Blue plaque

A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker. The term is used in the United Kingdom in two different senses. It may be used narrowly and specifically to refer to the "official" scheme administered by English Heritage, and currently restricted to sites within Greater London; or it may be used less formally to encompass a number of similar schemes administered by organisations throughout the UK.

The "official" scheme traces its origins to that launched in 1866 in London, on the initiative of the politician William Ewart, to mark the homes and workplaces of famous people.[1][2] It has been administered successively by the Society of Arts (1866–1901), the London County Council (1901–1965), the Greater London Council (1965–1986) and English Heritage (1986 to date). It remains focused on London (now defined as Greater London), although between 1998 and 2005, under a trial programme since discontinued, 34 plaques were erected elsewhere in England. The first such scheme in the world, it has directly or indirectly provided the inspiration and model for many others.

Many other plaque schemes have since been initiated in the United Kingdom. Some are restricted to a specific geographical area, others to a particular theme of historical commemoration. They are administered by a range of bodies including local authorities, civic societies, residents' associations and other organisations such as the Transport Trust, the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Music Hall Guild of Great Britain and America and the British Comic Society. The plaques erected are made in a variety of designs, shapes, materials and colours: some are blue, others are not. However, the term "blue plaque" is often used informally to encompass all such schemes.

There are also commemorative plaque schemes throughout the world such as those in Paris, Rome, Oslo, Dublin; and in other cities in Australia, Canada, the Philippines, Russia and the United States. The forms these take vary, and they are more likely to be known as historical markers.

Ian Fleming - 22 Ebury Street Blue Plaque
English Heritage blue plaque commemorating Ian Fleming at 22b Ebury Street, Belgravia, London (erected 1996)

In the United Kingdom

Samuel Johnson plaque London
Society of Arts plaque on Samuel Johnson's house in Gough Square, London (erected 1876). Many of the early Society of Arts and LCC plaques were brown in colour.
Dickens Plaque 1338
London County Council plaque at 48 Doughty Street, Holborn, commemorating Charles Dickens (erected 1903)
The blue plaque of William Bligh the commander of the Bounty
London County Council plaque at 100 Lambeth Road, Lambeth, commemorating William Bligh (erected 1952)
Virginia Woolf (5025913403)
Greater London Council plaque at 29 Fitzroy Square, Fitzrovia, commemorating Virginia Woolf (erected 1974)
Sir Alfred Hitchcock (4313226125)
English Heritage plaque at 153 Cromwell Road, London, SW5, commemorating Sir Alfred Hitchcock (erected 1999)
FREDDIE MERCURY (FRED BULSARA) 1946-1991 Singer and Songwriter lived here
Plaque at 22 Gladstone Avenue, Feltham, London, commemorating Freddie Mercury (erected 2016)

English Heritage scheme

The original blue plaque scheme was established by the Society of Arts in 1867, and since 1986 has been run by English Heritage. It is the oldest such scheme in the world.[2][1] Since 1984 English Heritage have commissioned Frank Ashworth to make the plaques which have then been inscribed by his wife, Sue, at their home in Cornwall.[3]

English Heritage plans to erect an average of twelve new blue plaques each year in London.[4] Many are unveiled by prominent public people: for example, in 2010 a plaque dedicated to John Lennon was unveiled in Montagu Square by Yoko Ono, at the house where the couple shot the cover of the album Two Virgins.[5]

History

After being conceived by politician William Ewart in 1863, the scheme was initiated in 1866 by Ewart, Henry Cole and the Society of Arts (now the Royal Society of Arts),[6] which erected plaques in a variety of shapes and colours.

The first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. This house was demolished in 1889. The earliest blue plaque to survive, also put up in 1867, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's.[2] Byron’s plaque was blue, but the colour was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money.[7]

In total the Society of Arts put up 35 plaques, fewer than half of which survive today. The Society only erected one plaque within the square-mile of the City of London, that to Samuel Johnson on his house in Gough Square, in 1876. In 1879, it was agreed that the City of London Corporation would be responsible for erecting plaques within the City to recognise its jurisdictional independence. This demarcation has remained ever since.[2]

In 1901, the Society of Arts scheme was taken over by the London County Council (LCC),[1] which gave much thought to the future design of the plaques. It was eventually decided to keep the basic shape and design of the Society's plaques, but to make them uniformly blue, with a laurel wreath and the LCC's title.[8] Though this design was used consistently from 1903 to 1938, some experimentation occurred in the 1920s, and plaques were made in bronze, stone and lead. Shape and colour also varied.[8]

