Boeing 307 Stratoliner

The Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner was a commercial transport aircraft that entered service in 1938. It was the first to offer a pressurized cabin, allowing it to cruise at an altitude of 20,000 ft (6,000 m), well above many weather disturbances. The pressure differential was 2.5 psi (17 kPa), so at 14,700 ft (4,480 m) the cabin air pressure was equivalent to an altitude of 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The Model 307 had capacity for a crew of six and 33 passengers. The cabin was nearly 12 ft (3.6 m) across. It was the first land-based aircraft to include a flight engineer as a crew member (several flying boats had included a flight engineer position earlier).[1] In addition to its civilian service it was also flown as the Boeing C-75 Stratoliner by the United States Army Air Forces, who used it as a long-range cargolift aircraft.

Boeing 307 Stratoliner
C-75
Boeing 307 Udvar Hazy
A restored (ex-Pan Am) Boeing 307 on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Boeing
First flight December 31, 1938
Introduction July 4, 1940 with Pan American Airways
Retired 1975
Status Retired
Primary users TWA
Pan American Airways
United States Army Air Forces
Number built 10
Unit cost
$315,000 in 1937[1] (equivalent to $5.5 million today)
Developed from Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

Development and design

In 1935, Boeing designed a four-engine airliner based on its B-17 heavy bomber (Boeing Model 299), then in development, calling it the Model 307. It combined the wings, tail, rudder, landing gear, and engines from their production B-17C with a new, circular cross-section fuselage of 138 in (351 cm) diameter,[2] designed to allow pressurization.[3]

The first order, for two 307s (named Stratoliners), was placed in 1937 by Pan American Airways. Pan Am soon increased this to six, and a second order for five from Transcontinental & Western Air (TWA) prompted Boeing to begin production on an initial batch of the airliner.[3][4][5]

C-75 conversion

At the time the United States entered World War II in December 1941, flying across oceans was a rare luxury. The war required government and military officials to do so, and most four-engined long-range commercial aircraft, including Pan American Airways' 14 flying boats and TWA's five Boeing 307s, were pressed into service. Additional fuel tanks were added to give them the extra range required; once converted they were designated C-75 for military use. Before World War II ended their production, ten commercial 307s had been built. TWA flew domestic routes between New York and Los Angeles for 18 months until the Army purchased their Stratoliners for wartime use as long-range, transatlantic transports for various VIPs or critical cargo on 26 January 1942.[6] TWA converted their 307s to military service in January 1942,[7] and its Intercontinental Division (ICD) then operated these C-75s under contract to the Army's Air Transport Command (ATC) until July 1944.[2] These were the only U. S. built commercial aircraft able to cross the Atlantic with a payload until the arrival of the Douglas C-54 Skymaster in November 1942.

Conversion to the C-75 included removal of the pressurization equipment to save weight, removal of the forward four (or five) of nine reclining seats along the port side, and alteration of the two forward Pullman-like compartments (of four) starboard of the left-of-centerline aisle. Space was thus provided for crew requirements on extremely long flights and for the addition of five 212.5 U.S. gal (804 L; 177 imp gal) fuel tanks. The landing gear was strengthened, the maximum takeoff weight was increased from 45,000 to 56,000 lb (20,400 to 25,400 kg), and the exterior was painted military olive drab.[2]

Operational history

The maiden flight of the first Boeing 307 Stratoliner (not a prototype, as it was planned to be delivered to Pan Am following testing and certification), registration NX 19901 took place from Boeing Field, Seattle on December 31, 1938.[8]

This aircraft crashed on March 18, 1939, while being demonstrated to representatives of KLM. After takeoff the aircraft climbed to an altitude of 11,000 feet. At this altitude, longitudinal stability tests were made. The next tests, as outlined by the flight plan, were side-slip tests. The aircraft went into an inadvertent spin subsequent to a stall at an altitude of approximately 11,000 feet. It made two to three turns in the spin, during which the engines were used to aid recovery. In recovering from the dive subsequent to the spin, the wings and horizontal tail surfaces failed upward apparently due to air loads in excess of those for which the aircraft was designed. The ten people aboard, including the KLM technical director, a representative of the Dutch Air Ministry, a Boeing test pilot, the Boeing Chief Aerodynamicist, the Boeing Chief Engineer, and a TWA representative were killed.[9] Subsequent wind tunnel testing showed that the addition of an extended dorsal fin ahead of and attached to the vertical tail prevented rudder lock. This was incorporated into the 307's rudder redesign, while also being incorporated in Boeing's rear fuselage redesign for their models "E" through "G" B-17 bomber.[10]

