The Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (Chinese: 三民主義力行社, commonly abbreviated as SPTPP), commonly known as the Blue Shirts Society (藍衣社) or the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社, SES) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社, CRS), was a secret ultranationalist faction that modeled Italian fascists in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).
Although in its early stage the society's most important members came from the Whampoa Military Academy, and constituted elements of the KMT's Whampoa Clique, by the 1930s its influence extended into the military and political spheres, and had influence upon China's economy and society. The rise and fall of the Blue Shirt Society was rapid, but obscure, and was seldom mentioned again by either the KMT or the Communist Party of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the following KMT domination on Taiwan.
Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
|Blue Shirts Society|
The Blue Shirts origins can be traced to the Whampoa Clique of 1924 - professional military officers - many of whom had sworn personal loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek, as well to the ideals of Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People.
After the Northern Expedition of 1927, Chiang and the KMT seized most of China's territories. The government established was in a degree of social crisis: there were tensions as Japan's conquest of Manchuria; Chiang had also formally split the First United Front, the alliance between the KMT and the CCP (Communist Party of China), turning the two parties against each other. The CCP had bases in the cities and to a lesser degree in the countryside, posing a threat to Chiang's government. The KMT itself was not of one mind; divided into several cliques, there were power struggles between Chiang, Hu Hanmin and Wang Jingwei. China was still scourged by corruption, poverty, and infrequent civil war.
Being the foundation of Chiang's rule, some Whampoa graduates felt it time to take action. Consequently, in July 1931, Teng Jie (滕傑) and Xiao Zanyu (蕭贊育) were sent back to China to investigate the threat from Japan and any forthcoming war.
When Teng and Xiao returned to China, they were upset to find the KMT, in their eyes, "gravitating toward decadence". Teng designed a blueprint to reform the KMT, suggesting a single great and powerful leader could save China and the KMT. The leader could rule by all means, hopefully as a benevolent dictator. Chiang was a sound candidate, and over the following months Teng traveled around the capital of Nanjing seeking support from Whampoa fellows.
Teng was acquainted with Zeng Kuoqing (曾擴情), among the first graduates of Whampoa, and the man in charge of the Whampoa Alumni Association. Because the KMT banned organized political parties, Teng and Zeng searched for alumni in secret. Zeng used his influence and personal relations among Whampoa graduates to organize periodic meetings to discuss Teng's plan.
After several months the group included prominent Whampoa graduates, including He Zhonghan (賀衷寒), widely regarded as one of The Three Most Outstanding Whampoa graduates (the other two being CCP members Jiang Xianyun (蔣先雲) and Chen Geng (陳賡), the patriarch of the Sun Yat-sen Theory Research Group at that time); Hu Zongnan (胡宗南)，a rising young general in Chiang's National Revolutionary Army; Deng Wenyi (鄧文儀 )，another patriarch of the Sun Yat-sen Theory Research Group and a secretary to Chiang, and; Feng Ti (丰悌), the Commissar of the 1st Division of the KMT army.
In September 1931, in the third meeting of the group, an organization to reform the KMT and fight against Japan was decided. Under the direction of He Zhonghan, this group was named the Society of the Practice of Three Principles of People (三民主義力行社, SPTPP). Teng was elected General Secretary. The party also issued guidance on the establishment, discipline and organization of members, and confirmed its main mission as follows:
Funds were mainly raised by Deng, who ran the KMT's Party Book Shop, a publishing house for party-political propaganda. Furthermore, to avoid arrest under the KMT's political organization ban, members decided not to tell Chiang Kai-shek of their plan, even while regarding him as their spiritual mentor and leader.
Before long Kang Ze (康澤), who published the China Daily newspaper with the permission of Chiang, became the mouthpiece of the SPTPP.
In December 1931, under pressure both inside and outside the KMT, Chiang resigned. While in retirement at his hometown in Zhejiang, Chiang showed growing interest in Benito Mussolini's fascism. Deng subsequently let Chiang know of the existence of the SPTPP. Chiang summoned He, Teng and Kang to a meeting, where he announced his idea for a more formal and disciplined organization like those in Italy and Germany. Thus specific rules and articles to guide the party were drafted.
