Boeing 367-80

The Boeing 367-80, known simply as the Dash 80, is an American quadjet prototype aircraft built by Boeing to demonstrate the advantages of jet propulsion for commercial aviation. It served as base for the design of the KC-135 tanker and the 707 airliner.

The Dash 80 first flew in 1954, less than two years from project launch. Its US$16 million cost (equivalent to $149 million today) was an enormous risk for Boeing, which at the time had no committed customers. Only one example was built, which has been preserved and is currently on public display at the Udvar-Hazy Center in Virginia.

Boeing 367-80
Boeing 367-80 in flight
The Dash 80 is a low wing, quad jet aircraft
Role Prototype transport/airliner
Manufacturer Boeing
First flight July 15, 1954
Introduction 1955
Retired 1970
Status Preserved
Produced 1954
Number built 1
Unit cost
US$16 million (equivalent to $149 million today)
Developed into Boeing C-135 Stratolifter
Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker
Boeing 707
Other name(s) Dash 80
Registration N70700
Owners and operators Boeing
In service 1954–1969
Preserved at National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

Design and development

By the late 1940s two developments encouraged Boeing to begin considering building a passenger jet. The first was the maiden flight in 1947 of the B-47 Stratojet. The second was the maiden flight in 1949 of the world's first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet. Boeing President Bill Allen led a company delegation to the UK in summer 1950, where they saw the Comet fly at the Farnborough Airshow, and also visited the de Havilland factory at Hatfield, Hertfordshire where the Comets were being built. Boeing felt it had mastered the swept wing and podded engines which it saw as key technologies that would enable it to improve on the Comet.

Boeing Model 367-80
The Boeing 367-80 during its roll-out in May 1954

In 1950 Boeing tentatively produced a specification for a jet airliner dubbed the Model 473-60C.[1] The airlines were unconvinced[2] because they had no experience with jet transports and were enjoying success with piston engined aircraft such as the Douglas DC-4, DC-6, Boeing Stratocruiser and Lockheed Constellation.

Boeing was experienced at selling to the military but had not enjoyed the same success with civil airliners. This market was dominated by Douglas which was adept at meeting the needs of airlines by refining and developing its range of propeller-driven aircraft, and in 1950 was marketing the forthcoming DC-7. Boeing decided the only way to overcome the airlines' suspicion of the jet – and of itself – was to show them a completed aircraft.[3]

Dash80TaxiTestK62712-5
The Boeing 367-80 at Boeing Field in Washington (2000)

As the first of a new generation of passenger jets, Boeing wanted the aircraft's model number to emphasize the difference from its previous propeller-driven aircraft which bore 300-series numbers. The 400-, 500- and 600-series were already used by missiles and other products, so Boeing decided that the jets would bear 700-series numbers, and the first would be the 707.[4] Boeing had studied developments of its existing Model 367 (the KC-97 Stratofreighter) incorporating swept wings and podded engines; and chose to build the 367-80, which retained little of the KC-97 except the upper fuselage diameter (and the possibility of building some of the fuselage with existing tooling). Although the design was announced publicly as the Model 707, the prototype was referred to within Boeing simply as the Dash 80 or "-80".

The Dash 80 fuselage was wide enough at 132 inches (3,352.8 mm) for five-abreast seating; two on one side of the aisle and three on the other. The fuselage diameter for the production KC-135 was widened to 144 inches (3,657.6 mm) and Boeing originally hoped to build the 707 fuselage with that width. By the time the Boeing company committed to production, the decision had been made to design the production model 707 as a six-abreast design, with a larger 148-inch-diameter (3,759.2 mm) fuselage, after C. R. Smith, CEO of American Airlines, told Boeing he wouldn't buy the 707 unless it was an inch wider than the then-proposed Douglas DC-8 passenger jet. This decision did not unduly delay introduction of the production model since the -80 had been largely hand-built, using little production tooling.[5]

Operational history

By early 1952 the designs were complete and in April the Boeing board approved the program. Construction of the Dash 80 started in November in a walled-off section of Boeing's Renton plant.[6] As a proof of concept prototype there was no certification and no production line and most of the parts were custom built. The aircraft was not fitted with an airline cabin; a plywood lining housed the instrumentation for the flight test program.

NASA p416
Boeing 367-80 (N70700) prototype in a NASA archive photo

The Dash 80 rolled out of the factory on May 15, 1954, two years after the project was approved and 18 months after construction had started.[7] During a series of taxi trials the port landing gear collapsed on May 22; the damage was quickly repaired and the first flight was on July 15, 1954.