The first delivery to a customer was to multi-millionaire Howard Hughes, who bought one 307 for a round-the-world flight, hoping to break his own record of 91 hours 14 minutes set from July 10–14, 1938 in a Lockheed 14. Hughes' Boeing Stratoliner was fitted with extra fuel tanks and was ready to set out on the first leg of the round-the-world attempt when Nazi Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, causing the attempt to be abandoned. This 307 later had the extra fuel tanks removed, was fitted with much more powerful Wright R-2600 engines, and was transformed into a luxurious "flying penthouse" for Hughes, although it was little used, eventually being sold to oil tycoon Glenn McCarthy in 1949.[11][12]

Deliveries to Pan Am started in March 1940, with TWA receiving its first 307 in April. TWA's Stratoliners flew three-stop flights between Los Angeles and New York while Pan Am's flew from Miami to Latin America. Ten 307s were built, three being delivered to Pan-Am (Clipper Flying Cloud, Clipper Comet, and Clipper Rainbow) and five to TWA (Comanche, Cherokee, Zuni, Navajo, and Apache) with one aircraft going to Hughes.[13]

On the entry of the United States into World War II, Pan Am continued operating its Stratoliners on routes to Central and South America, but under direction of the Army Air Forces,[14] while TWA's 307s were sold to the United States government, being designated Boeing C-75 and operated by the United States Army Air Forces (although normally still flown by TWA crews).[15]

The Army returned its five C-75s to TWA in 1944, who sent them back to Boeing for rebuilding. Boeing replaced the wings and horizontal tail with those from the B-17G, while more powerful engines were fitted and the electrical system was replaced with one based on the B-29 Superfortress. Passenger capacity was increased from 33 to 38.[16] The total rebuilding cost to TWA was $2 million; the five aircraft re-entered passenger service on April 1, 1945. Although TWA was committed to the larger and faster Lockheed Constellation, it kept the Stratoliners until April 1951.[17]

Boeing 307 F-BELY Paya Lebar 1967
An Aigle Azur Stratoliner at Paya Lebar in 1967

TWA sold its Stratoliner fleet to the French airline Aigle Azur who used them on scheduled flights from France to North and Central Africa, and later to French Indo-China. These 307s were later transferred to Aigle Azur's Vietnamese subsidiary and were used by a number of airlines in South East Asia, with at least one aircraft remaining in commercial use until 1974.[18]

Pan Am flew its unmodified 33-passenger Stratoliners between Miami and Havana until 1947, then sold them to small operators. One aircraft was purchased by the Haitian Air Force, being fitted as a Presidential transport for François "Papa Doc" Duvalier. This aircraft later returned to the U.S. and was purchased by the Smithsonian Museum.[19]

C-75

Two main routes were flown: Washington, D.C., to Cairo across the South Atlantic, and New York to Prestwick, Scotland, across the North Atlantic.[20] They often flew non-stop the 2,125 statute miles (3,415 km) between Gander, Newfoundland and Prestwick, Scotland in the north, and the 2,550 statute miles (4,100 km) between Natal, Brazil and Accra, Ghana in the south. After July 1942 a refueling stop at Ascension Island was an option in the south.[21] In the north, stops at Iceland or Greenland were often necessary, especially flying westbound against the prevailing winds. As C-54s took over the Gander to Prestwick route, the C-75s operated a Marrakech-to-Prestwick service out over the Atlantic.[20]

In April 1945, the five C-75s were returned to TWA, having been restored by Boeing and recertified by the CAA as SA-307B-1 civilian transports with their old registration numbers. TWA then restyled the interior cabin in two sections, ten seats forward and 28 aft.[2]

Variants

Passengers on a Pan Am Boeing 307
Passengers aboard a Pan Am Boeing 307
Royal Air Lao Boeing 307 Stratoliner Volpati
Royal Air Lao Boeing 307 Stratoliner
300
original concept designation of 307.
307
equipped with Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G102 engines with single speed supercharger; five crew.
307B
equipped with Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G105A engines with two-speed supercharger for improved high altitude performance; seven crew.
C-75
Five Trans World 307Bs were pressed into service with the USAAF as military transports; the cabin pressurization was removed to save weight.
307B-1
Following military service, the C-75s were overhauled and updated with B-17G wings and tailplane, four Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G606 engines, and B-29-type electronics.

Operators

Civilian operators

 Cambodia
  • Cambodia Air Commercial
 Ecuador
  • Aerovias Ecuatorianas CA/AREA Ecuador[22]
 France
  • Aigle Azur ex-TWA aircraft bought in 1951 with replaced B-17G engines and wings.
 Laos
 United States

Military operators

 Haiti
 United States
  • United States Army Air Forces, the five TWA 307Bs were pressed into service and designated as C-75s. The three Pan Am 307s were also operated for the USAAF during World War II but retained civil registrations and were not redesignated.

