Blue rock thrush

The blue rock thrush (Monticola solitarius) is a species of chat. This thrush-like Old World flycatcher was formerly placed in the family Turdidae. It breeds in southern Europe, northwest Africa, and from central Asia to northern China and Malaysia. The blue rock thrush is the official national bird of Malta and was shown on the Lm 1 coins that were part of the country's former currency.

Blue rock thrush
Monticola solitarius, Spain 1
Male M. s. solitarius
Monticola solitarius 29-August-2015
Female M. s. solitarius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Monticola
M. solitarius
Binomial name
Monticola solitarius

Turdus solitarius Linnaeus, 1758


The blue rock thrush was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Turdus solitarius.[2][3] The scientific name is from Latin. Monticola is from mons, montis "mountain", and colere, "to dwell", and the specific epithet solitarius means "solitary".[4]

The rock thrush genus Monticola was formerly placed in the family Turdidae[5] but molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the species in the genus are more closely related to members of the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae.[6]

There are five recognised subspecies:[7][8]

  • M. s. solitarius (Linnaeus, 1758) – northwest Africa, south Europe, north Turkey to Georgia and Azerbaijan.
  • M. s. longirostris (Blyth, 1847) – Greece and west and south Turkey through the Middle East to the northwest Himalayas to northeast Africa and India
  • M. s. pandoo (Sykes, 1832) – central Himalayas to east China and north Vietnam to Greater Sunda Islands
  • M. s. philippensis (Statius Müller, 1776) – east Mongolia to Sakhalin south to Japan, extreme north Philippines and northeast China to Indonesia
  • M. s. madoci Chasen, 1940 – Malay Peninsula and north Sumatra

There is a proposal to split Monticola solitarius into two species: a western taxon comprising M. s. solitarius and M. s. longirostris and an eastern taxon with M. s. philippensis, M. s. pandoo and M. s. madoci.[9]


The blue rock thrush is a starling-sized bird, 21–23 cm (8.3–9.1 in) in length with a long slim bill. The breeding male of the nominate subspecies is unmistakable, with all blue-grey plumage apart from its darker wings.[8] Females and immatures are much less striking, with dark brown upperparts, and paler brown scaly underparts. The male of the subspecies M. s. philippensis has rufous-chestnut plumage from the mid-breast down to the undertail.[8] Both sexes lack the reddish outer tail feathers of rock thrush.

The male blue rock thrush sings a clear, melodious call that is similar to, but louder than the call of the rock thrush.

Distribution and habitat

Blue Rock Thrush at Kutch
female at Kutch

The European, north African and southeast Asian birds are mainly resident, apart from altitudinal movements. Other Asian populations are more migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, India and southeast Asia. This bird is a very uncommon visitor to northern and western Europe.


Blue rock thrush breeds in open mountainous areas. It nests in rock cavities and walls, and usually lays 3-5 eggs. An omnivore, the blue rock thrush eats a wide variety of insects and small reptiles in addition to berries and seeds.[8]


Monticola solitarius -ground-8

Male M. s. philippensis

Isohiodori fem2

Female, winter, Yakushima, Japan


Male, autumn, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan

Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitarius)- pandoo race- Breeding Male at Jayanti, Duars, West Bengal W IMG 5310

Breeding male of race pandoo from northeastern India

BlueRockTrush LaCanada

Male, late winter, Spain

Blue Rock Thrush Maharashtra

Female, late winter, Maharashtra, India


Male in December, near Gumma Nayakana Palya, Karnataka


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Monticola solitarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae:Laurentii Salvii. p. 170.
  3. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Paynter, Raymond A. Jr. (1964). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 10. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 138.
  4. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 260, 359. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4..
  5. ^ Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World (3rd ed.). London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-0-7136-6536-9.
  6. ^ Sangster, G.; Alström, P.; Forsmark, E.; Olsson, U. (2010). "Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of Old World chats and flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly at family, subfamily and genus level (Aves: Muscicapidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57 (1): 380–392. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.07.008. PMID 20656044.
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2016). "Chats, Old World flycatchers". World Bird List Version 6.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Collar, N. "Blue Rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 9 July 2016.(subscription required)
  9. ^ Zuccon, D.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2010). "The Monticola rock-thrushes: phylogeny and biogeography revisited". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 55: 901–910. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.009. PMID 20079862.