In 1921, the most common (blue) plaque design was revised, as it was discovered that glazed ceramic Doulton ware was cheaper than the encaustic formerly used. In 1938, a new plaque design was prepared by an unnamed student at the LCC's Central School of Arts and Crafts and was approved by the committee. It omitted the decorative elements of earlier plaque designs, and allowed for lettering to be better spaced and enlarged. A white border was added to the design shortly after, and this has remained the standard ever since.[7] No plaques were erected between 1915 and 1919, or between 1940 and 1947, owing to the two world wars.[9] The LCC formalised the selection criteria for the scheme in 1954.[2]

When the LCC was abolished in 1965, the scheme was taken over by the Greater London Council (GLC). The principles of the scheme changed little, but now applied to the entire, much larger, administrative county of Greater London. The GLC was also keen to broaden the range of people commemorated. The GLC erected 252 plaques, the subjects including Sylvia Pankhurst,[10] Samuel Coleridge-Taylor,[11] and Mary Seacole.[12]

In 1986, the GLC was disbanded and the blue plaques scheme passed to English Heritage. English Heritage erected more than 300 plaques in London.

In January 2013 English Heritage suspended proposals for plaques owing to funding cuts.[9][13] The National Trust's chairman stated that his organisation might step in to save the scheme.[14] In the event the scheme was relaunched by English Heritage in June 2014 with private funding (including support from a new donors' club, the Blue Plaques Club, and from property developer David Pearl).[15] Two members of the advisory panel, Professor David Edgerton and author and critic Gillian Darley, resigned over this transmutation, concerned that the scheme had been "reduced to a marketing tool for English Heritage".[16]

In April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts, Historic England (a statutory body), and the new English Heritage Trust (a charity, which took over the English Heritage operating name and logo). Responsibility for the blue plaque scheme passed to the English Heritage Trust.

Criteria

To be eligible for an English Heritage blue plaque in London the famous person concerned must:[17]

  • Have been dead for 20 years or have passed the centenary of their birth. Fictional characters are not eligible;
  • Be considered eminent by a majority of members of their own profession; have made an outstanding contribution to human welfare or happiness;
  • Have lived or worked in that building in London (excluding the City of London and Whitehall) for a significant period, in time or importance, within their life and work; be recognisable to the well-informed passer-by, or deserve national recognition.

In cases of foreigners and overseas visitors, candidates should be of international reputation or significant standing in their own country.

With regards to the location of a plaque:

  • Plaques can only be erected on the actual building inhabited by a figure, not the site where the building once stood, or on buildings that have been radically altered;
  • Plaques are not placed onto boundary walls, gate piers, educational or ecclesiastic buildings, or the Inns of Court;
  • Buildings marked with plaques should be visible from the public highway;
  • A single person may not be commemorated with more than one blue plaque in London.[17]

Other schemes have different criteria, which are often less restrictive: in particular, it is common under other schemes for plaques to be erected to mark the sites of demolished buildings.

Selection process

Almost all the proposals for English Heritage blue plaques are made by members of the public who write or email the organisation before submitting a formal proposal.[18]

English Heritage's in-house historian researches the proposal, and the Blue Plaques Panel advises on which suggestions should be successful. This is composed of 9 people from various disciplines from across the country. The panel is chaired by Professor Ronald Hutton, and includes former Poet Laureate Professor Sir Andrew Motion and buildings historian Professor Gavin Stamp.[19] The actor and broadcaster Stephen Fry was formerly a member of the panel, and wrote the foreword to the book Lived in London: Blue Plaques and the Stories Behind Them (2009).[20]

Roughly a third of proposals are approved in principle, and are placed on a shortlist. Because the scheme is so popular, and because a lot of detailed research has to be carried out, it takes about three years for each case to reach the top of the shortlist. Proposals not taken forward can only be re-proposed once 10 years have elapsed.[17]

The world's first regular high definition television service was inaugurated here by the BBC 2 November 1936
Greater London Council event plaque[21] at Alexandra Palace, commemorating the launch of BBC Television in 1936 (erected 1977)

Event plaques

A small minority of GLC and English Heritage plaques have been erected to commemorate events which took place at particular locations rather than the famous people who lived there.

Outside London

Peter Ellis Plaque at 40 Falkner Square
English Heritage plaque[22] at 40 Falkner Square, Liverpool, commemorating Peter Ellis, architect (erected 2001)

In 1998, English Heritage initiated a trial national plaques scheme, and over the following years erected 34 plaques in Birmingham, Merseyside, Southampton and Portsmouth. The scheme was discontinued in 2005. Although English Heritage no longer erects plaques outside Greater London, it does provide advice and guidance to individuals and organisations interested or involved in doing so.[23]

Other schemes

The popularity of English Heritage's London blue plaques scheme has meant that a number of comparable schemes have been established elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Many of these schemes also use blue plaques, often manufactured in metal or plastic rather than the ceramic used in London, but some feature plaques of different colours and shapes. In July 2012, English Heritage published a register of plaque schemes run by other organisations across England.[24]

The criteria for selection varies greatly. Many schemes treat plaques primarily as memorials and place them on the sites of former buildings, in contrast to the strict English Heritage policy of only installing a plaque on the actual building in which a famous person lived or an event took place.

