Boarding school

A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in the sense of "room and board", i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some schools facilitate returning home every weekend, and some welcome day pupils. Some are for either boys or girls while others are co-educational.

In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent (private) schools offer boarding, but likewise so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years. Some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance.

In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option (as in the classic UK rivals, Eton and Harrow, which have produced many prime ministers), whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society. Notoriously, Canada and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function essentially as orphanages, e.g. the G.I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; see, for example, Deaf education and Council of Schools and Services for the Blind. Some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges.

Makó boarding school 02
The Makó boarding school in Hungary


Typical characteristics

The term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these.[1]

House system

Dormitory at The Armidale School, Australia, 1898

A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area.

A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, housemistresses, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility (in loco parentis) for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but particularly outside school hours. Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper often known in U.K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, and by a house tutor for academic matters, often providing staff of each gender. In the U.S., boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They often have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older students are often less supervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport.

Houses or dorms usually include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and possibly study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may also have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, and occasionally storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment. Some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms.

In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is usually a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes.

Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted. Such rules may be difficult to enforce; students may often try to break them, for example by using their laptop computers or going to another student's room to talk or play computer games. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries (e.g. 7 hours between UK and China) to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less likely to disturb others and may be given more latitude.

Other facilities

As well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls, libraries and laboratories, boarding schools often provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, gymnasiums, sports fields and school grounds, boats, squash courts, swimming pools, cinemas and theatres. A school chapel is often found on site. Day students often stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, and have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old.

Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences. Some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are generally free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meetings and meals together. The Dining Hall often serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or other faculty mentors or coaches. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, in additional to the standard lunch, while others charge a fee.

Many Boarding Schools have an on-campus school store or snack hall where additional food and school supplies can be purchased; and may also have a student recreational center where food can be purchased during specified hours.


Students generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds; they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times.

Depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options: full (students stay at the school full-time), weekly (students stay in the school from Monday through Friday, then return home for the weekend), or on a flexible schedule (students choose when to board, e.g. during exam week).

Each student has an individual timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion.[2] Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the school day to include sports, clubs and societies, or excursions.

British boarding schools have three terms a year, approximately twelve weeks each, with a few days' half-term holiday during which students are expected to go home or at least away from school. There may be several exeats, or weekends, in each half of the term when students may go home or away (e.g. international students may stay with their appointed guardians, or with a host family). Boarding students nowadays often go to school within easy traveling distance of their homes, and so may see their families frequently; e.g. families are encouraged to come and support school sports teams playing at home against other schools, or for school performances in music, drama or theatre.

Some boarding schools allow only boarding students, while others have both boarding students and day students who go home at the end of the school day. Day students are sometimes known as day boys or day girls. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, while others charge a fee. For schools that have designated study hours or quiet hours in the evenings, students on campus (including day students) are usually required to observe the same "quiet" rules (such as no television, students must stay in their rooms, library or study hall, etc.). Schools that have both boarding and day students sometimes describe themselves as semi-boarding schools or day boarding schools. Some schools also have students who board during the week but go home on weekends: these are known as weekly boarders, quasi-boarders, or five-day boarders.

Other forms of residential schools

Schloss in Torgelow, direkt am See
Schloss Torgelow, a renowned Gymnasium boarding school in Germany, that leads to the prestigious Abitur exams
THINK Global Students at BISS
Traveling boarding schools, like THINK Global School, partner with an IB school in each country they visit.

Boarding schools are residential schools; however, not all residential schools are "classic" boarding schools. Other forms of residential schools include:

  • Therapeutic boarding schools are tuition-based, out-of-home placements that combine therapy and education for children, usually teenagers, with emotional, behavioral, substance abuse or learning disabilities.[3]
  • Traveling boarding schools, such as Think Global School, are four-year high schools that immerse the students in a new city each term. Traveling boarding schools partner with a host school within the city to provide the living and educational facilities.[4]
  • Sailing boarding schools, such as A+ World Academy, are high schools based on ships that sail around the world and combine high school education with travel, and personal development. Classes typically take place both, on board and in some of the ports they visit.[5]
  • Outdoor boarding schools, which teach students independence and self-reliance through survival style camp outs and other outdoor activities.[6]
  • Residential education programs, which provide a stable and supportive environment for at-risk children to live and learn together.
  • Residential schools for students with special educational needs, who may or may not be disabled
  • Semester schools, which complement a student's secondary education by providing a one semester residential experience with a central focusing curricular theme—which may appeal to students and families uninterested in a longer residential education experience
  • Specialist schools focused on a particular academic discipline, such as the public North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics or the private Interlochen Arts Academy.
  • The Israeli youth villages, where children stay and are educated in a commune, but also have everyday contact with their parents at specified hours.
  • Public boarding schools, which are operated by public school districts. In the U.S., general-attendance public boarding schools were once numerous in rural areas, but are extremely rare today. As of the 2013-2014 school year, the SEED Foundation administered public charter boarding schools in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland. One rural public boarding school is Crane Union High School in Crane, Oregon. Around two-thirds of its more than 80 students, mostly children from remote ranches, board during the school week in order to save a one-way commute of up to 150 miles (240 km) across Harney County.[7]
  • Ranch school, once common in the western United States, incorporating aspects of the "dude ranch" (Guest ranch)

