpose

In May 2010, Tom Burghardt wrote for Space Daily that the X-37B could be used as a spy satellite or to deliver weapons from space. The Pentagon subsequently denied claims that the X-37B's test missions supported the development of space-based weapons.[26]

In January 2012, allegations were made that the X-37B was being used to spy on China's Tiangong-1 space station module.[27] Former U.S. Air Force orbital analyst Brian Weeden later refuted this claim, emphasizing that the different orbits of the two spacecraft precluded any practical surveillance fly-bys.[28]

In October 2014, The Guardian reported the claims of security experts that the X-37B was being used "to test reconnaissance and spy sensors, particularly how they hold up against radiation and other hazards of orbit".[29]

In November 2016, the International Business Times stated that the U.S. government was testing a version of the EmDrive electromagnetic microwave thruster on the fourth flight of the X-37B.[30] In 2009, an EmDrive technology transfer contract with Boeing was undertaken via a State Department TAA and a UK export licence, approved by the UK MOD.[31][32] Boeing has since stated that it is no longer pursuing this area of research.[33] The U.S. Air Force has stated that the X-37B is testing a Hall-effect thruster system for Aerojet Rocketdyne.[34]

Processing

Processing for the X-37 is done inside Bays 1 and 2 of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where the vehicle is loaded with its top-secret payload. The X-37 is then placed inside a fairing along with its stage adapter and loaded on a KAMAG transporter for delivery to the launch site, be it Cape Canaveral SLC-37, SLC-41, or Kennedy Space Center LC-39A.

Landing is done at one of three sites across the country: the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base, or Edwards Air Force Base. To return to Kennedy Space Center, the X-37 is placed into a payload canister and loaded into a Boeing C-17 cargo plane. Once at Kennedy, the X-37 is unloaded and towed to the OPF, where it is prepared for its next flight, similar to the Space Shuttle.

Design

World's First Five Spaceplanes
At the time of its maiden launch, the X-37 (far right) was the smallest and lightest orbital spaceplane yet flown. Both the North American X-15 and SpaceShipOne were suborbital. Of the spaceplanes shown, only the X-37 and Buran conducted unmanned spaceflights.

The X-37 Orbital Test Vehicle is a reusable robotic spaceplane. It is an approximately 120%-scale derivative of the Boeing X-40,[5][21] measuring over 29 feet (8.8 m) in length, and features two angled tail fins.[4][35] The X-37 launches atop an Atlas V version 501[4][18] or a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.[36] The spaceplane is designed to operate in a speed range of up to Mach 25 on its reentry.[37][38]

The technologies demonstrated in the X-37 include an improved thermal protection system, enhanced avionics, an autonomous guidance system and an advanced airframe.[9] The spaceplane's thermal protection system is built upon previous generations of atmospheric reentry spacecraft,[39] incorporating silica ceramic tiles.[40] The X-37's avionics suite was used by Boeing to develop its CST-100 crewed spacecraft.[41] The development of the X-37 was to "aid in the design and development of NASA's Orbital Space Plane, designed to provide a crew rescue and crew transport capability to and from the International Space Station", according to a NASA fact sheet.[42]

The X-37 for NASA was to be powered by one Aerojet AR2-3 engine using storable propellants, providing thrust of 6,600 pounds-force (29.4 kN).[43] The human-rated AR2-3 engine had been used on the dual-power NF-104A astronaut training vehicle and was given a new flight certification for use on the X-37 with hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 propellants.[44] This was reportedly changed to a hypergolic nitrogen-tetroxide/hydrazine propulsion system.[20][45]

The X-37 lands automatically upon returning from orbit and is the second reusable spacecraft to have such a capability, after the Soviet Buran shuttle.[46] The X-37 is the smallest and lightest orbital spaceplane flown to date; it has a launch mass of around 11,000 pounds (5,000 kg) and is approximately one quarter of the size of the Space Shuttle orbiter.[47] In 2013, Guinness World Records recognised the X-37 as the world's smallest orbital spaceplane.[48]

On 13 April 2015, the Space Foundation awarded the X-37 team with the 2015 Space Achievement Award "for significantly advancing the state of the art for reusable spacecraft and on-orbit operations, with the design, development, test and orbital operation of the X-37B space flight vehicle over three missions totaling 1,367 days in space".[49]

Operational history

As of January 2019, the two operational X-37Bs have completed four orbital missions and one of them has been in orbit since 7 September 2017; they have spent a combined 2581 days in space.