London

Lloyds Coffee House (3984416269)
Corporation of London plaque on the site of Lloyd's Coffee House in Lombard Street
Josef Dallos plaque
City of Westminster green plaque at 18 Cavendish Square, Marylebone, commemorating Josef Dallos, contact lens pioneer (erected 2010)

The Corporation of London continues to run its own plaque scheme for the City of London, where English Heritage does not erect plaques. City of London plaques are blue and ceramic, but are rectangular in shape and carry the City of London coat of arms.[2][25] Because of the rapidity of change in the built environment within the City, a high proportion of Corporation of London plaques mark the sites of former buildings.

Many of the 32 London boroughs also now have their own schemes, running alongside the English Heritage scheme. Westminster City Council runs a green plaque scheme, each plaque being sponsored by a group with a particular interest in its subject.[26] The London Borough of Southwark started its own blue plaque scheme in 2003, under which the borough awards plaques through popular vote following public nomination: living people may be commemorated.[27] The London Borough of Islington has a very similar green heritage plaque scheme, initiated in 2010.[28]

Other plaques may be erected by smaller groups, such as residents' associations. In 2007 The Hampstead Garden Suburb Residents Association erected a blue plaque in memory of Prime Minister Harold Wilson at 12 Southway as part of the centenary celebrations of Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland the Ulster History Circle is one of a small number of groups administering blue plaques. Established in 1983, it has erected around 140 plaques.[29] Belfast City Council also has a scheme.[30]

Elsewhere

Iffley Road Track, Oxford - blue plaque
Oxfordshire blue plaque board commemorating the first sub-4-minute mile run by Roger Bannister on 6 May 1954 at Oxford University's Iffley Road track

The Birmingham Civic Society provides a blue plaque scheme in and around Birmingham: there are over 90 plaques commemorating notable former Birmingham residents and historical places of interest.[31][32]

A scheme in Manchester is co-ordinated by Manchester Art Gallery, to whom nominations can be submitted. Plaques must be funded by those who propose them.[33][34] From 1960 to 1984 all plaques were ceramic, and blue in colour. From 1985, they were made of cast aluminium, colour-coded to reflect the type of commemoration (blue for people; red for events in the city's social history; black for buildings of architectural or historic interest; green for other subjects). After a period of abeyance, the scheme has been revived and all plaques are now patinated bronze.[33]

Oldham - first chip shop in UK
Plaque in Oldham marking the origin of the fish and chip shop and the fast food industry

A blue plaque at Oldham's Tommyfield Market (Greater Manchester) marks the 1860s origin of the fish and chip shop and fast food industries.[35]

Bournemouth Borough Council has unveiled more than 30 blue plaques.[36] Its first plaque was unveiled on 31 October 1937 to Lewis Tregonwell, who built the first house in what is now Bournemouth. Two further plaques followed in 1957 and 1975 to writer Robert Louis Stevenson and poet Rupert Brooke respectively. The first blue plaque was unveiled on 30 June 1985 dedicated to Percy Florence Shelley.[37]

The Hertfordshire town of Berkhamsted unveiled a set of 32 blue plaques in 2000 on some of the town's most significant buildings,[38] including Berkhamsted Castle, the birthplace of writer Graham Greene and buildings associated with the poet William Cowper, John Incent (a Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral) and Clementine Churchill. The plaques feature in a Heritage Trail promoted by the town's council.[39]

Blue Plaque, Wolverhampton Science Park
Wolverhampton Civic Society plaque at Wolverhampton Science Park marking the location of the world altitude balloon record, on 5 September 1862

Wolverhampton has over 90 blue plaques erected by the Wolverhampton Civic and Historical Society in a scheme which started in 1983.[40] One of the more unusual plaques marks the location of the World Altitude Balloon Record on Friday 5 September 1862.

The Essex town of Loughton inaugurated a scheme in 1997 following a programme allowing for three new plaques a year; 42 had been erected by 2019. The aim is to stimulate public interest in the town's heritage.[41] Among the Loughton blue plaques is that to Mary Anne Clarke, which is in fact a pair of identical plaques, one on the back, and one on the front, of her house, Loughton Lodge.