With support from Chiang, Teng designed a hierarchical organization style. At the top was Chiang, with the foundations made from the elite of Whampoa graduates. New members could only be accepted with two recommendations and approval from Chiang himself. Members were not allowed to resign unless the group faced dissolution. If there was any violation of discipline, members would receive severe punishment.
In 1932 Chiang regained the presidency after a power struggle between his opponents. Hoping to speed reform of the SPTPP, in a secret meeting in February Gui Yongqing (桂永清)， a member of the SPTPP, recommended Liu Jianqun (劉健羣) as a suitable candidate. Liu, He Yingqin's (何應欽) secretary, contributed much to the group.
Liu wrote a pamphlet called Some Opinions On The Reform of the KMT. In this, Liu proposed reform of the KMT be enforced via a group of elites established and organized along the lines of Mussolini's MVSN or Blackshirts. Members would wear blue shirts to pledge their allegiance. Accordingly, the leader should encourage by his sublime, superior spirit. Under the direction of the leader, all members would live simple and disciplined lives, and all cadres would be treated equally, with incomes and lives under strict supervision. Violation would be severely punished. In return, the people would entrust property and their families to the country and the supreme leader. Public responsibilities would depend on ability, from military service to absolute obedience of orders including surveillance of one's neighborhoods. Lives would be divided into stages, including a youth wing. Thus, China would be turned into a militarized society, with a three tier organization, highest to lowest: Supreme Leader - Blue Shirt Society - People.
Liu Jianqun ordered membership be kept a secret:
"With a view to attaining the object of immediately overthrowing the feudal influences, exterminating the Red Bandits, and dealing with foreign insult[s], members of the Blue Shirts Society should conduct in secret their activities in various provinces, xian, and cities, except for the central Guomindang headquarters and other political organs whose work must be executed in an official manner."
Chiang met with Liu and appreciated his theory, leading to the evolution of the SPTPP into the Blue Shirt Society (BSS). In March 1932, under cover of an existing club called the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社)，the SPTPP officially announced its establishment. Although Liu's proposal that members wear blue shirts and name their society after the blue shirts was not accepted, the SPTPP was privately known as the BSS from then on. In its formal opening ceremony, Teng was elected General Secretary, with He, Kang as Standing Secretariat. The BSS consisted of six divisions: Secretariat, Organization, Propaganda, Military, Special Agency and Logistics. The secret society reached its peak, with the BSS infiltrating the country's political system, military and even the everyday lives of people.
During the early to mid-1930s Chiang was busy carrying out his suppression of the CCP's Red Army in the countryside. With his permission, the BSS took over the defense of Nanking. Most of the prominent Whampoa graduates now got promotions as commanders and became BSS members. Besides increasing its influence in the army, the BSS infiltrated the police and security services in major cities, and recruited members in the KMT youth league. The BSS now had influence in China's military, labor unions, publishing houses and schools. A new structure of power had emerged, with the BSS at the core of the Whampoa Clique, coexisting and competing against the two better known cliques: the CC Clique, led by Chen Lifu (陳立夫) and Chen Guofu (陳果夫)，whose remit was dealing with party issues, and; the Politics Research Group (政學系) led by Yang Yongtai (楊永泰) and Zhang Qun (張群), whose remit was the day-to-day running of the KMT government.
Liu's pamphlet was accepted as the guideline of the BSS, and part of it was revised into the Regulation of Life Discipline. In accordance with this, BSS members would be paid low wages, with part being donated to the BSS. Gambling and opium were banned. Anti-corruption laws and laws prohibiting BSS members from having mistresses were to be strictly abided by. The practice of BSS members became quite distinct from the majority of KMT bureaucrats.