Applicable regulations

In the UK, almost all boarding schools are independent schools, which are not subject to the national curriculum or other educational regulations applicable to state schools. Nevertheless, there are some regulations, primarily for health and safety purposes, as well as the general law. The Department for Children, Schools and Families, in conjunction with the Department of Health of the United Kingdom, has prescribed guidelines for boarding schools, called the National Boarding Standards.[8]

One example of regulations covered within the National Boarding Standards are those for the minimum floor area or living space required for each student and other aspects of basic facilities. The minimum floor area of a dormitory accommodating two or more students is defined as the number of students sleeping in the dormitory multiplied by 4.2 m², plus 1.2 m². A minimum distance of 0.9 m should also be maintained between any two beds in a dormitory, bedroom or cubicle. In case students are provided with a cubicle, then each student must be provided with a window and a floor area of 5.0 m² at the least. A bedroom for a single student should be at least of floor area of 6.0 m². Boarding schools must provide a total floor area of at least 2.3 m² living accommodation for every boarder. This should also be incorporated with at least one bathtub or shower for every ten students.

These are some of the few guidelines set by the department among many others. It could probably be observed that not all boarding schools around the world meet these minimum basic standards, despite their apparent appeal.


Boarding schools manifest themselves in different ways in different societies. For example, in some societies children enter at an earlier age than in others. In some societies, a tradition has developed in which families send their children to the same boarding school for generations. One observation that appears to apply globally is that a significantly larger number of boys than girls attend boarding school and for a longer span of time. The practice of sending children, particularly boys, to other families or to schools so that they could learn together is of very long standing, recorded in classical literature and in UK records going back over 1,000 years.

In Europe, a practice developed by early medieval times of sending boys to be taught by literate clergymen, either in monasteries or as pages in great households. The King's School, Canterbury, arguably the world's oldest boarding school, dates its foundation from the development of the monastery school in around 597 AD. The author of the Croyland Chronicle recalls being tested on his grammar by Edward the Confessor's wife Queen Editha in the abbey cloisters as a Westminster schoolboy, in around the 1050s. Monastic schools as such were generally dissolved with the monasteries themselves under Henry VIII, although Westminster School was specifically preserved by the King's letters patent, and it seems likely that most schools were immediately replaced. Winchester College founded by Bishop William of Wykeham in 1382 and Oswestry School founded by David Holbache in 1407 are the oldest boarding schools in continuous operation.

United Kingdom

Boarding schools in Britain started in medieval times, when boys were sent to be educated at a monastery or noble household, where a lone literate cleric could be found. In the 12th century, the Pope ordered all Benedictine monasteries such as Westminster to provide charity schools, and many public schools started when such schools attracted paying students. These public schools reflected the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as in many ways they still do, and were accordingly staffed almost entirely by clergymen until the 19th century. Private tuition at home remained the norm for aristocratic families, and for girls in particular, but after the 16th century it was increasingly accepted that adolescents of any rank might best be educated collectively. The institution has thus adapted itself to changing social circumstances over 1,000 years.

Boarding preparatory schools tend to reflect the public schools they feed. They often have a more or less official tie to particular schools.

The classic British boarding school became highly popular during the colonial expansion of the British Empire. British colonial administrators abroad could ensure that their children were brought up in British culture at public schools at home in the UK, and local rulers were offered the same education for their sons. More junior expatriates would send their children to local British-run schools, which would also admit selected local children who might travel from considerable distances. The boarding schools, which inculcated their own values, became an effective way to encourage local people to share British ideals, and so help the British achieve their imperial goals.

One of the reasons sometimes stated for sending children to boarding schools is to develop wider horizons than their family can provide. A boarding school a family has attended for generations may define the culture parents aspire to for their children. Equally, by choosing a fashionable boarding school, parents may aspire to better their children by enabling them to mix on equal terms with children of the upper classes. However, such stated reasons may conceal other reasons for sending a child away from home.[9][10][11] These might apply to children who are considered too disobedient or underachieving, children from families with divorced spouses, and children to whom the parents do not much relate.[10][11] These reasons are rarely explicitly stated, though the child might be aware of them.[10][11]

In 1998, there were 772 private-sector boarding schools in the United Kingdom with over 100,000 children attending them all across the country. In Britain, they are an important factor in the class system. About one percent of British children are sent to boarding schools.[12][13][14] Also in Britain children as young as 5 to 9 years of age are sent to boarding schools.[15]