In 2005, Malvern Civic Society and Malvern Hills District council announced that blue plaques would be placed on buildings in Malvern that were associated with famous people, including Franklin D. Roosevelt. Since then blue plaques have been erected to commemorate C. S. Lewis, Florence Nightingale, Charles Darwin and Haile Selassie.[42][43][44]

In 2010, Derbyshire County Council allowed its residents to vote via the Internet on a shortlist of notable historical figures to be commemorated in a local blue plaque scheme.[45] The first six plaques commemorated industrialist Richard Arkwright junior (Bakewell), Olave Baden-Powell and the "Father of Railways" George Stephenson (Chesterfield), the mathematical prodigy Jedediah Buxton (Elmton), actor Arthur Lowe (Hayfield), and architect Joseph Paxton (Chatsworth House).[46]

A long-running blue plaque scheme is in operation in Gateshead. Run by the council, the scheme was registered with English Heritage in 1970[24] and 29 blue plaques were installed between the inception of the scheme in 1977 and the publication of a commemorative document in 2010.[47][48] The Gateshead scheme aims to highlight notable persons who lived in the borough, notable buildings within it and important historical events.[49] Some of those commemorated through the scheme include Geordie Ridley, author of the Blaydon Races,[50] William Wailes, a noted 19th century proponent of stained glass who lived in a "fairytale mansion" at Saltwell Park,[51][52] the industrialist and co-founder of Clarke Chapman, William Clarke[53] and Sir Joseph Swan, the inventor of the incandescent light bulb whose house in Low Fell was the first in the world to be illuminated by electric light.[53][54]

Further Gateshead blue plaques have since been erected. In 2011 plaques commemorating William Henry Brockett, editor of the first Gateshead newspaper,[55] Dr. Alfred Cox[56] and Sister Winifred Laver, a missionary who had been awarded various decorations, including the British Empire Medal, during her lifetime,[57] were installed. In 2012, further blue plaques were unveiled in commemoration of Vincent Litchfield Raven, an "engineering genius" who was the chief mechanical engineer at the North Eastern Railway where his successes in steam engineering ultimately frustrated his own visionary work on the possibility of electric trains,[58] and the 19th century Felling mining disasters.[59]

In 2017 in Aldershot in Hampshire the Aldershot Civic Society unveiled its first blue plaque to comedian and actor Arthur English at the house where he had been born. It is intended that this will be the first in a series dedicated to notable local people or historic buildings.[60][61][62]

Thematic schemes

There also exist several nationwide schemes sponsored by special-interest bodies, which erect plaques at sites or buildings with historical associations within their particular sphere of activity.

Hythe Pier Red Plaque-1

Transport Trust plaque at Hythe Pier and Railway, Hythe, Hampshire, the oldest working pier railway in the world

Christopher Ingold plaque

Royal Society of Chemistry plaque on the Chemistry Department of University College London, recording the work carried out there by Sir Christopher Ingold (erected 2008)

Examples

John Logie Baird Blue Plaque

Blue plaque at 22 Frith Street, Westminster, W1, commemorating Scottish inventor John Logie Baird's first demonstration of the television

Stanley-Holloway-blue-plaque-cropped

English Heritage plaque at 25 Albany Road, Manor Park, Newham commemorating actor Stanley Holloway (erected 2009)

FRED PERRY 1909-1995 Tennis Champion lived here 1919-1935

English Heritage plaque at 223 Pitshanger Lane, Ealing, London commemorating Fred Perry

In other countries

Commemorative plaque schemes (not all of them using blue plaques) also exist most notably in the cities of Paris, Rome, Oslo and Dublin.[68]

In the United States, commemorative plaques similar to those used in Europe are called historical markers. These vary in colour and design by state. The National Trust for Historic Preservation or the U.S. government, through the National Register of Historic Places, can bestow historical status, with a small bronze marker affixed to the building. Other markers are erected by state historical commissions and similar authorities, local governments or civic groups. These can also be affixed to the building, but are frequently free-standing markers with the text on each side, or, in larger instances, beginning on one side and continuing to the other.

Most states in Australia have historic marker programs. For example, in Victoria all places and objects listed on the Victorian Heritage Register are entitled to a blue plaque.[69] The Mechanics' Institutes of Victoria Inc. have also adopted a blue plaques program, and more than 30 Mechanics' Institutes throughout the state have installed plaques on their buildings.[70]

The Philippines have more than 1,500 historical markers installed for numerous personalities, places, structures, and events around the country. There are also a number of ones installed outside the country. The government agency tasked for this is the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP), although local government units can also install markers of local significance.[71] The policy of installing markers started in 1933.[72] The initial markers were placed in 1934.