Flight Vehicle Launch date Launcher Mission[50] Duration Notes
OTV-1 1 22 April 2010
23:52 UTC
Atlas V 501 USA-212 224 days and 9 hours
  • First launch of Atlas V 501 configuration
  • First American autonomous orbital runway landing
  • First X-37B flight
OTV-2 2 5 March 2011
22:46 UTC
Atlas V 501 USA-226 468 days and 14 hours
  • First flight of second X-37B
OTV-3 1 11 December 2012
18:03 UTC
Atlas V 501 USA-240 674 days and 22 hours
  • Second flight of first X-37B
OTV-4 2 20 May 2015
15:05 UTC
Atlas V 501 USA-261 717 days and 20 hours
OTV-5 ? 7 September 2017
14:00 UTC
Falcon 9 USA-277 Elapsed: 495 days and 17 hours
  • First launch of an X-37B on SpaceX's Falcon 9 vehicle

OTV-1

Boeing X-37B after landing at Vandenberg AFB, 3 December 2010
OTV-1 sits on the runway after landing at Vandenberg AFB at the close of its USA-212 mission on 3 December 2010.

OTV-1, the first X-37B, launched on its first mission – USA-212 – on an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, on 22 April 2010 at 23:52 UTC. The spacecraft was placed into low Earth orbit for testing.[18] While the U.S. Air Force revealed few orbital details of the mission, amateur astronomers claimed to have identified the spacecraft in orbit and shared their findings. A worldwide network of amateur astronomers reported that, on 22 May 2010, the spacecraft was in an inclination of 39.99 degrees, circling the Earth once every 90 minutes on an orbit 249 by 262 miles (401 by 422 km).[51][52] OTV-1 reputedly passed over the same given spot on Earth every four days, and operated at an altitude of 255 miles (410 km), which is typical for military surveillance satellites.[53] Such an orbit is also common among civilian LEO satellites, and the spaceplane's altitude was the same as that of the ISS and most other crewed spacecraft.

The U.S. Air Force announced on 30 November 2010 that OTV-1 would return for a landing during the 3–6 December timeframe.[54][55] As scheduled, OTV-1 de-orbited, reentered Earth's atmosphere, and landed successfully at Vandenberg AFB on 3 December 2010, at 09:16 UTC,[56][57][58] conducting America's first autonomous orbital landing onto a runway; the first spacecraft to perform such a feat was the Soviet Buran shuttle in 1988. In all, OTV-1 spent 224 days and 9 hours in space.[18][56] OTV-1 suffered a tire blowout during landing and sustained minor damage to its underside.[22]

OTV-2

OTV-2, the second X-37B, launched on its inaugural mission, designated USA-226,[59] aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral on 5 March 2011 at 22:46 UTC.[60] The mission was classified and described by the U.S. military as an effort to test new space technologies.[61] On 29 November 2011, the U.S. Air Force announced that it would extend the mission of USA-226 beyond the 270-day baseline design duration.[62] In April 2012, General William L. Shelton of the Air Force Space Command declared the ongoing mission a "spectacular success".[63]

On 30 May 2012, the Air Force stated that OTV-2 would complete its mission and land at Vandenberg AFB in June 2012.[64][65] The spacecraft landed autonomously on 16 June 2012, having spent 468 days and 14 hours in space.[60][1][66]

OTV-3

OTV-3, the second mission for the first X-37B and the third X-37B mission overall, was originally scheduled to launch on 25 October 2012,[67] but was postponed because of an engine issue with the Atlas V launch vehicle.[68] The X-37B was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral on 11 December 2012 at 18:03 UTC.[47][69][70] The launch was designated USA-240.[71][72] The OTV-3 mission ended with a landing at Vandenberg AFB on 17 October 2014 at 16:24 UTC, after a total time in orbit of 674 days and 22 hours.[69][2][73][74]

OTV-4

X-37B OTV4 landed at Kennedy Space Center (170507-O-FH989-001)
OTV-4 stationary at the Shuttle Landing Facility