United States

In the United States, boarding schools for students below the age of 13 are called junior boarding schools, and are relatively uncommon. The oldest junior boarding school is the Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts, established in 1866. Other boarding schools are intended for high school age students, generally of ages 14–18. Some of the oldest of these boarding schools include West Nottingham Academy (est. 1744), Linden Hall (school) (est. 1756), The Governor's Academy (est. 1763), and Phillips Academy Andover (est. 1778).[16] Boarding schools for this age group are often referred to as prep schools. About half of one percent or (.5%) of school children attend boarding schools, about half the percentage of British children.[12][13][14]

Native American schools

Carlisle pupils
Students at Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Pennsylvania (c. 1900)

In the late 19th century, the United States government undertook a policy of educating Native American youth in the ways of the dominant Western culture so that Native Americans might then be able to assimilate into Western society. At these boarding schools, managed and regulated by the government, Native American students were subjected to a number of tactics to prepare them for life outside their reservation homes.[17]

In accordance with the assimilation methods used at the boarding schools, the education that the Native American children received at these institutions centered on the dominant society's construction of gender norms and ideals. Thus boys and girls were separated in almost every activity and their interactions were strictly regulated along the lines of Victorian ideals. In addition, the instruction that the children received reflected the roles and duties that they were to assume once outside the reservation. Thus girls were taught skills that could be used in the home, such as "sewing, cooking, canning, ironing, child care, and cleaning"[17] (Adams 150). Native American boys in the boarding schools were taught the importance of an agricultural lifestyle, with an emphasis on raising livestock and agricultural skills like "plowing and planting, field irrigation, the care of stock, and the maintenance of fruit orchards"[17] (Adams 149). These ideas of domesticity were in stark contrast to those existing in native communities and on reservations: many indigenous societies were based on a matrilineal system where the women's lineage was honored and the women's place in society respected. For example, women in native society held powerful roles in their own communities, undertaking tasks that Western society deemed only appropriate for men: indigenous women could be leaders, healers, and farmers.

While the Native American children were exposed to and were likely to adopt some of the ideals set out by the whites operating these boarding schools, many resisted and rejected the gender norms that were being imposed upon them. See also: Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

Other Commonwealth countries

Most societies around the world decline to make boarding schools the preferred option for the upbringing of their children. However, boarding schools are one of the preferred modes of education in former British colonies or Commonwealth countries like India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other former African colonies of Great Britain. For instance in Ghana the majority of the secondary schools are boarding. In China some children are sent to boarding schools at 2 years of age.[18] In some countries, such as New Zealand and Sri Lanka, a number of state schools have boarding facilities. These state boarding schools are frequently the traditional single-sex state schools, whose ethos is much like that of their independent counterparts. Furthermore, the proportion of boarders at these schools is often much lower than at independent boarding schools, typically around 10%.


In Canada, the largest independent boarding school is Columbia International College, with an enrollment of 1,700 students from all over the world. Robert Land Academy in Wellandport, Ontario is Canada's only private military style boarding school for boys in Grades 6 through 12.

Russia and former Soviet Union

In the former Soviet Union these schools were sometimes known as Internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (from Latin: internus). They varied in their organization. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a specific focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, physics, language, science, sports, etc. Other schools were associated with orphanages after which all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs (schools for blind, for deaf and other). General schools offered "extended stay" programs (Russian: Группа продленного дня) featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work (education in the Soviet Union was free). In post-Soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country.


The Swiss government developed a strategy of fostering private boarding schools for foreign students as a business integral to the country's economy. Their boarding schools offer instruction in several major languages and have a large number of quality facilities organized through the Swiss Federation of Private Schools. In 2015, a Swiss boarding school named A+ World Academy was established on the Norwegian Tall Ship Fullriggeren Sørlandet. The top four most expensive boarding schools in the world are the Swiss schools Institut Le Rosey,[19] Beau Soleil, Collège du Léman and Collège Champittet.


As of 2015 there were about 100,000 boarding schools in rural areas of Mainland China, with about 33 million children living in them.[20] The majority of these boarding schools are in western China, which generally is not as wealthy as eastern and central China.[21] Many migrant workers and farmers send their children to boarding schools.[22]

Sociological issues

Some elite university-preparatory boarding schools for students from age 13 to 18 are seen by sociologists as centers of socialization for the next generation of the political upper class and reproduces an elitist class system.[23] This attracts families who value power and hierarchy for the socialization of their family members.[23] These families share a sense of entitlement to social class or hierarchy and power.[23]

Boarding schools are seen by certain families as centres of socialization where students mingle with others of similar social hierarchy[23] to form what is called an old boy network. Elite boarding school students are brought up with the assumption that they are meant to control society.[23] Significant numbers of them enter the political upper class of society or join the financial elite in fields such as international banking and venture capital.[23] Elite boarding school socialization causes students to internalize a strong sense of entitlement and social control or hierarchy.[23] This form of socialization is called "deep structure socialization" by Peter Cookson & Caroline Hodges (1985).[23][24] This refers to the way in which boarding schools not only manage to control the students' physical lives but also their emotional lives.[23][24]