Marker MC Depot Battle Creek

Michigan Historical Marker, explaining the significance of the Michigan Central Depot building in Battle Creek, Michigan

Oslo Byes vel kulturhistorisk skilt

Norwegian version of blue plaque, set up by Selskabet for Oslo Byes Vel

Distritong Pangkomersyo ng Lungsod ng Iloilo bilang Pook Pamana historical marker

Philippine historical marker for Calle Real

References

  1. ^ a b c Spencer, Howard (2008). "The commemoration of historians under the blue plaque scheme in London". Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "The History of Blue Plaques". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Built to last: the making of a blue plaque". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  4. ^ "Blue Plaque FAQS". English Heritage. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  5. ^ "Getting back to where she once belonged: Yoko Ono unveils blue plaque at John Lennon's London home". Daily Mail. London. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  6. ^ Hansard vol 172 17 July 1863 quoted in 'The commemoration of historians under the blue plaque scheme in London' by author Howard Spencer
  7. ^ a b "About blue plaques". Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  8. ^ a b "The Blue Plaque Design". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  9. ^ a b Quinn, Ben (6 January 2013). "Blue plaques scheme suspended after 34% cut in government funding". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  10. ^ Plaque #473 on Open Plaques.
  11. ^ Plaque #136 on Open Plaques.
  12. ^ Plaque #604 on Open Plaques.
  13. ^ "Blue Plaques scheme position statement". 8 January 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  14. ^ Gray, Louise (7 January 2013). "National Trust could save blue plaques". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  15. ^ "London Blue Plaques Re-Open For Nominations – 18 June 2014". English Heritage. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  16. ^ "London Blue Plaques scheme re-launched", Salon: Society of Antiquaries of London Online Newsletter, 322, 23 June 2014, retrieved 27 June 2014
  17. ^ a b c "Propose a plaque". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  18. ^ "How to propose a Blue Plaque". Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  19. ^ "Blue Plaques Panel". English Heritage. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  20. ^ Parker, Peter (11 July 2009). "Lived in London: Blue Plaques and the Stories Behind Them by Emily Cole: review". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  21. ^ Plaque #517 on Open Plaques.
  22. ^ Plaque #1412 on Open Plaques.
  23. ^ "About Blue Plaques: Frequently Asked Questions". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 17 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  24. ^ a b "Register of Plaque Schemes". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Blue plaques". City of London. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  26. ^ "Green Plaques Scheme". Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  27. ^ "Blue Plaque Winners 2007". Southwark Borough Council. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008.
  28. ^ "Recent Plaques". London Borough of Islington. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  29. ^ "THe Ulster History Circle". Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  30. ^ "Poet and broadcaster remembered". 8 February 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  31. ^ "Birmingham Civic Society plaques list". Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  32. ^ "Birmingham Civic Society Awards". Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  33. ^ a b "Commemorative Plaques". Manchester City Council. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  34. ^ "Commemorative plaques scheme". Manchester Art Gallery. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  35. ^ "The Portuguese gave us fried fish, the Belgians invented chips but 150 years ago an East End boy united them to create The World's Greatest Double Act". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  36. ^ "Blue Plaques in Bournemouth". Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  37. ^ "Blue Plaques of Bournemouth". Bournemouth Borough Council.
  38. ^ "The history of Berkhamsted". Berkhamsted Town Council. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  39. ^ Cook, John (2009). A Glimpse of our History: a short guided tour of Berkhamsted (PDF). Berkhamsted Town Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  40. ^ "Blue Plaques". Wolverhampton Civic and Historical Society. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  41. ^ "Loughton Blue Plaques" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  42. ^ "Blue plaque link to town's famous faces". Malvern Gazette. Newsquest Media Group. 21 October 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  43. ^ "Plaque a tribute to Narnia author". Malvern Gazette. Newsquest Media Group. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  44. ^ "Emperor will be remembered as part of civic week". Malvern Gazette. Newsquest Media Group. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  45. ^ "Final vote for Derbyshire blue plaque honour". BBC News. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  46. ^ "Blue Plaques". Derbyshire County Council. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  47. ^ "Commemorative Plaques". Gateshead Council. 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  48. ^ Richards, Linda (9 September 2010). "Blue Plaques mapshows off famous spots". Newcastle Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  49. ^ "Gateshead's Commemorative Plaques" (PDF). Gateshead Council. June 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. at p.2
  50. ^ "Gateshead's Commemorative Plaques" (PDF). Gateshead Council. June 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. at p.3
  51. ^ "Plaque honours famous ex-resident". the BBC. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  52. ^ "Fairytale mansion gets new life". BBC. 14 July 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  53. ^ a b "Gateshead's Commemorative Plaques" (PDF). Gateshead Council. June 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. at p.8
  54. ^ "Gateshead Blue Plaques – Joseph Swan 1828–1914". Gateshead Libraries. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  55. ^ Lawson, Ruth (8 March 2011). "Gateshead newspaper founder honoured". Newcastle Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  56. ^ Richards, Linda (23 March 2011). "Blue plaque marks Victorian medic's home". Newcastle Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  57. ^ Richards, Linda (23 June 2011). "Blue plaque honour to Sister Winifred Laver". Newcastle Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  58. ^ Wainwright, Martin (21 March 2012). "Gateshead honours an engineering giant whose genius has lessons for our times". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  59. ^ "Felling Pit Disaster remembered on 200th anniversary". the BBC. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  60. ^ Blue Plaque for Arthur English – Aldershot Civic Society website
  61. ^ 'Are You Being Served? actor Arthur English honoured with blue plaque' – BBC News Online – 15 July 2017
  62. ^ 'Blue plaque unveiled for Aldershot's Arthur English' – Eagle Radio – 15 July 2017
  63. ^ "Transport Trust". Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  64. ^ "Connecting Everyone with Chemistry". Royal Society of Chemistry.
  65. ^ "Blue plaque marks Dahl sweet shop". BBC. Retrieved 24 December 2014
  66. ^ "Blue Plaque unveiled on Freddie Mercury's first London home". BBC News. 2 September 2016.
  67. ^ "Keith Moon plaque unveiling". Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  68. ^ "Plaques by Country". Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  69. ^ "Blue Plaques". Department of Planning and Community Development, Victoria. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  70. ^ "Historical Plaques Program". Mechanics' Institutes of Victoria Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  71. ^ "GUIDELINES_IDENTIF CLASSIF AND RECOG OF HIST SITES & STRUCTS IN THE PHIL.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  72. ^ Historical Markers Placed by the Philippine Historical Committee. Manila: Bureau of Printing. 1958.