Following flights revealed a propensity to "Dutch roll" - an alternating yawing and rolling motion. Boeing already had experience with this on the B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress and had developed a yaw damper system on the B-47 that could be adapted to the Dash 80. Other problems were found with the engines and brakes, the latter once failing completely on landing causing the aircraft to overshoot the runway.[8]

Boeing used the Dash 80 on demonstration flights for airline executives and other industry figures. These focused attention on the question of what the cabin of a passenger jet should look like. In a departure from its usual practice Boeing hired industrial design firm Walter Dorwin Teague to create a cabin as radical as the aircraft itself.

Prior to demonstration for passenger airlines, the Dash 80 was fitted with Boeing's Flying Boom for aerial refueling which served as a prototype for the KC-135 Stratotanker and its later derivatives.

The barrel roll

As part of the Dash 80's demonstration program, Bill Allen invited representatives of the Aircraft Industries Association (AIA) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to the Seattle's 1955 Seafair and Gold Cup Hydroplane Races held on Lake Washington on August 6, 1955. The Dash 80 was scheduled to perform a simple flyover, but Boeing test pilot Alvin "Tex" Johnston instead performed two barrel rolls to show off the jet airliner.[9]

The next day, Allen summoned Johnston to his office and told him not to perform such a maneuver again, to which Johnston replied that he was simply "selling airplanes" and asserted that doing so was completely safe.[10][N 1]

Boeing Chief Test Pilot John Cashman stated that just before he piloted the maiden flight of the Boeing 777 on June 12, 1994, his last instructions from then-Boeing President Phil Condit were "No rolls."[11]

Use as an experimental aircraft

After the arrival of the first production 707 in 1957 the Dash 80 was adapted into a general experimental aircraft and used by Boeing to test a variety of new technologies and systems. One of its most important tasks during the late 1950s was to test systems for the new Boeing 727, including the fitting of a fifth engine in the rear fuselage.[2] Other tests included experiments with different airfoil shapes and a number of high lift devices such as blown flaps, in which compressed air bled from the engines is directed over the flaps to increase lift during takeoff and landing.

Final flight

After 2,350 hours and 1,691 flights the aircraft was withdrawn from use in 1969 and placed in storage.[12] On May 26, 1972 Boeing donated the 367-80 to the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, which had designated it one of the 12 most significant aircraft of all time.[12] For the next 18 years the aircraft was stored at a "desert boneyard" now called the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson, Arizona before being retrieved by Boeing in 1990 for restoration. The Dash 80's final flight was to Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C. on August 27, 2003. Repainted to its original yellow and brown Boeing livery, it was put on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, an annex of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, located adjacent to Dulles Airport in Chantilly, Virginia.[13]

Specifications (Boeing 367-80)

Data from Boeing Aircraft since 1916[14]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References

Notes
  1. ^ The contention that the maneuver was dangerous was refuted by Johnston himself. "It's a one-g maneuver. It's absolutely nonhazardous, but it's very impressive," explained Johnston to Allen. Other big four-engine jet aircraft have since done barrel rolls.[9]
Citations
  1. ^ Irving 1994, p. 166.
  2. ^ a b "Boeing 367-80." National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 2004. Retrieved: February 22, 2007.
  3. ^ Irving 1994, pp. 167–169.
  4. ^ Irving 1994, p. 171.
  5. ^ "707 Family." Archived May 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Boeing. Retrieved: April 3, 2010.
  6. ^ Thompson, R.G. "Dash 80 The story of the prototype 707." Air & Space Magazine, May 1, 1987. Retrieved: April 3, 2010.
  7. ^ Irving 1994, p. 173.
  8. ^ Irving 1994, p. 179.
  9. ^ a b "Video interview with Tex Johnston about barrel roll." aviationexplorer.com. Retrieved: April 3, 2010.
  10. ^ "It's Possible to Roll This Airplane." Flying Magazine, Vol. 135, No. 5, May 2008, p. 48.
  11. ^ Wallace, James. "After 40 years at Boeing, chief test pilot John Cashman is retiring." seattlepi.nwsource.com, January 12, 2007. Retrieved: April 4, 2009.
  12. ^ a b Pither 1998, p. 13.
  13. ^ Hanser, Kathleen and Claire Brown. "Historic Boeing Dash 80 Aircraft Makes Final Flight to Dulles for Display at National Air and Space Museum's Companion Facility, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center." Archived 2009-04-07 at the Wayback Machine Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved: April 3, 2010.
  14. ^ Bowers 1989, p. 432.
Bibliography
  • Bowers, Peter M. Boeing aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
  • Irving, Clive. Wide Body: The Making of the Boeing 747. Philadelphia: Coronet, 1994. ISBN 0-340-59983-9.
  • Tony Pither. The Boeing 707 720 and C-135. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd, 1998. ISBN 0-85130-236-X
  • Wilson, Stewart. Airliners of the World. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1999. ISBN 1-875671-44-7.