In June 1932, an anti-graft campaign was launched under the direction of BSS member, Deng Wenyi. A special force, mostly comprising BSS members, cracked down on corrupt police officers in Wuhan. After several arrests and executions, the police force was considered improved. Deng then waged war against organized crimes, prostitution, opium and gambling. After 3 months, Deng had won Chiang's praise. Chiang wanted this effort to be promoted around the country, and so launched a campaign to purify the capital. The results were less successful and derided as a failure.
Meanwhile, the BSS was playing an active role in suppressing the CCP. Zeng Kuoqing, using his status in the Whampoa Alumni Association, wrote a letter to Xu Jishen (許繼慎), commander of Zhang Guotao's 4th Red Army and a Whampoa graduate, asking Xu to defect to the KMT. Xu did not reply, but when his superiors discovered the letter, suspicions were raised and the CCP decided to carry out a purge. Thousands of commanders and soldiers were tortured and executed, weakening the CCP's resistance. In light of this, in October 1932, Hu Zongnan led his army (mainly commanded by BSS officers) in a cruel and decisive battle against Xu Xiangqian in Hekou Anhui. In contrast to other KMT armies, the army had high-morale, was composed of hand-picked men, and equipped with the best weaponry. With strong support from other armies also led by BSS members such as Yu Jishi (俞濟時) and Huang Jie (黃杰), Xu's CCP army was routed. After suffering some 10,000 casualties, Zhang and Xu retreated. Hu and his troop chased, and when Zhang and his army reached Sichuan to set up another base, Hu remained in Gansu nearby. Hu, with his chosen men and strong army, became known as the King of Northwestern China.
Coinciding With the BSS's ever-increasing power and influence, disagreements within the BSS leadership mounted. Chiang, who regarded the BSS as a tool, would not allow them more power and influence. Teng could not accept this and conflicts between him and Chiang were frequent. In 1933, Chiang chose He Zhonghan to succeed Teng as General Secretary of the BSS.
As a more ambitious and skilled politician than Teng, He Zhonghan won a power struggle against his BSS rival Liu Jianqun. Subsequently, He decided to set up a propaganda network run by Kang Ze. This special agency under the direction of Dai Li, and his deputy Zheng Jiemin (鄭介民), evolved into a network infiltrating every corner of China. The BSS's influence grew into Northern China, which was under direct threat of invasion by Japan. In 1933 the Japanese army invaded Rehe, and KMT armies fought against them along the Great Wall. The BSS now changed from an elite secret society into an anti-Japanese mass movement. Liu was sent to the BSS's Northern China Division, which was called the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社，CRS). Most members were university lecturers and student groups, and in the summer of that year the CRS had divisions in 24 provinces of China with more than 40,000 members. With the CRS controlling the political training system of the KMT, new recruits were always available. With thousands of members, political instructors and front organizations, the BSS had a kingdom under the direction of He.
Besides setting up the CRS, the BSS also played a part in the Second Stage Revolution. Using influence in Northern and Southwestern China to persuade local warlords to pledge allegiance to Chiang, a reform of the KMT armies was carried out. An air force and armored corps was set up, alongside wars against corruption, opium and poverty. Reconstruction of rural areas was undertaken, with roads built and bank loans provided to peasants. The most significant part of this movement was Kang Ze's New Jiangxi Style and Special Detachment (別動隊，NJSSD).
In 1933 during the 5th Suppression Campaign against the CCP, Chiang decided to set up a paramilitary force. Kang was appointed to lead the NJSSD, the only direct military group in the BSS. Soon the NJSSD had integrated of military, political, police, military police and secret police powers. At its peak it had 24,000 members and three divisions of regular troops. The NJSSD had peasants living near Soviet Jiangxi and Northern Anhui categorized and confined, where they had limited access to the outside world. A family hoping to prove itself non-CCP needed to have the guarantee of four other families, and promise not to collaborate with or provide support to the CCP. Violations would have the whole family executed, along with the families of the four guarantors. The NJSSD set up hundreds of concentration camps around Shangrao, Jiangxi, where they tortured and executed residents and CCP captives. Under this system, fewer and fewer peasants supported the CCP. Merchants who smuggled materiel to the CCP were also broken down, with peasants organized to build blockades against the Soviet Territory. With the shortage of supplies, accompanied by heavy attacks from the KMT, the CCP had to launch its now-famous Long March in order to retreat.