Accidents and incidents

According to the Aviation Safety Network, the Boeing 307 was involved in eight hull-loss incidents for a total of 54 fatalities.[23]

  • On March 18, 1939, the first Boeing 307 (NX19901) crashed in the old town of Alder, near Mt. Rainier, during a demonstration flight for KLM, killing all ten on board. The aircraft went into a spin. The pilot attempted to recover, but this caused the aircraft to break up.[24]
  • On May 10, 1958, a Quaker City Airways Boeing 307 (N75385) force-landed near Madras, Oregon, after an explosion and fire in the cabin, possibly due to a fuel leak; the aircraft was consumed by the fire. Both pilots survived; the aircraft was on a test flight.[25]
  • On May 22, 1961, an Aigle Azur Extrême Orient Boeing 307 (F-BHHR) was blown off the runway and crashed at Tan Son Nhat International Airport while landing after the number four engine failed in flight; all 28 passengers and crew survived, but the aircraft was written off. The aircraft was operating a non-scheduled Saigon-Vientiane service.[26]
  • On December 29, 1962, an Airnautic Boeing 307B-1 (F-BELZ) crashed into Monte Renoso on Corsica due to crew error while on a Bastia-Nice-Ajaccio-Nice-Bastia flight, killing all 25 passengers and crew on board in the worst-ever accident involving the 307.[27]
  • On October 18, 1965, an ICC Boeing 307B-1 (F-BELV) disappeared while on a non-scheduled Vientiane-Hanoi passenger service with 13 on board; the aircraft was probably shot down. The aircraft was leased from Compagnie Internationale de Transports Civil Aériens.[28]
  • On February 27, 1971, a Royal Air Lao Boeing 307B-1 (XW-PGR) struck a Royal Lao Air Force Douglas C-47 while landing at Luang Prabang, damaging the left wing; the aircraft was not repaired due to a lack of spare parts.[29]
  • On June 27, 1974, a Cambodia Air Commercial Boeing 307B-1 (XW-TFR) force-landed in a rice field minutes after takeoff from Battambang Airport en route to Phnom Penh due to improper maintenance causing the failure of three engines; the right wing struck a tree and separated just before landing. 19 of 39 on board died.[30]
  • On March 13, 1975, a Royal Air Lao Boeing 307B-1 (XW-TFP) force-landed in the Mekong River in Laos while on a Hong Kong-Vientiane cargo service; both pilots (who survived) were held prisoner by the Pathet Lao before being released in May 1975. The aircraft was located in 1986.[31]

Surviving aircraft

Boeing 307 in Elliott Bay
Boeing 307 (NC 19903) in Elliott Bay, Seattle, March 28, 2002

The only surviving Boeing 307 Stratoliner (NC19903) is preserved in flying condition at the Smithsonian Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. On March 28, 2002, this aircraft crashed into Elliott Bay in Seattle, Washington, on what was to be its last flight before heading to the Smithsonian.[32] Despite the incident, it was again restored, flown to the Smithsonian, and is now on display.[33]

The fuselage of Howard Hughes' personal 307 also survives, although it has been converted into a houseboat.[34] The aircraft was awaiting restoration at Fort Lauderdale International Airport in the early 1960s when it was severely damaged in a hurricane after its tiedowns failed and it was blown into a stand of trees. The aircraft languished for nearly a year before being removed and longer still until later salvaged for its conversion into the house boat. The interior is notable for the original finishes and fitments added by Howard Hughes.[35][36][37]

Specifications (Boeing 307)

Data from Jane's AWA 1942 (apart from wing area and loading)

General characteristics

  • Crew: five: two pilots, flight engineer, two cabin crew
  • Capacity: 38 passengers in daytime, 25 by night
  • Length: 74 ft 4 in (22.6 m)
  • Wingspan: 107 ft 0 in (32.63 m)
  • Height: 20 ft 9.5 in (6.33 m)
  • Wing area: 1,486 sq ft (138 m2)
  • Empty weight: 30,000 lb (13,608 kg)
  • Gross weight: 45,000 lb (20,420 kg)
  • Powerplant: 4 × Wright GR-1820-G102A radial engines, 1100 hp (820 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 241 mph (387 km/h, 209 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 215 mph (344 km/h, 187 kn)
  • Range: 1,750 mi (2,820 km, 1,520 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 23,300 ft (7,110 m)
  • Wing loading: 28 lb/sq ft (138 kg/m2)
  • Power/mass: 0.098 hp/lb