External links

1954 in the United States

Events from the year 1954 in the United States.

Barrel roll

A barrel roll is an aerial maneuver in which an airplane makes a complete rotation on both its longitudinal and lateral axes, causing it to follow a helical path, approximately maintaining its original direction. It is sometimes described as a "combination of a loop and a roll." The g-force is kept positive (but not constant) on the object throughout the maneuver, commonly between 2–3 g, and no less than 0.5 g. The barrel roll is commonly confused with an aileron roll.

Boeing 367

Boeing 367 was a model number for aircraft within the Boeing Company and refers to two different aircraft:

Boeing 367/C-97 Stratofreighter was a B-29 based prototype for the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser aircraft.

Boeing 367-80 or 'Dash 80', the 1950s prototype of Boeing's first jet airliner which had evolved from the original 367 design through a large number of design studies.

Boeing 707

The Boeing 707 is an American mid-sized, mid- to long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979. Versions of the aircraft have a capacity from 140 to 219 passengers and a range of 2,500 to 5,750 nautical miles (2,880 to 6,620 mi; 4,630 to 10,650 km).Developed as Boeing's first jet airliner, the 707 is a swept-wing design with podded engines. Although it was not the first jetliner in service, the 707 was the first to be commercially successful. Dominating passenger air transport in the 1960s and remaining common through the 1970s, the 707 is generally credited with ushering in the Jet Age. It established Boeing as one of the largest manufacturers of passenger aircraft, and led to the later series of airliners with "7x7" designations. The later 720, 727, 737, and 757 share elements of the 707's fuselage design.

The 707 was developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype jet first flown in 1954. A larger fuselage cross-section and other modifications resulted in the initial-production 707-120, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines, which first flew on December 20, 1957. Pan American World Airways began regular 707 service on October 26, 1958. Later derivatives included the shortened long-range 707-138, "hot and high" 707-220 and the stretched 707-320, all of which entered service in 1959. A smaller short-range variant, the 720, was introduced in 1960. The 707-420, a version of the stretched 707 with Rolls-Royce Conway turbofans, debuted in 1960, while Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans debuted on the 707-120B and 707-320B models in 1961 and 1962, respectively.

The 707 has been used on domestic, transcontinental, and transatlantic flights, and for cargo and military applications. A convertible passenger-freighter model, the 707-320C, entered service in 1963, and passenger 707s have been modified to freighter configurations. Military derivatives include the E-3 Sentry airborne reconnaissance aircraft and the C-137 Stratoliner VIP transports. A total of 865 Boeing 707s were produced and delivered along with over 800 military versions.

Boeing 720

The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 has a shorter fuselage and a shorter range. The 720 first flew in November 1959 and the model entered service with launch customer United Airlines in July 1960.

Two primary versions of the aircraft were built. The original 720 with Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines entered service in 1960, while the improved 720B with Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans entered service in 1961. Some 720s were later converted to 720B specification.

Although only 154 were built, the Boeing 720 and 720B were profitable due to the low research and development costs, being slightly modified versions of the 707-120. They were later replaced by the Boeing 727. The 720 is the only Boeing jet airliner not to follow the company's "7x7" naming formula (excluding former McDonnell Douglas airliners, such as the MD-80).

Boeing C-135 Stratolifter

The Boeing C-135 Stratolifter is a transport aircraft derived from the prototype Boeing 367-80 jet airliner (also the basis for the 707) in the early 1950s. It has a narrower fuselage and is shorter than the 707. Boeing gave the aircraft the internal designation of Model 717. Since the first one was built in August 1956, the C-135 and its variants have been a fixture of the United States Air Force.

Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker

The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft. Both the KC-135 and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. It is the predominant variant of the C-135 Stratolifter family of transport aircraft. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratofreighter. The KC-135 was initially tasked with refueling strategic bombers, but was used extensively in the Vietnam War and later conflicts such as Operation Desert Storm to extend the range and endurance of US tactical fighters and bombers.