The NJSSD started the New Jiangxi Style plan in territories previously occupied by the Communists, providing compulsory education and free medical treatment to peasants. With a brutal but effective anti-corruption campaign, they provided loans, seeds and pesticides also. Nevertheless, the NJSSD engaged in fervent brutality, executions of perceived CCP sympathisers, and innocents. In one case, in Mount Dabie, previously the base of the 4th Red Army in Northern Anhui, more than half a million were massacred. At the same time, in accordance with NJSSD and New Jiangxi Style, Kang reached the peak of his career, and he raised enough finances to challenge He as leader of the BSS.
Xiao Zuolin (肖作霖), a BSS member early on, drafted a plan called the Whole New Culture Movement and proposed the establishment of an organization called the Chinese Culture Academy to increase the BSS's influence in culture. Xiao got Deng Wenyi's support and carried out his plan by taking over several newspapers and journals, and by enrolling its members in universities. Its scheme of forging a movement for a new culture was adopted by Chiang, and on 19 February 1934, he announced the New Life Movement at a meeting in Nanchang. The plan involved reconstructing the moral system of the Chinese and welcoming a renaissance and reconstruction of Chinese national pride.
In March, Chiang issued guidance, consisting of 95 rules of the New Life Movement, being a mixture of Chinese traditions and western standards. It was a vast propaganda movement, with war mobilization and military maneuvers on a scale that China had never experienced before. But because the plan was so ambitious and rigid, and because its policies created too much inconvenience in the everyday lives of the people, it fell into disfavor. Nearly three years later in 1936, Chiang had to accept that his favorite movement had failed. Deng, Kang and Jiang Xiaoxian (蔣孝先), Chiang's nephew and bodyguard, also BSS members were appointed General Secretariats of the New Life Movement, with supervision of public lifestyles enforced by BSS cadres. By controlling the mouthpieces of the KMT, the BSS openly expressed advocacy of fascism in its publications.
Unlike Teng, He was a professional politician, and never concealed his ambition for power. After fostering a Hunan Clique in the BSS, Chiang became concerned the BSS might threaten his governance. In 1934 he accused the BSS of corruption and malfunction, dismissing He as General Secretary. Liu Jianqun was appointed as successor. With NJSSD and the Southwestern Clique behind him, and the Zhejiang Clique led by Hu Zongnan and Dai Li opposing him, Liu Jianqun's BSS faced the same fragmented fate as the KMT it had helped get rid of.
With the New Culture Movement failed but still officially ongoing, the BSS spread its influence into the cultural centers of Shanghai and other major cities that used to be the CC Clique's power base.
In June 1934, the Nanchang Airport, built by donations from international Chinese, and designed to train the KMT air force, was burned down. The Aviation Commissioner, Xu Peigen (徐培根), who was also a BSS member, was the primary suspect. Deng was sent to investigate this case. He reached the conclusion that the fire was accidentally caused by a cigarette dropped by a soldier, but Chen Lifu and Yang Yongtai argued Xu masterminded the fire to eliminate evidence of corruption, and Deng had colluded to cover it up. Xu was kept in custody, Deng was sacked, and his titles were removed. The Chinese Culture Academy was banned. Dai Li was sent to take over Deng's investigation agency and quietly integrated it into his own special agency, which later evolved into the Military Statistical Bureau, the notorious secret police of the KMT. Dai no longer played any major part in the BSS now he had set up his own kingdom.