Boarding school establishment involves control of behaviour regarding several aspects of life including what is appropriate and/or acceptable which adolescents would consider as intrusive.[23][24] This boarding school socialization is carried over well after leaving school and into their dealings with the social world.[23] Thus it causes boarding school students to adhere to the values of the elite social class which they come from or which they aspire to be part of.[23] Nick Duffell, author of Wounded Leaders: British elitism and the Entitlement Illusion – A Psychohistory, states that the education of the elite in the British boarding school system leaves the nation with "a cadre of leaders who perpetuate a culture of elitism, bullying and misogyny affecting the whole of society".[25] According to Peter W Cookson Jr (2009) the elitist tradition of preparatory boarding schools has declined due to the development of modern economy and the political rise of the liberal west coast of the United States of America.[23][24] Further, as of 2017, there are over twenty boarding schools on the west coast of the United States.

Socialization of role control and gender stratification

The boarding school socialization of control and hierarchy develops deep rooted and strong adherence to social roles and rigid gender stratification.[23][26] In one studied school the social pressure for conformity was so severe that several students abused performance drugs like Adderall and Ritalin for both academic performance and to lose weight.[23][26] The distinct and hierarchical nature of socialization in boarding school culture becomes very obvious in the manner students sit together and form cliques, especially in the refectory, or dining hall. This leads to pervasive form of explicit and implicit bullying, and excessive competition between cliques and between individuals.[23][26] The rigid gender stratification and role control is displayed in the boys forming cliques on the basis of wealth and social background, and the girls overtly accepting that they would marry only for money, while choosing only rich or affluent males as boyfriends.[23][26] Students are not able to display much sensitivity and emotional response and are unable to have closer relationships except on a superficial and politically correct level, engaging in social behaviour that would make them seem appropriate and rank high in social hierarchy.[23][26] This affects their perceptions of gender and social roles later in life.[23][26]

One alumnus of a military boarding school also questions whether leadership is truly being learned by the school's students.[27]

Psychological issues

The aspect of boarding school life with its round the clock habitation of students with each other in the same environment, involved in studying, sleeping and socializing can lead to pressures and stress in boarding school life.[23] This is manifested in the form of hypercompetitiveness, use of recreational or illegal drugs and psychological depression that at times may manifest in suicide or its attempt.[23] Studies show that about 90% of boarding school students acknowledge that living in a total institution like boarding school has significant impact and changed their perception and interaction with social relationships.[23]

Total institution and child displacement

It is claimed that children may be sent to boarding schools to give more opportunities than their family can provide. However, that involves spending significant parts of one's early life in what may be seen as a total institution[28] and possibly experiencing social detachment, as suggested by social-psychologist Erving Goffman.[28] This may involve long-term separation from one's parents and culture, leading to the experience of homesickness[29][30][31] and emotional abandonment[10][11][15] and may give rise to a phenomenon known as the 'TCK' or third culture kid.[32]

The celebrated British classicist and poet, Robert Graves (1895-1985), who attended six different preparatory schools at a young age, during the early 20th Century, wrote:

Preparatory schoolboys live in a world completely dissociated from home life. They have a different vocabulary, a different moral system, even different voices. On their return to school from the holidays the change-over from home-self to school-self is almost instantaneous, whereas the reverse process takes a fortnight at least. A preparatory schoolboy, when caught off his guard, will call his mother 'Please, matron,' and always addresses any male relative or friend of the family as 'Sir', like a master. I used to do it. School life becomes the reality, and home life the illusion. In England, parents of the governing classes virtually lose any intimate touch with their children from about the age of eight, and any attempts on their parts to insinuate home feeling into school life are resented.
— Robert Graves[33]

Some modern philosophies of education, such as constructivism and new methods of music training for children including Orff Schulwerk and the Suzuki method, make the everyday interaction of the child and parent an integral part of training and education. In children, separation involves maternal deprivation.[34] The European Union-Canada project "Child Welfare Across Borders" (2003),[9] an important international venture on child development, considers boarding schools as one form of permanent displacement of the child.[9] This view reflects a new outlook towards education and child growth in the wake of more scientific understanding of the human brain and cognitive development.

Data have not yet been tabulated regarding the statistical ratio of boys to girls that matriculate boarding schools, the total number of children in a given population in boarding schools by country, the average age across populations when children are sent to boarding schools, and the average length of education (in years) for boarding school students. There is also little evidence or research about the complete circumstances or complete set of reasons about sending kids to boarding schools.[14]

Boarding school syndrome

The term boarding school syndrome was coined by psychotherapist Joy Schaverien in 2011.[35] It is used to identify a set of lasting psychological problems that are observable in adults who, as children, were sent away to boarding schools at an early age.