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b "Boeing 307 Stratoliner" Archived February 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine entry at The Aviation History Online Museum. Retrieved: January 28, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Betts, Ed. "The Boeing Stratoliners and TWA". American Aviation Historical Society Journal, Volume 38, Issue 3, 1993.
  3. ^ a b Hardy, Air International January 1994, p. 21.
  4. ^ a b Bowers 1989, p. 231.
  5. ^ Dietrich, Noah; Thomas, Bob (1972). Howard, The Amazing Mr. Hughes. Greenwich: Fawcett Publications, Inc. p. 148.
  6. ^ "Stratoliners Given To Army". The San Bernardino Daily Sun. 48. San Bernardino, California. January 27, 1942. p. 1.
  7. ^ Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Random House, 1989. ISBN 1-85170-199-0.
  8. ^ Ford 2004, p. 55.
  9. ^ Air Safety Board Report involving NX19901, of the Boeing Aircraft Company, near Alder, Washington, March 18, 1939
  10. ^ Abzug, Malcolm J. and E. Eugene Larrabee. Airplane Stability and Control: A History of the Technologies that Made Aviation Possible. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-521-02128-9.
  11. ^ Hardy, Air International, January 1994, pp. 22–23.
  12. ^ "Houston's Aviation History Timeline". Archived October 8, 2006, at the Wayback Machine The 1940 Air Terminal Museum. Retrieved: January 28, 2012.
  13. ^ Munson 1972, p. 182.
  14. ^ Taylor 1979, p.59.
  15. ^ Hardy, Air International February 1994, p. 69.
  16. ^ Bowers 1989, pp. 234–235.
  17. ^ Hardy, Air International February 1994, p. 70.
  18. ^ Hardy, Air International February 1994, pp. 70–72.
  19. ^ Hardy, Air International February 1994, p. 71.
  20. ^ a b Berry, Peter. "Transatlantic Flight 1938-1945 (Part I 1938-1943)". AAHS Journal, Volume 40, Issue 2, 1995.
  21. ^ Berry, Peter. "Transatlantic Flight 1938-1945 (Part II 1943-1945)". AAHS Journal, Volume 40, Issue 3, 1995.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) accessdate:27 January 2014
  23. ^ "Accident statistics for Boeing 307". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on November 24, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  24. ^ Air Safety Board Report involving NX19901, of the Boeing Aircraft Company, near Alder, Washington, March 18, 1939.
  25. ^ Accident description for N75385 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 May 2013.
  26. ^ Accident description for F-BHHR at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 May 2013.
  27. ^ Accident description for F-BELZ at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 May 2013.
  28. ^ Accident description for F-BELV at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 June 2015.
  29. ^ Accident description for XW-PGR at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2017-09-15.
  30. ^ Accident description for XW-TFR at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 May 2013.
  31. ^ Accident description for XW-TFP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 May 2013.
  32. ^ "4 escape injury as historic Stratoliner ditches in Elliott Bay". Archived October 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Seattle Post-Intelligencer (original post). Retrieved: June 4, 2012.
  33. ^ Whitford, Ellen. "Once More with Feeling". Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Boeing Frontiers Online, September 2003. Retrieved: January 28, 2012.
  34. ^ "Green Design Will save the World: The Cosmic Muffin: A Boat Recycled From Howard Hughes’ Plane". Archived December 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Inhabitat. Retrieved: December 29, 2012.
  35. ^ Mitcham, Mary Lynn (April 2005). "It's a Boat! It's a Plane! It's..." Boating. Vol. 74 no. 4. Bonnier Corporation. p. 36. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  36. ^ Ginns Britten, Elizabeth (September 2004). "Flying the Friendly Seas". Power & Motoryacht. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  37. ^ Jordan, Richard (August 22, 2012). "MY Cosmic Muffin – Fort Lauderdale Plane Boat". Jordan Yachts. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Original operator.

Bibliography

  • Bowers, Peter M. Boeing Aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam, Third edition, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
  • Bridgman, L. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1942. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1942.
  • Ford, Daniel. "First and Last 'Strat': Boeing's Model 307 and its Survivors". Air Enthusiast, No. 110, March/April 2004, pp. 54–60. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Hardy, Mike. "The Stratoliner Story (Part 1)". Air International, Vol. 46, No 1, January 2004, pp. 21–24. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Hardy, Mike. "The Stratoliner Story (Part 2)". Air International, Vol. 46, No 2, February 2004, pp. 69–72. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Munson, Kenneth. Bombers in Service, Patrol and Transport Aircraft Since 1960. London: The Macmillan Co., 1972. ISBN 978-0-71370-586-7.
  • Taylor, H.A. "Ten Big Boeings ... The Stratoliner Story". Air Enthusiast, Ten, July–September 1979, pp. 58–67. Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll.