Taking advantage of this blow to the BSS's prestige, the Politics Research Clique consummated the Administrative Office System, adding new levels of administration between provinces and counties (the two tier system of provinces and counties had been used in China for more than a thousand years). With the appearance of new offices, the Politics Research Clique was able to control the county level. Many bureaucrats who used to be loyal to the CC Clique and the BSS defected to the suddenly more powerful Politics Research Clique. The Politics Research Clique took over the security forces, the police and the militia step by step. Liu, whose failures in the BSS were an embarrassment, was replaced by Feng Ti under the excuse that he had health problems. He was sent to Manchuria to work with Zeng Kuoqing.
In 1935, two editors of a pro-Japanese newspapers were assassinated in Manchuria. The Japanese thought these actions were taken by the BSS and argued it was a violation of the Tanggu Accord signed to keep the status quo between the Japanese and China. Yoshijirō Umezu (梅津美治郎), commander of the Japanese China Garrison Army and Kenji Doihara's (土肥原賢二) Japanese intelligence agency investigated and presented a memo to He Yingqing. Agreeing with the Japanese recommendations in this memo, all Chinese forces heavily influenced by the BSS (including military police, regular forces such as the 2nd Division and the 25th Division) should be evacuated from Beijing and out of Hebei province.
Taking over military training for the KMT, Feng Ti enrolled new members into the BSS. Hu Zongnan, Dai Li and other former BSS members also strengthened their grip on power by enrolling members into their own private armies. At the top were hundreds of Whampoa graduates, aided by some 30,000 mid- and low-level officers, university teachers and public servants. Below them were more than 200,000 members of the CRS. At the bottom were hundreds of thousands of boy scouts. With the organization undergoing such rapid expansion, corruption and inefficiency plagued the BSS across the country. Furthermore, in 1935, there was a serious security leak in its headquarters after the BSS tried to assassinate Wang Jingwei, Chiang's presidential rival. Under heavy pressure, Feng Ti was sacked. Liu Jianquan took over, to be replaced in turn by Zheng Jiemin.
In 1936 Deng Wenyi became General Secretary of the BSS, just in time for December's Xi'an Incident. Chiang was kidnapped and held by General Zhang Xueliang, who favored fighting the Japanese more than the CCP. There were disagreements between KMT leaders on whether to solve the kidnapping by peace talks or military action. In BSS meeting, He Zhonghan and Deng were determined to use force and called for the mobilization of BSS members around the country. 176 young generals issued a statement to denounce Zhang Xueliang and declare war on his army. Under He's direction, more than 2000 officers and BSS members held a meeting pledging their allegiance to Chiang and agreeing to mobilize against the Young Marshall. Gui Yongqing led an army of more than 12,000 men in armored vehicles across the Yangtze River towards where Chiang was being held, while a few bombers were launched by overzealous military and BSS officers. Chen and other KMT leaders refused to support this, however, and even He Yingqing, who was in charge of the KMT military, did not agree with the BSS's movement. No official support was given by the KMT.
Chiang's wife Soong Mei-ling came to Xian for peace talks. Due to the efforts of the CCP delegation, led by Zhou Enlai, who wanted to set up an alliance with the KMT against the Japanese, Chiang was released several weeks later. After his release, Chiang took revenge on the BSS's reckless action and lack of control. Deng was sacked, with all titles removed again, and he was replaced by Kang Ze. He Zhonghan was out of favor with Chiang and forced to travel around Europe in exile. In March 1937, Chiang issued his order that all BSS activities be temporarily suspended.
With the Second Sino-Japanese War breaking out on 7 July 1937, Japanese troops seized vast areas of China. Before Nanjing fell, Kang led the retreat of the BSS from its headquarters. In 1938 the BSS held its first and last national congress in Wuhan. Here, members of the BSS and SPTPP were permitted to have their memberships automatically transferred to the KMT, members of the CRS could be transferred to the Youth League of Three Principles of the People (三民主義青年團, YLTPP). Most of the 500,000 members of the BSS and CRS refused to transfer to the KMT, instead choosing the YLTPP, which became the basis of a new force within the KMT. Hu Zongnan kept the position of Director of the YLTPP, while Kang acted as his agent. The biggest winner was Dai Li: his new spy agency, the Military Statistical Bureau was formed, and he transferred all the intelligence agents of the BSS, CRS and NJSSD into it, giving him one of the largest intelligence services in the world. He kept control over this secret empire until his death in an airplane crash in 1946.