Further reading

  • Cole, Emily; Stephen Fry (2009). Lived in London: blue plaques and the stories behind them. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14871-8.
  • Dakers, Caroline (1981). The Blue Plaque Guide to London. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-28462-9.
  • Ito, Kota (2017). "Municipalization of memorials: progressive politics and the commemoration schemes of the London County Council, 1889–1907". London Journal. 42: 273–90.
  • Rennison, Nick (2009). The London Blue Plaque Guide (3rd ed.). The History Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7524-5050-6.
  • Sumeray, Derek (2003). Track the Plaque: 23 Walks Around London's Commemorative Plaques. Breedon. ISBN 978-1-85983-362-9.
  • Sumeray, Derek; John Sheppard (2009). London Plaques. Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0735-3.

External links

18 Station Road, Barnes

18 Station Road, also known as Milbourne House, is a Grade II* listed house at Station Road, Barnes, London SW13, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It has an early 18th-century facade, and earlier features internally.It was home to the novelist Henry Fielding in about 1750, for which there is a blue plaque on the facade. Field Marshal James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley moved there in 1770.

Archibald Hill

Archibald Vivian Hill (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977), known as A. V. Hill, was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research. He shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his elucidation of the production of heat and mechanical work in muscles.

Brecon Jazz Festival

The Brecon Jazz Festival is a music festival held annually in Brecon, Wales. Normally staged in early August, it has played host to a range of jazz musicians from across the world.

The first festival was organised by Jed Williams, owner of The Four Bars Inn, in 1984. George Melly, who had a house close by, performed.As well as the main festival, a Brecon Fringe Festival organises alternative free music in pubs, hotels, galleries and cafes in the town.

Chindit Memorial

Chindit Memorial is a war memorial in London that commemorates the Chindit special forces, which served in Burma under Major General Orde Wingate in the Second World War. The Chindits – officially designated the 77th Indian Infantry Brigade in 1943, and the 3rd Indian Infantry Division in 1944 – were organised by Wingate to serve behind Japanese lines in the Burma Campaign, in 1943 and 1944. The memorial was erected in Victoria Embankment Gardens in 1990, near the Ministry of Defence headquarters, and also commemorates Wingate, who died in 1944.

The Chindits are named after the mythical chinthe, a guardian of Burmese temples, which appears on the badge of the forces. A sculpture of the chinthe, by Frank Forster, tops the memorial, above a tapering 4 metres (13 ft) high Portland stone pillar mounted on three steps.

The memorial was designed by architect David Price. The front of the monument has an inscription to the memory of the Chindits, and also has a plaque depicting of the Chindit badge on a blue background and the Chindtiot motto, "The boldest measures are the safest". The inscription also lists the four men of the Chindits who were awarded the Victoria Cross: Major Frank Blaker, Captain Michael Allmand, Lieutenant George Albert Cairns and Rifleman Tulbahadur Pun. The units involved are listed on the sides of the monument, and the rear of the monument is dedicated to Wingate, with a blue plaque depicting a portrait of Wingate.