The Air Force launched a fourth X-37B mission, designated OTV-4 and codenamed AFSPC-5, aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on 20 May 2015 at 15:05 UTC.[75] The launch was designated USA-261 and is the second flight of the second X-37B vehicle.[20] The mission was to test Aerojet Rocketdyne's XR-5A Hall-effect thruster in support of the Advanced Extremely High Frequency communications satellite program,[34][76] and conduct a NASA investigation for testing various materials in space[20][49][77] for at least 200 days.[20] The vehicle spent a record-breaking 717 days and 20 hours in orbit before landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility on 7 May 2017 shortly before 12:00 UTC.[3][78]

OTV-5

The fifth X-37B mission was launched on 7 September 2017 at 14:00 UTC[79][80] atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A; the Falcon first stage returned to land at SpaceX's Landing Zone 1 at KSC[79] and was quickly returned to its processing facility before the imminent arrival of Hurricane Irma.[81] This launch was designated as USA-277.[50]

The spacecraft was inserted at a higher orbital inclination than previous missions to further expand the X-37B's orbital envelope.[82] It later had its orbit modified.[83] While the complete payload for OTV-5 is unknown, the Air Force announced that one experiment flying is the Advanced Structurally Embedded Thermal Spreader II (ASETS-II), which measures the performance of an oscillating heat pipe.[84] A number of small satellites also shared the ride.[82]

OTV-6

The sixth X-37B mission, OTV-6, is planned to fly on an Atlas V 501 rocket in 2019.[50]

Variants

X-37A

The X-37A was the initial NASA version of the spacecraft; the X-37A Approach and Landing Test Vehicle (ALTV) was used in drop glide tests in 2005 and 2006.[13][85]

X-37B

The X-37B is a modified version of the NASA X-37A, built for the U.S. Air Force.[4] Two were built and have been used for multiple orbital missions.[69]

X-37C

In 2011, Boeing announced plans for a scaled-up variant of the X-37B, referring to it as the X-37C. The X-37C spacecraft would be between 165% and 180% of the size of the X-37B, allowing it to transport up to six astronauts inside a pressurized compartment housed in the cargo bay. Its proposed launch vehicle is the Atlas V Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle.[86] In this role, Boeing's X-37C could potentially compete with the corporation's CST-100 commercial space capsule.[87]

Specifications

Three-views of the X-37B

X 37B OTV-2 01
X 37B OTV-2 02

X-37B

Data from USAF,[4][39] Boeing,[88] Air & Space Magazine,[85] and PhysOrg.[89]

General characteristics

  • Crew: none
  • Length: 29 ft 3 in (8.92 m)
  • Wingspan: 14 ft 11 in (4.55 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m)
  • Max takeoff weight: 11,000 lb (4,990 kg)
  • Electrical power: Gallium arsenide solar cells with lithium-ion batteries[4]
  • Payload bay: 7 × 4 ft (2.1 × 1.2 m)[88]

Performance

See also

Related development

  • Boeing X-40, a subsonic test glider, direct predecessor to the X-37B

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Notes

  1. ^ Source of flights: mission markings posted on side of White Knight aircraft.
  2. ^ This figure is based on pre-launch design estimates; it does not reflect the spacecraft's actual performance capacity. During its 2012–2014 test mission, the OTV-3 X-37B spent over 670 days in space.

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Bibliography

  • Bentley, Matthew A. (2008). Spaceplanes: From Airport to Spaceport. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-76509-9.
  • Gump, David P. (1989). Space Enterprise: Beyond NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-93314-2.
  • Miller, Jay (2001). The X-Planes: X-1 to X-45. Hinckley, UK: Midland. ISBN 978-1-85780-109-5.
  • Yenne, Bill (2005). The Story of the Boeing Company. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith. ISBN 978-0-7603-2333-5.

External links

Atmospheric Reentry Experimental Spaceplane

Atmospheric Reentry Experimental Spaceplane (ARES) is a robotic spaceplane concept tested by France. A prototype was flown once in 2009 and then the project merged with the French Dassault Aviation VEHRA programme to produce a concept called Dassault Ares Spaceplane.