External links

1995 in birding and ornithology

See also 1994 in birding and ornithology, main events of 1995 and 1996 in birding and ornithology


Bercham (Chinese: 巴占) is a suburb of Ipoh next to the North–South Expressway in Perak, Malaysia. It is located between the Ipoh South Interchange of North–South Expressway and Ipoh city. It is near Ipoh Garden, Tasek, Tambun and Tanjung Rambutan. There are a number of housing estates in Bercham. Bercham began as a tin mining town but later evolved to its present status when the tin deposits dwindled. It covers 8,877 hectares of which 56% of the land is utilized for housing, industry and agriculture. As at 2009, the population of Bercham was 150,000 that would be about 20% of the Ipoh's population of 702,464 in the same year.A short drive to the end of the town near to Taman Ramai, lies two unexplored tourist attractions - Gunung Bercham (Kuan Yin Hill) and a Thai Buddhist temple. The temple existed as a shed some 15 years ago and the founder is a woman called Wan Yee, the caretaker of the temple. In 1990 the cashier of the temple Ting Cheong Meng was given the authority to rebuild the place. A hill track was built on the slope of Kuan Yin Hill allowed visitors to climb up to the hill top where offers the amazing skyline view of Bercham and Tasek.

Bercham had two other small hills, including the Gunung Tambun Tengah (at Bercham Heights) which is the largest and tallest hill in Bercham, known to host a number of interesting wildlife including the red junglefowl, dusky langur, white-rumped shama, blue rock-thrush, bat hawk, Tickell's blue flycatcher, owls, squirrels, eagles, etc. Some temples are located here, such as the Huat Tian Keong temple (法天宫仙洞) and the Sukhavana Meditation Monastery. Another small hill, the Gunung Temlang (located near Bandar Baru Putra) is being mined and only half of the hill is present today.

Bercham police station is the winner of best practices in police stations, scored highest among the participating stations from Malaysia, Pakistan, India and South Korea. It shows that Bercham police station is the best in the community orientation, physical conditions, equal treatment, transparency and accountability and detention conditions categories. This programme was surveyed by The Hague-based Altus Global Alliance.

Blue Rock

Blue Rock may refer to:

Blue Rock, Ohio, United States

Blue Rock Records, a subsidiary of Mercury Records

Celtic Blue Rock Community Arts Festival, a charity-based festival

Blue Rock (album), by The Cross

Blues rock, a form of rock music

Catalogue d'oiseaux

Catalogue d'oiseaux ("Catalogue of birds") is a work for piano solo by Olivier Messiaen composed of thirteen pieces, written between October 1956 and September 1958. It is devoted to birds and dedicated to his second wife Yvonne Loriod.

Iwata, Shizuoka

Iwata (磐田市, Iwata-shi) is a city located in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 May 2019, the city had an estimated population of 169,897 in 68,215 households and a population density was 1,000 persons per km2. The total area of the city was 163.45 square kilometres (63.11 sq mi). Iwata widely known as the headquarters of the Yamaha Motor Corporation. Iwata is also home to Júbilo Iwata, a J. League soccer team, as well as Yamaha Jubilo, a rugby team.

List of birds of Islamabad

This is a list of birds found in Islamabad, Pakistan. Seventy-two species of birds have been found in this area. The best places to watch are Margalla Hills and Rawal Lake.

Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis

Little cormorant, Microcarbo niger

Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax

Indian pond heron (Paddybird), Ardeola grayii

Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis

Little egret, Egretta garzetta

Intermediate egret, Egretta intermedia

Grey heron, Ardea cinerea

Purple heron, Ardea purpurea

Common teal, Anas crecca

Black kite, Milvus migrans

Shikra, Accipiter badius

Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus

Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

Grey francolin, Francolinus pondicerianus

Common quail, Coturnix coturnix

Brown waterhen, Amaurornis akool

White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus

Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus

Eurasian coot, Fulica atra

Red-wattled lapwing, Hoplopterus indicus

Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos

Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus

Feral pigeon, Columba livia

Wood pigeon, Columba palumbus

Collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto

Palm dove, Spilopelia senegalensis

Spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis

Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri

Common koel, Eudynamys scolopacea

Greater coucal, Centropus sinensis

House swift, Apus affinis

White-throated kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis

Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis

Hoopoe, Upupa epops

Lesser golden-backed woodpecker, Dinopium benghalense

Brown-fronted woodpecker, Dendrocopos auriceps

Crested lark, Galerida cristata

Small skylark, Alauda gulgula

Brown-throated sand martin, Riparia paludicola

Pale sand martin, Riparia diluta

Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica

Red-rumped swallow, Hirundo daurica

Paddyfield pipit, Anthus rufulus

Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea

White wagtail, Motacilla alba

Large pied wagtail, Motacilla maderaspatensis

Himalayan bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys

Red-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer

Dark-grey bushchat, Saxicola ferrea

Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius

Blue whistling thrush, Myophonus caeruleus

Fan-tailed warbler, Cisticola juncidis

Tawny prinia, Prinia inornata

Yellow-bellied prinia, Prinia flaviventris

Hume's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus humei

White-throated fantail, Rhipidura albicollis

Black-chinned babbler, Stachyris pyrrhops

Common babbler, Turdoides caudatus

Jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus

Great tit, Parus major

Bar-tailed treecreeper, Certhia himalayana

Oriental white-eye, Zosterops palpebrosus

Rufous-backed shrike, Lanius schach

Black drongo, Dicrurus macrocercus

House crow, Corvus splendens

Brahminy starling, Sturnus pagodarum

Common myna, Acridotheres tristis

Bank myna, Acridotheres ginginianus

House sparrow, Passer domesticus

Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria

Green bee-eater, Merops orientalis

Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda

Indian robin, Saxicoloides fulicatus

List of national birds

This is a list of national birds. Most species in the list are officially designated. Some species hold only an "unofficial" status.

List of national parks of India

National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species.

Further federal legislation strengthening protection for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As of July 2018, there were 110 national parks encompassing an area of 40,501 km2 (15,638 sq mi), under protected areas of India category II comprising 1.23% of India's total surface area.

Manazuru, Kanagawa

Manazuru (真鶴町, Manazuru-machi) is a town located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of June 1 2012, the town had an estimated population of 7,926, and a population density of 1,130 persons per km². The total area is 7.02 km².

It is a production center of high-quality stone which is long ago Komatsu Ishi (ja). The name of the town was named because the shape on the map is similar to crane.


Moghrar (Arabic: مغرار‎) is a municipality in Naâma Province, Algeria. It is the district seat the Moghrar District and has a population of 2,796, which gives it 11 seats in the PMA. Its municipal code is 4506

Two distinct oases are to be considered: Moghrar Foukani or higher Moghrar, on the Algerian National Highway number 6, the chief town; and Moghrar Tahtani or lower Moghrar located 15 km northeast of the first locality.

National Museum of Natural History, Malta

The National Museum of Natural History (Maltese: Mużew Nazzjonali tal-Istorja Naturali) is a natural history museum in the mediaeval walled city of Mdina, Malta. It is housed in Palazzo Vilhena, a French Baroque palace rebuilt in 1726 by Grand Master Antonio Manoel de Vilhena to designs of Charles François de Mondion. The museum opened to the public in 1973, and is run by Heritage Malta.The museum gives the visitor an overview of Maltese ecosystems (both on ground and under water), focusing on endemic plants and bird of the Islands, such as the Maltese Centaury and Blue Rock Thrush.

This museum display ranks a large variety of minerals, fossils, insects, reptiles, birds, mammals, fish and sections about Geology and Palaeontology.

National symbols of Malta

This article is a vexillological summary of all flags and symbols in current use by the island nation of Malta. More information on the history of the various flags and emblems, as well as on their equivalents which are no longer in use, is found on the specific articles, linked to in the subtitle headings.