The memorial was unveiled on 16 October 1990 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. There is a separate further memorial to the Chindits in the National Memorial Arboretum, and a memorial at Hurlburt Field in Florida commemorates the cooperation between the Chindits and the US 1st Air Commando Group.

Clarence House, Richmond

Clarence House, Richmond is a Grade II listed house in The Vineyard, Richmond, dating from about 1696.It was built for Nathaniel Rawlins, a London haberdasher merchant, who lived there until his death in 1718. The Duke of Clarence, later to become King William IV, lived in Richmond in the late 1780s and gave his name to the property. From 1792 to 1799, Clarence House was a Catholic school run by Timothy Eeles. Among the students was Bernardo O’Higgins. O'Higgins is commemorated on the wall of the property with a blue plaque installed by English Heritage, for his role in the Chilean War of Independence.The building was used as a warehouse Fortnum & Mason from 1941 to 1947. They had planned in 1943 to tear the building down and replace it with a commercial development.A private dwelling since 1947, it was owned by the actor Brian Blessed from 1967 to 1976. In 2012 the house was offered for sale, with an asking price of £22.5m. This was reduced to £18 million, and eventually to £14.5 million in 2013.

Commemorative plaque

A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques and markers are used to associate the location where the plaque or marker is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. Most modern plaques affixed in this way are commemorative of something, but this is not always the case, and there are purely religious plaques, or those signifying ownership or affiliation of some sort. A plaquette is a small plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages, the term is not typically used for outdoor plaques fixed to walls.

Cottage Road Cinema

Cottage Road Cinema is the oldest remaining cinema in continuous use in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Situated in the suburb of Headingley, Cottage Road was originally built in 1905 as a garage for the nearby Castle Grove mansion. Local newsreel cameraman Owen Brooks leased the garage with his friend George Reginald 'Reg' Smith and the two converted the building into a cinema, which opened as 'Headingley Picture House' on Monday, 29 July 1912. The cinema changed hands in the late 1930s, ultimately being purchased by Associated Tower Cinemas, who changed its name to Cottage Road Cinema and undertook building work. Associated Tower invested £20,000 to modernised the cinema in 1972, but announced that Cottage Road would close on 28th July 2005, due to unsustainable financial losses. The cinema was saved by a last minute bid from Charles Morris's Northern Morris Group. Under Northern Morris's ownership, Cottage Road celebrated its 100th birthday on 29 July 2012, with a Leeds Civic Trust blue plaque being unveiled by screenwriter Kay Mellor. Aiming to provide "cinema-going as it used to be", Cottage Road shows a mix of family-friendly films alongside classic movies, with ice creams being sold during the interval before films begin, and the national anthem being played at the end of each evening.

Embassy of Haiti, London

The Embassy of Haiti in London is the diplomatic mission of Haiti in the United Kingdom. It is located in Swedenborg House in the Bloomsbury district.

It was formerly located just off Cavendish Square in Marylebone in a Grade II listed building; the exterior has a blue plaque commemorating the architect George Edmund Street who lived in the building.

English Heritage

English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments, buildings and places. These include prehistoric sites, medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses. The charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’.

Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage also manages the London Blue Plaques scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings.

When originally formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government, officially titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.

On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, and the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, and which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state.

Heritage Victoria

Heritage Victoria is a Victorian State Government agency responsible for administering the Heritage Act 1995 and supporting the work of the Heritage Council of Victoria.

Heritage Victoria was formed from the earlier Historic Buildings Preservation Council, itself It is part of the Department of Transport, Planning and Local Infrastructure. The Heritage Council is an independent statutory authority, which is also established under the Heritage Act.

Heritage Victoria's main roles are to identify, protect and interpret Victorian cultural heritage resources, particularly those considered to be of State significance. It provides advice on heritage matters to local and State government, industry and the general community.Heritage Victoria also maintains the Victorian Heritage Register, and Victorian Heritage Inventory of historical archaeological sites, manages historic shipwrecks and relics. It recommends places on the Heritage Register, administers a permit system for registered places, provides funding for conservation and education.Heritage Victoria marks some places on the Register with a Blue plaque.Heritage Victoria has been criticized in the past either for excessive restrictions on what private owners can do with registered places, or for failing to properly protect Victoria's Heritage, for example in the approval of a multistory tower and partial demolition of the Windsor Hotel. However, it has also won awards for some of its work, such as the mobile phone App for identifying and learning about heritage places. It also maintains a publicly searchable on-line database of places, and database of historical objects and archaeological finds.