The KC-135 entered service with the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1957; it is one of six military fixed-wing aircraft with over 50 years of continuous service with its original operator. The KC-135 is supplemented by the larger KC-10. Studies have concluded that many of the aircraft could be flown until 2030, although maintenance costs have greatly increased. The KC-135 is to be partially replaced by the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus.

Boeing NC-135

The Boeing NC-135 and NKC-135 are special versions of the Boeing C-135 Stratolifter and Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker modified to operate on several different programs.

Boeing Plant 2

Boeing Plant 2 (also known as Air Force Plant 17) was a factory building which was built in 1936 by The Boeing Company in King County, Washington in the United States. By the time production ceased in the building, the plant had built half of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, the Boeing 307s, the Boeing 377s, some of the Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, Boeing B-50 Superfortresses, B-47 Stratojets, B-52 Stratofortresses, and the initial Boeing 737s. It was located between the Duwamish River and Boeing Field, to the east of the 16th Avenue South bridge, facing East Marginal Way South.

Boeing Renton Factory

The Boeing Company's Renton, Washington Factory is a facility where Boeing 737 Next Generation and Boeing 737 MAX airliners are built. Current production includes the 737-700, 737-800, 737-900ER, 737 MAX 7, 737 MAX 8, 737 MAX 9, and 737 MAX 10 models. The floor space covered is 1.1 million square feet (102,000 square meters).The factory lies adjacent to Renton Municipal Airport.

Boeing YC-14

The Boeing YC-14 was a twinjet short take-off and landing (STOL) tactical military transport aircraft. It was Boeing's entrant into the United States Air Force's Advanced Medium STOL Transport (AMST) competition, which aimed to replace the Lockheed C-130 Hercules as the USAF's standard STOL tactical transport. Although both the YC-14 and the competing McDonnell Douglas YC-15 were successful, neither aircraft entered production. The AMST project was ended in 1979 and replaced by the C-X program.

George S. Schairer

George S. Schairer (May 19, 1913 – October 28, 2004) was an aerodynamicst at Consolidated Aircraft and Boeing whose design innovations became standard on virtually all types of military and passenger jet planes.

July 15

July 15 is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 169 days remain until the end of the year.

Krueger flap

Krueger flaps, or Krüger flaps, are lift enhancement devices that may be fitted to the leading edge of an aircraft wing. Unlike slats or drooped leading edges, the main wing upper surface and its nose is not changed. Instead, a portion of the lower wing is rotated out in front of the main wing leading edge. Current Boeing aircraft, and many others, use this design between the fuselage and closest engine, where the wing is thickest. Outboard of the engine, slat flaps are used on the leading edge. The Boeing 727 also used a mix of inboard Krueger flaps and outboard slats, although it had no engine between them. Most early jet airliners, such as the Boeing 707 and Boeing 747, used Krueger flaps only.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, also called the Udvar-Hazy Center, is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)'s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in the Chantilly area of Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. It holds numerous exhibits, including the Space Shuttle Discovery, the Enola Gay, and the Gemini 7 space capsule.

The 760,000-square-foot (71,000 m2; 17-acre; 7.1 ha) facility was made possible by a $65 million gift in October 1999 to the Smithsonian Institution by Steven F. Udvar-Házy, an immigrant from Hungary and co-founder of the International Lease Finance Corporation, an aircraft leasing corporation. The main NASM building, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C, had always contained more artifacts than could be displayed, and most of the collection had been stored, unavailable to visitors, at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland. A substantial addition to the center encompassing restoration, conservation and collection-storage facilities was completed in 2010. Restoration facilities and museum archives were moved from the museum's Garber facility to the new sections of the Udvar-Hazy Center.

William McPherson Allen

William McPherson "Bill" Allen (September 1, 1900 – October 28, 1985) was an American businessman in the aviation industry who served as the President of Boeing from 1945 to 1968.

Wing loading

In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level flight is partly determined by its wing loading. An aircraft with a low wing loading has a larger wing area relative to its mass, as compared to an aircraft with a high wing loading.

The faster an aircraft flies, the more lift can be produced by each unit of wing area, so a smaller wing can carry the same mass in level flight. Consequently, faster aircraft generally have higher wing loadings than slower aircraft. This increased wing loading also increases takeoff and landing distances. A higher wing loading also decreases maneuverability. The same constraints apply to winged biological organisms.

Boeing aircraft model numbers
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Boeing C-135 and 707 military transport aircraft
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