Mount Ortobene (Orthobene in the local dialect) is a mountain in the province of Nuoro, in central Sardinia, Italy, close to the town of Nuoro.

There are two main parks: "Sedda Ortai" and "Il Redentore". At the feet of the mountain is a nuraghe archaeological area including the Domus de janas tombs. On the mountain's top is the bronze "Statue of Christ the Redeemer" by Vincenzo Jerace (1901).

Flora of the Ortobene include mostly holm oaks, while wildlife include Sardinian wild boar, weasel, marten, garden dormouse, Sardinian fox, European hare, Barbary partridge, great and lesser spotted woodpecker, Eurasian jay, blue rock-thrush, wood pigeon, Dartford warbler, goshawk, Eurasian sparrowhawk, common kestrel, peregrine falcon and golden eagle.

Grazia Deledda, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1926, wrote about Mount Ortobene:

No, it's not true that the Ortobene can be compared to other mountains; there's only one Ortobene in the whole world: it's our heart, it's our soul, our character, everything big and small, kind and tough and rough and sorrowful in us.

Pampadum Shola National Park

Pampadum Shola National Park is the smallest national park in Kerala state, South India. The park is administered by the Kerala Department of Forests and Wildlife, Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary. The park adjoins the Allinagaram Reserved Forest within the proposed Palani Hills Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park.It is a part of Palani hills stretched up to Vandaravu peak. The Westerns Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including these parks, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.

Rock thrush

The rock thrushes, Monticola, are a genus of chats, medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous songbirds. All are Old World birds, and most are associated with mountainous regions.


Suntalekhola or Suntaley Khola (also Suntaleykhola) is a small village and a tourist spot in the Kalimpong District of West Bengal. The altitude of the place ranges from 650 to 950 m. It gets its name from a small stream: Suntaley Khola. In Nepali language, Suntaley means orange and khola means stream. This place is nearly 5 km from Samsing, which is also a small picturesque serene village. The green patch on the left side of the way to Suntalekhola is amazing and holds many varieties of birds and butterflies.

There are WBFDC cottages for the tourists to reside. Several trek routes originate from Suntalekhola, most of which are within the Neora Valley National Park, which is located adjacent to this place. It is known for its beautiful landscape with green tea gardens, hills and forests, which attract a lot of tourists.

Species of birds are found here include: pond heron, black eagle, hill partridge, red-vented bulbul, ashy wood pigeon, bronzed drongo, white-throated fantail, blue rock thrush, scarlet minivet, lesser racket-tailed drongo, rufous sibia, grey treepie, spangled drongo and common green magpie. Many locals are involved in tourism-related business.

The Feather Book of Dionisio Minaggio

The Feather Book of Dionisio Minaggio, also referred to in Italian as Il bestiario barocco (The Baroque Bestiary), is a collection of 156 pictures made almost entirely from bird feathers augmented with pieces of bird skin, feet, and beaks. They were created between 1616 and 1618 by Dionisio Minaggio, the chief gardener of the Duchy of Milan and were originally bound into a book. The majority of pictures in the book are of birds indigenous to the Lombardy region of Italy at the time, but it also contained sets of other images depicting hunters, tradesmen, musicians, and commedia dell'arte characters.


Tisata (Bulgarian: Тисата) is a nature reserve in south-western Bulgaria. It is situated in Kresna Municipality, Blagoevgrad Province. The reserve is managed by the administration of Pirin National Park despite the fact it lies outside the limits of the park.

Turahalli Forest

The Turahalli Forest or Turahalli Park is a dry and deciduous forest. It is located about 20 km from Bengaluru off Kanakapura Road. Its 13 km from Banashankari and can be overseen from the NICE road. Entry inside the park has been banned for vehicles, however, it has become a hot spot for cyclists.

It has a nice view and a small temple on top of a rocky hill. As of today, Turahalli forest is said to be Bengaluru's only surviving forest.Rocks in the forest provide one of the few outdoor bouldering opportunities to the cities residents and have multiple established routes.


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