The BSS had been officially dismissed, but Kang wished to keep it alive under the cover of the YLTPP. In the following 7 years he increased YLTPP membership from 400,000 to more than 1.5 million, and used NJSSD techniques to re-organize the YLTPP. The result was a group more efficient and disciplined than the KMT, which aroused Chiang's suspicion again. After returning from the Soviet Union, Chiang Kai-shek's son Chiang Ching-kuo sought to take over the YLTPP. Kang was reluctant and tried to resist these efforts, sealing his fate. In 1945 Kang was sent to Europe and Chiang Ching-kuo was given the YLTPP's seat. During the Chinese Civil War, members of the YLTPP suffered the same fate as the KMT. Only prominent YLTPP figures such as Kang survived CCP purges, as examples of clemency toward war criminals.
The following were some of the most prominent and earliest members of BSS.
Teng was later appointed as mayor of Nanjing. He went to Taiwan in 1945 with KMT troops and later retired from the position of chairman of Central Trust Bureau of the KMT. After years of retirement, he was appointed director of Labor Bureau. In 1949, when the KMT retreated to Taiwan, he was Minister of Communication and Policy Counsellor.
Liu's wife was an agent working for Kenji Doihara, bringing many confidential documents with her on defecting to the Japanese. After this, Liu himself was forced to become a fugitive to escape Dai Li's secret police. After becoming a monk and spending years in Guizhou, Chiang's men found him by chance. Chiang showed leniency by offering Liu a position as vice-speaker of the KMT Congress. When he went to Taiwan, Liu lived in poverty, and before his death in 1960s his last contribution was to provide valuable details for an article on the BSS written by an American professor.
Having risen and fallen several times, Deng showed little interest in politics after the Sino-Japanese War. He arrived in Taiwan in 1949 and retired as Director of the Political Work Bureau.
Feng Ti was appointed as commander of guard for Changsha, but was executed in 1938 after KMT forces engaged in a scorched earth policy to resist the invasion of Japanese army. The resultant fires killed thousands of civilians
Kang returned from Europe during the Chinese Civil War and was sent to the battlefront. Captured and made a POW, KMT propaganda depicted him as a martyr. In reality, Kang lived well in custody and defected to the CCP. In 1963 he was released in a CCP amnesty and died 4 years later.
Hu's troops were annihilated by CCP armies during the Civil War. When he left for Taiwan in 1949, he was impeached by 46 members of the KMT's Control Yuan for incompetence in military command. Although Hu was released with no charge, he was appointed a defense commander for a little island and never returned to central politics. After retiring, he died in 1962.
Zeng was captured and made a POW in the Civil War. Later released by the CCP, he died in 1983.
Gui was made commander of the KMT navy during the Civil War, then went to Taiwan. He died during his term as Chief of Staff of the KMT Army in 1954.
Dai Li became head of secret police and espionage of the KMT, and died in an air crash in 1946. His assistant, Zheng, succeeded Dai in running the KMT secret police. He died in 1959 in Taiwan.
Anti-Western sentiment in China has been increasing since the early 1990s, particularly amongst the Chinese youth. Notable incidents which have resulted in a significant anti-Western backlash have included the 1999 NATO bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, the 2008 demonstrations during the Olympic torch relay and alleged Western media bias, especially in relation to the March 2008 Tibet riots.While available public opinion polls show that the Chinese hold generally favorable views towards the United States, there remains suspicion over the West's motives towards China stemming largely from historical experiences and specifically the 'century of humiliation'. Some allege that these suspicions have been increased by the Communist Party's "Patriotic Education Campaign".Blue Shirts
The term "Blue Shirts", when used by itself, can refer to several organizations, mostly fascist organizations found in the 1920s and 1930s.CC Clique
The CC Clique (Chinese: CC派), or Central Club Clique (Chinese: 中央俱樂部組織), was one of the political factions within the Kuomintang (The Chinese Nationalist Party), in the Republic of China (1912–49). It was led by the brothers Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu, friends of Chiang Kai-shek.