Avatar (spacecraft)

Avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार) (from "Aerobic Vehicle for Transatmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace TrAnspoRtation") is a concept study for a robotic single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation. The mission concept is for low cost military and commercial satellite space launches.This spaceplane concept is unrelated to India's RLV Technology Demonstration Programme (RLV-TD).

BOR-5

The BOR-5 (БОР-5 Russian: Беспилотный Орбитальный Ракетоплан 5, Bespilotnyi Orbital'nyi Raketoplan 5, "Unpiloted Orbital Rocketplane 5") is a 1:8 sized test flight vehicle, used to study the main aerodynamic, thermal, acoustic and stability characteristics of the Buran. It follows upon the BOR-4 reentry test vehicle.

It was put into a suborbital trajectory by a K65M-RB5 rocket launched from Kapustin Yar, near Volga, towards Lake Balkhash.

Boeing Phantom Works

Boeing Phantom Works is the advanced prototyping arm of the defense and security side of The Boeing Company. Its primary focus is developing advanced military products and technologies, many of them highly classified.

Founded by McDonnell Douglas, the research and development group continued after Boeing acquired the company. Its logo is similar to one used for the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom fighter.

Boeing X-40

The Boeing X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle was a test platform for the X-37 Future-X Reusable Launch Vehicle.

Falke (spacecraft)

Falke was a German program to fly a subscale model of the Space Shuttle orbiter in real conditions in order to obtain aerodynamic data in the frame of the preparation of the Hermes spaceplane. One flight test was performed in 1990.

HOPE-X

HOPE was a Japanese experimental spaceplane project designed by a partnership between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s. It was positioned for most of its lifetime as one of the main Japanese contributions to the International Space Station, the other being the Japanese Experiment Module. The project was eventually cancelled in 2003, by which point test flights of a sub-scale testbed had flown successfully.

HYFLEX

HYFLEX (Hypersonic Flight Experiment) was a National Space Development Agency of Japan reentry demonstrator prototype which was launched in 1996 on the only flight of the J-I launcher. It was a successor of OREX and was a precursor for the Japanese space shuttle HOPE-X.

HYFLEX tested the carbon-carbon heat shielding tiles that were intended to be used on HOPE, as well as having the same body shaping in order to gather data on hypersonic lifting. HYFLEX flew in space at 110 kilometres (68 mi) altitude and succeeded in re-entry, but sank in the Pacific after splashdown before it could be recovered.

Hypersonic Flight Experiment

Hypersonic Flight Experiment or HEX was the first test flight in the RLV Technology Demonstration Programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The demonstration trials will pave the way for a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) fully re-usable launch vehicle. HEX was launched on 23 May 2016.

Mojave Air and Space Port

The Mojave Air and Space Port (IATA: MHV, ICAO: KMHV), also known as the Civilian Aerospace Test Center, is located in Mojave, California, at an elevation of 2,801 feet (854 m). It is the first facility to be licensed in the United States for horizontal launches of reusable spacecraft, being certified as a spaceport by the Federal Aviation Administration on June 17, 2004. The facility covers 2,998 acres (1,213 ha) and contains three runways.

OTV

OTV may refer to:

Odor threshold value a measure of odor intensity

Orbital Test Vehicle, another name for the Boeing X-37 unmanned spacecraft

Orbital transfer vehicle, a space tug used to move a spacecraft from one orbit to another

Outer Tactical Vest, a part of the Interceptor body armor system

Overlay Transport Virtualization, an alternative of virtualization in information technology

Ozone tagging velocimetry, a modified hydroxyl tagging velocimetry

Programme for Reusable In-orbit Demonstrator in Europe

The Programme for Reusable In-orbit Demonstrator in Europe (PRIDE) is an Italian Space Agency programme that aims to develop a reusable robotic spaceplane named Space Rider in collaboration with the European Space Agency.

The PRIDE programme was approved at the ESA Ministerial Council in Naples, Italy on November 21, 2012 under the parent ESA programme called Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). The Space Rider spaceplane will be similar to, but smaller and cheaper than, the Boeing X-37. It will be launched by the Vega light rocket, operate robotically in orbit, and land automatically on a runway.