External links

Aerospace

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Aerospace is not the same as airspace, which is the physical air space directly above a location on the ground. The beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100 km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity.

Airframe

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Airframe design is a field of aerospace engineering that combines aerodynamics, materials technology and manufacturing methods with a focus on performance, as well as reliability and cost.

Boeing 247

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Boeing Plant 2

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Claire Egtvedt

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Douglas DC-4

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Edmund T. Allen

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Elliott Bay

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Flight engineer

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In earlier days, most larger aircraft were designed and built with a flight engineer's position. For U.S. civilian aircraft that require a flight engineer as part of the crew, the FE must possess an FAA Flight Engineer Certificate with reciprocating, turboprop, or turbojet ratings appropriate to the aircraft. Whereas the four-engine Douglas DC-4 did not require an FE, the FAA type certificates of subsequent four-engine reciprocating engine airplanes (DC-6, DC-7, Constellation, Boeing 307 and 377) and early three- and four-engine jets (Boeing 707, 727, early 747, DC-8, DC-10, L-1011) required flight engineers. Later three- and four-engine jets (MD-11, 747-400, and later) were designed with sufficient automation to eliminate the position.

George S. Schairer

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Glenn McCarthy

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The first propliner was the Boeing 247 (first flight 1933), with the Douglas DC-1 and Douglas DC-2 closely following in response. The most successful is the Douglas DC-3, which was produced in the thousands, and is still in widespread use; while the Dewoitine D.338 and SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc were developed in France and Germany produced the Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor and Junkers Ju 90. In Japan a license-built version of the Douglas DC-3 was developed as the Nakajima L2D and the smaller Mitsubishi MC-20 was locally developed. In the Netherlands Fokker, previously one of the leading manufacturers of airliners before the Boeing 247 appeared, became the European sales agent for Douglas DC-2s and DC-3s. Most British-built aircraft of the period were less advanced, such as the Avro 642 Eighteen and de Havilland Express; one exception was the Armstrong Whitworth Ensign. Other American-designed propliners included the Douglas DC-4, Douglas DC-5 and Martin 2-0-2. None of these models featured cabin pressurization.

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By the 1950s the traveling public were increasingly finding themselves being transported upon long range pressurized propliners such as the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation and Lockheed L-1649 Starliner, or shorter ranged twin engined Martin 4-0-4 and Convair CV-240, CV-340 and CV-440 aircraft. British propliners included the Airspeed Ambassador, Vickers Viking and Handley Page Hermes, while the Canadair North Star (a development of the Douglas DC-4) was produced in Canada. The Breguet Deux-Ponts and Hurel-Dubois HD.31 were manufactured in France; and the Soviet Union produced the postwar twin-engined Ilyushin Il-12 and Ilyushin Il-14, both produced in quantity through the 1950s. Finally, the Swedish SAAB Scandia was produced in small numbers.

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, also called the Udvar-Hazy Center, is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)'s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in the Chantilly area of Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. It holds numerous exhibits, including the Space Shuttle Discovery, the Enola Gay, and the Gemini 7 space capsule.

The 760,000-square-foot (71,000 m2; 17-acre; 7.1 ha) facility was made possible by a $65 million gift in October 1999 to the Smithsonian Institution by Steven F. Udvar-Házy, an immigrant from Hungary and co-founder of the International Lease Finance Corporation, an aircraft leasing corporation. The main NASM building, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C, had always contained more artifacts than could be displayed, and most of the collection had been stored, unavailable to visitors, at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland. A substantial addition to the center encompassing restoration, conservation and collection-storage facilities was completed in 2010. Restoration facilities and museum archives were moved from the museum's Garber facility to the new sections of the Udvar-Hazy Center.

Tupolev ANT-53

The Tupolev ANT-53 was a late 1930s project for a passenger aircraft by the Tupolev Design Bureau.

Piston-engined
Jet-engined
In development
Proposed
Not developed
Boeing aircraft model numbers
Aircraft
Turbine engines
Vessels
Other
Boeing military aircraft
Fighters/attack aircraft:
Bombers
Piston-engined transports
Jet transports
Tanker-transports
Trainers
Patrol and surveillance
Reconnaissance
Drones/UAVs
Experimental/prototypes
United States military transport aircraft designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems
Army/Air Force sequence
(1925-1962)
Tri-service sequence
(1962-present)
Revived original sequence
(2005-present)
Non-sequential designations

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