Children sent away to school at an early age suffer the sudden and often irrevocable loss of their primary attachments; for many this constitutes a significant trauma. Bullying and sexual abuse, by staff or other children, may follow and so new attachment figures may become unsafe. In order to adapt to the system, a defensive and protective encapsulation of the self may be acquired; the true identity of the person then remains hidden. This pattern distorts intimate relationships and may continue into adult life. The significance of this may go unnoticed in psychotherapy. It is proposed that one reason for this may be that the transference and, especially the breaks in psychotherapy, replay, for the patient, the childhood experience between school and home. Observations from clinical practice are substantiated by published testimonies, including those from established psychoanalysts who were themselves early boarders.[35]

In popular culture


Boarding schools and their surrounding settings and situations became in the late Victorian period a genre in British literature with its own identifiable conventions. (Typically, protagonists find themselves occasionally having to break school rules for honourable reasons the reader can identify with, and might get severely punished when caught – but usually they do not embark on a total rebellion against the school as a system.)

Notable examples of the school story include:

The setting has also been featured in notable North American fiction:

There is also a huge boarding-school genre literature, mostly uncollected, in British comics and serials from the 1900s to the 1980s.

The subgenre of books and films set in a military or naval academy has many similarities with the above.

Films and television

Video games

See also


  1. ^ Bamford T.W. (1967) Rise of the public schools: a study of boys public boarding schools in England and wales from 1837 to the present day. London : Nelson, 1967.
  2. ^ Linton Hall Cadet, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Arlington, VA.: Scrounge Press, 2014 ISBN 978-1-4959-3196-3
  3. ^ Story, Louise (17 Aug 2005), "A Business Built on the Troubles of Teenagers", The New York Times
  4. ^ "What is TGS?". Think Global School. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  5. ^ "What is TGS?".
  6. ^ "Wilderness Therapy Program, Therapeutic Boarding School for Troubled Boys". Woodcreek Academy. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  7. ^ "The Oregon Story . Rural Voices: Three Days at Crane . Crane High School - OPB".
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2006. Retrieved 2005-12-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ a b c CWAB – Session 6.2 – Reasons for displacement Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine European Union – Canada project Child welfare across borders (2003)
  10. ^ a b c d Duffell, N. "The Making of Them. The British Attitude to Children and the Boarding School System". (London: Lone Arrow Press, 2000).
  11. ^ a b c d Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683-705
  12. ^ a b Dansokho, S., Little, M., & Thomas, B. (2003). Residential services for children: definitions, numbers and classifications. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children.
  13. ^ a b Department of Health. (1998). Caring for Children away from Home. Chichester: Wiley and Son
  14. ^ a b c Little, M. Kohm, A. Thompson, R. (2005). "The impact of residential placement on child development: research and policy implications". International Journal of Social Welfare; 14, 200–209. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2397.2005.00360.x
  15. ^ a b Power A (2007) "Discussion of Trauma at the Threshold: The Impact of Boarding School on Attachment in Young Children", in ATTACHMENT: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis; Vol. 1, November 2007: pp. 313–320
  16. ^ "Boarding Schools with the Oldest Founding Date (2017-2018)". Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  17. ^ a b c Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence: 1995.
  18. ^ Markus, Francis (2004-06-10). "Asia-Pacific | Private school for China's youngest". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  19. ^ "The most expensive boarding school in the world". 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
  20. ^ Roberts, Dexter. "China's Dickensian Boarding Schools" (Archive). Bloomberg Businessweek. April 6, 2015. Retrieved on July 13, 2015.
  21. ^ Zhao, Zhenzhou, p. 238
  22. ^ Hatton, Celia. "Search for justice after China school abuse" (Archive). BBC. April 6, 2015. Retrieved on July 13, 2015.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Cookson, Jr., Peter W.; Shweder, Richard A. (2009-09-15). "Boarding Schools". The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 112–114. ISBN 978-0-226-47539-4.
  24. ^ a b c d Cookson, Jr., Peter W.; Hodges Persell, Caroline (1987-09-30). Preparing For Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06269-0.
  25. ^ "Why boarding schools produce bad leaders". The Guardian. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Chase, Sarah A. (2008-06-26). Perfectly Prep: Gender Extremes at a New England Prep School. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530881-5.
  27. ^ Hall, Linton (2011-08-31). "Linton Hall Military School alumni memories: Did we learn leadership at Linton Hall Military School?". Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  28. ^ a b Goffman, Erving (1961) Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1961); (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968) ISBN 0-385-00016-2
  29. ^ Brewin, C.R., Furnham, A. & Howes, M. (1989). Demographic and psychological determinants of homesickness and confiding among students. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 467–477.
  30. ^ Fisher, S., Frazer, N. & Murray, K (1986). Homesickness and health in boarding school children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6, 35–47.
  31. ^ Thurber A. Christopher (1999) The phenomenology of homesickness in boys, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
  32. ^ Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). Third Culture Kids. Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press. Yarmouth, Maine. ISBN 1-85788-295-4.
  33. ^ Graves, Robert Goodbye to All That, chapter 3, page 24 Penguin Modern Classics 1967 edition
  34. ^ Rutter, M (1972) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. London:Penguin
  35. ^ a b Schaverien, Joy (May 2011). "Boarding School Syndrome: Broken Attachments A Hidden Trauma". British Journal of Psychotherapy. 27 (2): 138–155. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0118.2011.01229.x. ISSN 0265-9883. Retrieved 2017-09-10.

