Robert Braden (28 January 1934 – 15 April 2018) was an American computer scientist who played a role in the development of the Internet. His research interests included end-to-end network protocols, especially in the transport and internetwork layers.
28 January 1934
|Died||15 April 2018 (aged 84)|
|Alma mater||Cornell University|
|Fields||end-to-end network protocols|
Braden received a Bachelor of Engineering Physics from Cornell University in 1957, and a Master of Science in Physics from Stanford University in 1962. After graduating, he worked at Stanford and Carnegie Mellon University. He taught programming and operating systems courses at Stanford, Carnegie Mellon, and also UCLA, where he moved next.
He remained at UCLA for 18 years, 16 of them at the campus computing center. He spent 1981–1982 at the Computer Science Department of University College London. While there, he wrote the first relay system connecting the Internet with the U.K. academic X.25 network.
While at UCLA, Braden was responsible for attaching UCLA's IBM 360/91 supercomputer to the ARPAnet, beginning in 1970. He was active in the ARPAnet Network Working Group, contributing to the design of the File Transfer Protocol in particular.
In 1978, he became a member of the Internet Working Group, which developed TCP/IP, and began development of a TCP/IP implementation for UCLA's IBM system. The UCLA IBM software was distributed to other OS/MVS sites, and was later sold commercially.
In 1981, he was invited to join the Internet Configuration Control Board, the organization that later became the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). He later served for 13 years as a member of the IAB.
Braden had been a member of the Internet Engineering Task Force and the Internet Research Task Force since their inception. When IAB task forces were formed in 1986, he created the End-to-End Task Force, later known as the IRTF End-to-End Research Group, which he chaired and later ran as a networking community mailing list for a number of years. Among his many contributions during this period are:
Braden was a Fellow of the ACM.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages. It was an early compromise design soon superseded by ALGOL 60. According to John Backus
"The Zurich ACM-GAMM Conference had two principal motives in proposing the IAL: (a) To provide a means of communicating numerical methods and other procedures between people, and (b) To provide a means of realizing a stated process on a variety of machines..."
ALGOL 58 introduced the fundamental notion of the compound statement, but it was restricted to control flow only, and it was not tied to identifier scope in the way that Algol 60's blocks were.Braden (surname)
Braden is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Alan Braden, British television theme composer
Alison Braden (born 1982), Canadian water polo player
Allen Braden, American poet
Andrew D. Braden (1916–1993), American Professor of Accountancy
Anne Braden (1924–2006), American activist
Bernard Braden (1916–1993), Canadian-born English actor and comedian
Bill Braden (born 1954), Canadian politician
Bob Braden, American computer scientist
Carl Braden (1914–1975), American activist
C. O. Braden, American football coach
Dallas Braden (born 1983), American baseball player
Don Braden (born 1963), American jazz saxophonist
George Braden (born 1949), Canadian politician
George C. Braden (1868–1942), American politician
Glen Everton Braden (1899–1967), Canadian merchant and politician
Gregg Braden (born 1954), American writer
Henry Braden (1944–2013), American lawyer, lobbyist and politician
John Braden (disambiguation)
Kai Braden (born 1988), American actor, dancer and fashion model
Kim Braden (born 1949), English actress
Spruille Braden (1894–1978), American diplomat, businessman and lobbyist
Thomas Braden (1917–2009), American journalist
Thomas H. Braden (1874–?), American politician
Vic Braden (1929–2014), American tennis player, coach and broadcaster
William Robert Braden (1858–1922), Canadian politicianDann Florek
Ezekial Dann Florek (born May 1, 1950) is an American actor and director. He is best known for his role as New York City Police Captain Donald Cragen on NBC's Law & Order and its spinoff Law & Order: Special Victims Unit.Deaths in April 2018
The following notable deaths took place in April 2018.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), what subject was noted for, cause of death (if known), and reference.Jonathan B. Postel Service Award
The Jonathan B. Postel Service Award is an award named after Jon Postel. The award has been presented every year since 1999 by the Internet Society to "honor a person who has made outstanding contributions in service to the data communications community."
The first recipient of the award was Jon Postel himself (posthumously).
The award was created by Vint Cerf as chairman of the Internet Society and announced in "I remember IANA" published as RFC 2468.Joyce K. Reynolds
Joyce K. Reynolds (? – December 28, 2015) was an American computer scientist who played a significant role in developing protocols underlying the Internet. She authored or co-authored many RFCs, most notably those introducing and specifying the Telnet, FTP, and POP protocols.List of Internet pioneers
Instead of a single "inventor", the Internet was developed by many people over many years. The following are some Internet pioneers who contributed to its early development. These include early theoretical foundations, specifying original protocols, and expansion beyond a research tool to wide deployment.Quality of service
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure quality of service, several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as packet loss, bit rate, throughput, transmission delay, availability, jitter, etc.
In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. Quality of service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow.
Quality of service is particularly important for the transport of traffic with special requirements. In particular, developers have introduced Voice over IP technology to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter network performance requirements.Request for Comments
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community. RFCs may come from many bodies including from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) or from independent authors. The RFC system is supported by the Internet Society (ISOC).
An RFC is authored by engineers and computer scientists in the form of a memorandum describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. It is submitted either for peer review or to convey new concepts, information, or (occasionally) engineering humor. The IETF adopts some of the proposals published as RFCs as Internet Standards. However, many RFCs are informational or experimental in nature and are not standards. Request for Comments documents were invented by Steve Crocker in 1969 to help record unofficial notes on the development of ARPANET. RFCs have since become official documents of Internet specifications, communications protocols, procedures, and events. According to Crocker, the documents "shape the Internet's inner workings and have played a significant role in its success", but are not well known outside the community.Outside of the Internet community per se, requests for comments have often been published in U.S. Federal government work.Roger Moore (computer scientist)
Roger D. Moore (November 16, 1939 – March 21, 2019) was the 1973 recipient (with Larry Breed and Richard Lathwell) of the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). It was given: "For their work in the design and implementation of APL\360, setting new standards in simplicity, efficiency, reliability and response time for interactive systems."Moore was a cofounder of I. P. Sharp Associates and held a senior position in the company for many years. Before this, he contributed to the SUBALGOL compiler at Stanford University and wrote the ALGOL 60 compiler for the Ferranti-Packard 6000 and the ICT 1900. Along with his work on the programming language APL, he was also instrumental in the development of IPSANET, a private packet switching data network.T/TCP
T/TCP (Transactional Transmission Control Protocol) is a variant of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
It is an experimental TCP extension for efficient transaction-oriented (request/response) service.
It was developed to fill the gap between TCP and UDP, by Bob Braden in 1994.
Its definition can be found in RFC 1644 (that obsoletes RFC 1379).