Rocketplane XP

The Rocketplane XP was a suborbital spaceplane design that was under development c. 2005 by Rocketplane Kistler. The vehicle was to be powered by two jet engines and a rocket engine, intended to enable it to reach suborbital space. The XP would have operated from existing spaceports in a manner consistent with established commercial aviation practices. Commercial flights were projected to begin in 2009. Rocketplane Global declared bankruptcy in mid-June 2010. Their assets were auctioned off in 2011.

Scaled Composites White Knight

The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight (now also called White Knight One) is a jet-powered carrier aircraft that was used to launch its companion SpaceShipOne, an experimental spaceplane. The White Knight and SpaceShipOne were designed by Burt Rutan and manufactured by Scaled Composites, a private company founded by Rutan in 1982. On three separate flights in 2004, White Knight conducted SpaceShipOne into flight, and SpaceShipOne then performed a sub-orbital spaceflight, becoming the first private craft to reach space.

The White Knight is notable as an example of a mother ship which carried a parasite aircraft into flight, releasing the latter which would then execute a high-altitude flight, or a sub-orbital spaceflight. This flight profile is shared with The High and Mighty One and Balls 8, two modified B-52s which carried the North American X-15 into flight. It is also shared with White Knight Two, a descendent which carries SpaceShipTwo into flight as part of the Virgin Galactic fleet.

Following the SpaceShipOne flights, the White Knight was contracted for drop tests of the Boeing X-37 spaceplane, from June 2005 until April 2006. The White Knight was retired from service in 2014, and is in the inventory of the Flying Heritage Collection.

Shenlong (spacecraft)

Shenlong (simplified Chinese: 神龙; traditional Chinese: 神龍; pinyin: shén lóng; literally: "divine dragon") is a prototype Chinese robotic spaceplane that is similar to the American Boeing X-37. Only a few pictures have appeared since it was revealed in late 2007.

SpaceShipThree

The Scaled Composites SpaceShipThree (SS3) is a concept orbital spaceplane proposed in 2005 by Virgin Galactic and Scaled Composites, ostensibly to follow SpaceShipTwo.

Space Integrated GPS/INS

Space Integrated GPS/INS (SIGI) is a strapdown Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) developed and built by Honeywell International to control and stabilize spacecrafts during flight.

SIGI has integrated global positioning and inertial navigation technology to provide three navigation solutions : Pure inertial, GPS-only and blended GPS/INS.

Space Rider

The Space RIDER (Space Reusable Integrated Demonstrator for Europe Return) is a planned uncrewed orbital spaceplane aiming to provide the European Space Agency (ESA) with affordable and routine access to space. Its expected maiden flight is for late 2021.Development of Space RIDER is being led by the Italian PRIDE programme in collaboration with ESA, and is the continuation of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) experience, launched on 11 February 2015. The cost of this phase, not including the launcher, is at least $36.7 million.

Spaceplane

A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space. It combines features of an aircraft and a spacecraft, which can be thought of as an aircraft that can endure and maneuver in the vacuum of space or likewise a spacecraft that can fly like an airplane. Typically, it takes the form of a spacecraft equipped with wings, although lifting bodies have been designed and tested as well. The propulsion to reach space may be purely rocket based or may use the assistance of airbreathing jet engines. The spaceflight is then followed by an unpowered glide return to landing.

Five kinds of spaceplanes have successfully flown to date, having reentered Earth's atmosphere, returned to Earth, and safely landed — the North American X-15, Space Shuttle, Buran, SpaceShipOne, and Boeing X-37. All five are considered rocket gliders. As of 2015, only these aircraft and rockets have succeeded in reaching space. Two of these five (X-15 and SpaceShipOne) are rocket-powered aircraft, having been carried up to an altitude of several tens of thousands of feet by an atmospheric mother ship before being released, and then flying beyond the Kármán line, the boundary of Earth's atmosphere, under their own power. Three (Space Shuttle, Buran, and X-37) are vertical takeoff horizontal landing (VTHL) vehicles relying upon rocket lift for the ascent phase in reaching space and atmospheric lift for reentry, descent and landing. The three VTHL spaceplanes flew much further than the aircraft launched ones, not merely leaving Earth's atmosphere but also entering orbit around it, which requires at least 50 times more energy on the way up and heavy heat shielding for the trip back. Of the five vehicles, three have been piloted by astronauts, with the Buran and X-37 flying unmanned missions.

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