Further reading

  • Cadet, Linton Hall, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Scrounge Press, 2014. ISBN 9781495931963 Memoir of cadet who attended during the late 1960s, with copies of brochures from the 1940s and 1980s, and photos of the school.
  • Cookson, Peter W., Jr., and Caroline Hodges Persell. Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools. (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
  • Fisher, S. & Hood, B. (1987). The stress of the transition to university: a longitudinal study of psychological disturbance, absent-mindedness and vulnerability to homesickness. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 425–441
  • Hein, David (1991). The High Church origins of the American boarding school. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 42, 577–95.
  • Hickson, A. "The Poisoned Bowl: Sex Repression and the Public School System". (London: Constable, 1995).
  • Johann, Klaus: Grenze und Halt: Der Einzelne im "Haus der Regeln". Zur deutschsprachigen Internatsliteratur. (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter 2003, Beiträge zur neueren Literaturgeschichte, 201.), ISBN 3-8253-1599-1. Review
  • Ladenthin, Volker; Fitzek, Herbert; Ley, Michael: Das Internat. Aufgaben, Erwartungen und Evaluationskriterien. Bonn 2006 (7. Aufl.).
  • Duffel N. (2000) The making of them. London: Lone Arrow Press
  • Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683–705 <>
  • Cookson, P. W., Jr. (2009). "Boarding Schools" in The Child: an encyclopedic companion (ed.) Richard A Shweder. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 112–114.
American Indian boarding schools

Native American boarding schools, also known as Indian Residential Schools were established in the United States during the late 18th and mid 19th centuries with a primary objective of assimilating Native American children and youth into Euro-American culture, while at the same time providing a basic education in Euro-American subject matters. These boarding schools were first established by Christian missionaries of various denominations, who often started schools on reservations, especially in the lightly populated areas of the West. The government paid religious orders to provide basic education to Native American children on reservations. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) founded additional boarding schools based on the assimilation model of the off-reservation Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

Children were typically immersed in European-American culture through forced changes that removed indigenous cultural signifiers. These methods included being forced to have European-American style haircuts, being forbidden to speak their Indigenous languages, and having their real names replaced by European names to both "civilize" and "Christianize" them. (Similarly, Evenk children were required to speak Russian when sent to boarding schools in the former Soviet Union.) The experience of the schools was usually harsh and often deadly, especially for the younger children who were forcibly separated from their families. The children were forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring mostly in church-run schools. In summarizing the recent scholarship from Native perspectives, Dr. Julie Davis argues:

Perhaps the most fundamental conclusion that emerges from boarding school histories is the profound complexity of their historical legacy for Indian people's lives. The diversity among boarding school students in terms of age, personality, family situation, and cultural background created a range of experiences, attitudes, and responses. Boarding schools embodied both victimization and agency for Native people and they served as sites of both cultural loss and cultural persistence. These institutions, intended to assimilate Native people into mainstream society and eradicate Native cultures, became integral components of American Indian identities and eventually fueled the drive for political and cultural self-determination in the late 20th century.

Since those years, tribal nations have increasingly insisted on community-based schools and have also founded numerous tribal colleges and universities. Community schools have also been supported by the federal government through the BIA and legislation. The largest boarding schools have closed. By 2007, most of the schools had been closed down and the number of Native American children in boarding schools had declined to 9,500. During this same period, more Native Americans moved to urban environments accommodating in varying degrees and manners to majority culture.

Bethel, Alaska

Bethel (Mamterilleq in Central Alaskan Yup'ik) is the largest community on the Kuskokwim River, located approximately 50 mi (80 km) upriver from where the river flows into Kuskokwim Bay. Bethel is the largest community in western Alaska and in the Unorganized Borough, as well as the 9th largest in the state, with a population of 6,080 as of the 2010 Census. Bethel is home to the lone detention center in southwestern Alaska, the Yukon Kuskokwim Correction Center.Annual events in Bethel include a noted dogsled race, the Kuskokwim 300, Camai, a traditional Yup'ik dance festival held each spring, and the Bethel Fair held in August.

Boarding School Juliet

Boarding School Juliet (寄宿学校のジュリエット, Kishuku Gakkō no Jurietto), also known as Juliet of Boarding School, is a Japanese shōnen manga series written and illustrated by Yōsuke Kaneda. It began serialization in Kodansha's Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine in 2015, and it moved to Weekly Shōnen Magazine in 2017. Twelve tankōbon volumes of the manga have been released so far. The manga is published digitally in English by Kodansha USA under the Kodansha Comics imprint from April 10, 2018. A light novel adaptation, written by Tadahito Mochizuki and illustrated by Kaneda, was published by Kodansha in a single volume on February 9, 2017. An anime television series adaptation by Liden Films aired from October 6 to December 22, 2018, in the Animeism programming block.