Judges' Lodgings, Monmouth

The Judges' Lodgings, located in Whitecross Street, Monmouth, south east Wales, is an eighteenth-century building, with earlier origins, on the edge of St James' Square. It has its origins as an early 16th-century town house, becoming the 'Labour in Vain' inn around 1756. It was in use as the Judges' Lodgings for the Monmouth Assizes before 1835, and as the Militia Officers' Mess in the 1870s. Today it is a private house, with modern mews cottages built into the rear. It is a Grade II listed building and is one of 24 blue plaque buildings on the Monmouth Heritage Trail.

Mary of Exeter

Mary of Exeter was a carrier pigeon who flew many military missions with the National Pigeon Service during World War II, transporting important messages across the English Channel back to her loft in Exeter, England. She was awarded the Dickin Medal in November 1945 for showing endurance on war service despite being injured on three occasions and emerging uninjured when her loft was bombed.

Mary of Exeter was owned by Charlie Brewer, a cobbler from Exeter. She served with the National Pigeon Service between 1940 and 1945 carrying top secret messages. Mary made four trips from France to England.She died in 1950 and is buried in Ilford Animal Cemetery.

Millais Culpin

Millais Culpin FRCS (6 January 1874 in Ware, Hertfordshire – 14 September 1952 in St Albans, Hertfordshire) was an English physician and psychotherapist.

He appears as a character in the Casualty 1907 and Casualty 1909 television series, where he was played by Will Houston.

Culpin lived at Meads, Loughton, where he is commemorated by blue plaque.

Minicomic Co-ops

Minicomics Co-ops are entities for trading and promoting small press comics and fanzines. The most well-known of these co-ops is the United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, a co-operative of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968, when it was called Blue Plaque Publications (BPP). Carl Gafford, at that point the publisher of a comics fanzine called Minotaur, created the BPP; among its earliest members were Chuck Robinson II (publisher of Comique), Dwight Decker (True Fan Adventure Theatre), Ed Romero (Realm), and Gordon Matthews (Coffinworm).

Robert Edwin Phillips

Robert Edwin "Bob" Phillips VC (11 April 1895 – 23 September 1968) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Thurloe Square

Thurloe Square is a traditional garden square in South Kensington, London, England.

There are private communal gardens in the centre of the square for use by the local residents. The Victoria and Albert Museum is close by to the north across Thurloe Place and Cromwell Gardens. The nearest tube station is South Kensington to the west along Thurloe Street.

The square (and the adjacent streets) are named after John Thurloe, an advisor of Oliver Cromwell, who owned the land in the seventeenth century. His descendant, Harris Brace, had a godson called John Alexander, who developed the area in the 1820s. George Basevi designed most of the houses.Sir Henry Cole (1808–1892), the first Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum, lived at 33 Thurloe Square just opposite the museum. The building is marked with a blue plaque and is now the Kazakhstan Embassy.

The homeopath Margery Blackie lived and practised at no. 18 from 1929-1980. The building is marked with a blue plaque.The Yalta Memorial Garden which contains a memorial to those repatriated as a result of the Yalta Conference following World War II, Twelve Responses to Tragedy, is situated at the north of the square between the square and the Cromwell Road.

Trident Studios

Trident Studios was a British recording facility, located at 17 St. Anne's Court in London's Soho district between 1968 and 1981. It was constructed in 1967 by Norman Sheffield, a drummer of former 1960s group the Hunters, and his brother Barry.

"My Name is Jack" by Manfred Mann was recorded at Trident in March 1968, and helped launch the studio's reputation. Some well-known albums and singles recorded at Trident include The Beatles' White Album (some recording was also done at Abbey Road Studios) as well as their single "Hey Jude", Elton John's "Candle in the Wind", David Bowie's The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust, and Queen's albums Queen, Queen II and Sheer Heart Attack.

Other artists recorded at Trident included the Bee Gees, Carly Simon, Chris de Burgh, Frank Zappa, Genesis, Brand X, James Taylor, Joan Armatrading, Joe Cocker, Kiss, Tygers of Pan Tang, Lou Reed, Peter Gabriel, Marc Almond, Marc and the Mambas, Soft Cell, The Rolling Stones, Thin Lizzy, Tina Turner, T-Rex, Van der Graaf Generator, Yes and John Entwistle.

The Sheffield brothers had a relaxed working attitude, but also emphasised high standards of audio engineering. The studio's state-of-the-art recording equipment helped attract many major artists to record there.

York Road (Maidenhead)

York Road is a football stadium in Maidenhead, Berkshire, England. The home ground of Maidenhead United, it is acknowledged by The Football Association and FIFA to be the oldest continuously-used senior association football ground in the world by the same club, having been home to the club since 1871. Due to this status, they have a blue plaque just inside the home turnstiles on the York Road side of the ground.

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