Damak (English:Dahmak) (Nepali: दमक) is one of the oldest municipalities in Jhapa District in the Mechi Zone of south-eastern Terai of Nepal. It is situated between the Ratuwa River in the east and the Maawa River in the west. It has Sivalik Hills in its north and ends with the intersection of Ratuwa River and Mawa River in the south. Mahendra Highway (longest highway of Nepal) crosses this municipality nearly bisecting it. According to Census 2011, it is the second largest city in Jhapa District with population of 105,743.

Day school

A day school—as opposed to a boarding school—is an educational institution where children (or high school age adolescents) are given instruction during the day, after which the students return to their homes. The term can also be used to emphasize the length of full-day programs as opposed to after-school programs, as in Jewish day school.

The term one-day school may be used for a one-off series of lectures or classes, taking place on a single day, usually on a particular topic and usually directed at adult learners with little time to spare.

Dead Poets Society

Dead Poets Society is a 1989 American drama film directed by Peter Weir, written by Tom Schulman, and starring Robin Williams. Set in 1959 at the fictional elite conservative Vermont boarding school Welton Academy, it tells the story of an English teacher who inspires his students through his teaching of poetry.

The film received critical acclaim and was a box office success. It won the BAFTA Award for Best Film, and César Award and David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Film. Schulman received an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for his work.

Education in Uganda

The system of education in Uganda has a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondary education (divided into 4 years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary school), and 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education. The government of Uganda recognizes education as a basic human right and continues to strive to provide free primary education to all children in the country. However, issues with funding, teacher training, rural populations, and inadequate facilities continue to hinder the progress of educational development in Uganda.

Hasyim Muzadi

Achmad Hasyim Muzadi (August 8, 1944 – March 16, 2017) was an Indonesian Islamic scholar, cleric, and the fourth Chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama, the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia, from 1999 to 2010. He was the founder and director of the Al-Hikam Islamic boarding school. He was the running mate of Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia's 2004 presidential election, but the ticket lost the election in a runoff. He was a member of Indonesia's Presidential Advisory Board from 2015 until his death. He was a proponent of moderate Islam, which he defined as being neither radical nor liberal, criticizing both Islamic fundamentalism and liberal Islam.

Hockerill Anglo-European College

Hockerill Anglo-European College (formerly known as Hockerill Boarding School) is an international boarding school with academy status located in Bishop's Stortford.

In 1850, Hockerill was founded as a teacher training school for women by the first vicar of the parish of All Saints, Hockerill, the Reverend John Menet. The training school was closed in 1978 and, in 1980, was reopened as Hockerill School when Fyfield School (in Essex) and Kennylands School (in Berkshire) merged. In 1995 it achieved Grant Maintained status and in 1998 became known as Hockerill Anglo-European College. The school also gained Music College status. The Music College was officially opened by Lord David Puttnam on 8 October 2006. It became an Academy in 2011.

Hockerill has more than 800 students, with about a third boarding. There are three types of boarding; full, weekly and flexible. Full boarders generally live overseas, weekly boarders generally live elsewhere in the British Isles and flexible boarders may have parents who work long hours. Hockerill also offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) where students complete a rigorous academic programme alongside extra-curricular clubs such as sports teams, CCF, Model United Nations, Interact, debating, or Spectrum. Spectrum is Hockerill’s GSA (Gay Straight Alliance), which discusses a wide range of issues surrounding LGBT+ rights. Spectrum also aims to create a supportive environment and is currently open to everyone in years 10 to 13, regardless of sexual orientation.

The boarding section is divided into six boarding houses. The boarding houses are named after places in England: Thames House (for boys in Years 11–13); Roding House (girls in Years 12–13); Canterbury House (boys in Years 7–8); Durham House (boys in Years 9–10); and Winchester House (girls in Years 7–10) and Rochester House (girls in Year 11.

The academic side of Hockerill is divided into four Equipes, named after four pioneers in their own fields, and are also given a colour: Brunel (pale blue), da Vinci (red), Goethe (green) and Pascal (white). The Equipes compete for the Vine Cup every year and each Equipe has had its share of success, with Pascal in the lead with most wins historically.

Hockerill’s strong performance is recognised in national leagues tables, with the Sunday Times Schools Guide 2018 ranking Hockerill top of all comprehensive and partially selective state schools.

IMG Academy

IMG Academy is a preparatory boarding school and sport training destination in Bradenton, Florida, United States. The boarding school offers an integrated academic and athletic college preparatory experience across eight sports – baseball, basketball, football, golf, lacrosse, soccer, tennis, and track & field and cross country. IMG Academy offers camp programs on a year-round basis and serves as a training and competition venue for amateur, collegiate, and professional teams, adults, and families and as a host site for a variety of events.


Khandbari is the district headquarters of Sankhuwasabha District in Kosi Zone of north-eastern Nepal. The 2011 Nepal census counted 26,301 population.A road connects Khandbari directly south to Biratnagar and the Terai. Khandbari is amongst the top ten most prosperous towns of Nepal. Khandbari's schools include Surya Boarding School, Bagishwari Secondary School , Makalu English Boarding School and Sunshine English Secondary Boarding School. Arun III Hydropower project will be located nearby. About 3 km north from Khandbari lies another small bazaar known as Manebhanjyang which is an emerging business centre peak in the world. A road has already been constructed that connects khandbari directly to Biratnagar. Khandbari is amongst the top ten

prosperous town of Nepal. Its border districts are Bhojpur, Solukhumbu, Taplejung, Terhathum and Dhankuta. The change in the political situation in the country

has given much hope for the residents of the district for its rapid development. Arun III Hydropower project is one of the major subjects that really matters to the residents.

About 3 km north from Khandbari lies another small bazaar known as Manebhanjyang which is really an emerging business centre. Khandbari is main route for

trekking to Mount Makalu, 5th highest peak in the world.

The hospital in Khandbari is described as "comparatively well-equipped", and has received patients from surrounding areas arriving on foot and by chartered helicopters.Khandbari is the main departure point for trekking to Mount Makalu, 5th highest peak in the world.

School story

The school story is a fiction genre centering on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, at its most popular in the first half of the twentieth century. While examples do exist in other countries, it is most commonly set in English boarding schools and mostly written in girls' and boys' subgenres, reflecting the single-sex education typical until the 1950s. It focuses largely on friendship, honor and loyalty between pupils. Plots involving sports events, bullies, secrets, rivalry and bravery are often used to shape the school story.

The popularity of the traditional school story declined after the Second World War, but school stories have remained popular in other forms, with a focus on state run coeducational schools, and themes involving more modern concerns such as racial issues, family life, sexuality and drugs (see Grange Hill). More recently it has seen a revival with the success of the Harry Potter series, which uses many plot motifs commonly found in the traditional school story.

Therapeutic boarding school

A therapeutic boarding school is a residential school offering therapy for students with emotional or behavioral issues.

Tokai University Boarding School in Denmark

Tokai University Boarding School in Denmark (TUBS; 東海大学付属デンマーク校中学部・高等部 Tōkai Daigaku Fuzoku Denmāku Kō Chūgakubu Kōtōbu) was a Japanese international school in Præstø, Denmark. It was affiliated with Tokai University. and had junior high school and senior high school students. This school was an overseas branch of a Japanese private school, or a Shiritsu zaigai kyōiku shisetsu (私立在外教育施設). It was founded in 1988, and it closed in 2008.Bosei Sports High School opened on the former Tokai school campus. This school was established by local Danish authorities in conjunction with Tokai.

Walhampton School

Walhampton Preparatory School is an independent school situated in the hamlet of Walhampton, near Lymington, England. It is the result of the 1997 merger between Hordle House School, situated in Milford on Sea, and Walhampton School, which was based at the current site. The merged school was known as ’Hordle Walhampton’ until 2013, when it reverted to its previous name of ’Walhampton School’.

The Walhampton School was founded by Mrs. Brewer who was the last owner of the Manor after World War II. Walhampton School became a preparatory school in 1948 and was turned into a charitable trust in 1954. It originally had two joint headmasters, John Bradfield and Peter Lawford.Hordle House School was founded in 1926 by the Rev E Whately-Smith.

The school has approximately 400 children aged between 2 and 13.

Welham Girls' School

Welham Girls' School (previously known as Welham Girls' High School) is a traditional boarding school for girls at the foothills of the Uttrakhand in Dehradun, India. Established in 1957, it has progressed from being a school for privileged local girls to being a school that educates students mostly from North India. It was identified as one of the top performing schools country-wide based on academic performance,at the Indian School Certificate Examinations for 2013, the Indian school leaving examination conducted at the end of the K-12 system, by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations.

Westtown School

Westtown School is a Quaker, coeducational, college preparatory day and boarding school for students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade, located in eastern Pennsylvania.

Winker Watson

Winker Watson is a British comic strip, created by Eric Roberts, which ran in the British comic book magazine The Dandy for almost half a century. It debuted in 1961 and only terminated its run in 2007. It was revived in 2012.

Youth village

A youth village (Hebrew: כפר נוער‎, Kfar No'ar) is a boarding school model first developed in Mandate Palestine in the 1930s to care for groups of children and teenagers fleeing the Nazis. Henrietta Szold and Recha Freier were the pioneers in this sphere, known as youth aliyah, creating an educational facility that was a cross between a European boarding school and a kibbutz.

School types
By educational stage
By funding / eligibility
By style of education
By scope

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