Chen Lifu and his older brother Chen Guofu were nephews of Chen Qimei, who until his assassination by the Chinese warlord Yuan Shih-kai in 1916 was the mentor of upcoming Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek. Because of those personal ties, the Chen brothers came to direct the organizational operations of the Chiang-dominated KMT, founding their own political organization known as the CC Clique.
Considered to be the extreme right of the Kuomintang alongside the Blue Shirts Society, the CC Clique represented traditionalists, anti-Communists, anti-Japanese and land interests. They stood closest to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, influencing appointments and promotions, and held the largest block of votes in the Central Executive Committee. Chen Li-fu was considered the party head. Its members included many of the elite within the party, including such people as Chiang Kai-shek's wife Soong Mei-ling and H.H. Kung. They influenced intelligence, trade, banking, the military, education, and propaganda.
The CC Clique placed loyal followers throughout the party and the government machinery, ensuring influence in the bureaucracy, educational agencies, youth organization and labor unions. The brothers also influenced the KMT's Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, one of Chiang's two main police and intelligence bodies. Chen Lifu freely admitted that these units caused
considerable criticism (The Storm Clouds, p. 68).Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek (; 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.
Chiang was a member of the Kuomintang and a lieutenant of Sun Yat-sen in the revolution to overthrow the Beiyang government and reunify China. With Soviet and communist help, Chiang organized the military for Sun's Canton Nationalist Government and headed the Whampoa Military Academy. Commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army (from which he came to be known as the generalissimo), he led the Northern Expedition from 1926 to 1928 defeating a coalition of warlords and nominally reunifying China under a new Nationalist government. Midway through the campaign, KMT's alliance with the Chinese Communist Party broke down and Chiang purged the communists inside the party, triggering a civil war with the CCP which he eventually lost in 1949.
Leader of China in the Nanjing Decade, Chiang had the difficult task of modernizing the country with whatever time and resources he had before impending Japanese threat. Trying to avoid a war with Japan while hostilities with CCP continued, he was kidnapped in the Xi'an Incident and obliged to form an Anti-Japanese United Front with the CCP.
Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War. For eight years he led the war of resistance against a vastly superior enemy, mostly from the wartime capital Chongqing. As the leader of major Allied power, Chiang met with Churchill and Roosevelt in the Cairo Conference to discuss the terms for Japanese surrender. No sooner had the Second World War ended than the Civil War with the communists, now led by Mao Zedong, resumed. Under Chiang's command the nationalists were defeated in a few decisive battles in 1948.
In 1949 Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics during what is characterized as the "White Terror." Presiding over a period of social reforms and economic prosperity, Chiang ruled Taiwan as President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year before Mao's death.
Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure. Supporters credit him with playing a major part in unifying the nation and leading the Chinese resistance against Japan as well as with countering Soviet-communist encroachment. Detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian regime who suppressed opponents. Critics estimate that the Nationalist government was responsible for between 6 and 18.5 million deaths.Dai Li
Lieutenant General Dai Li (Tai Li; Chinese: 戴笠; pinyin: Dài Lì; Wade–Giles: Tai4 Li4; May 28, 1897 - March 17, 1946) was a Chinese spymaster. Born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) with the courtesy name of Yunong (Yu-nung; 雨農) in Bao'an, Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province, he studied at the Whampoa Military Academy, where Chiang Kai-shek served as Chief Commandant, and later became head of Chiang's Military Intelligence Service.Fang Chih
Fang Chih or Fang Zhi (Chinese: 方治; 23 November 1895 – 28 March 1989), courtesy name: Xikong (希孔), was a politician, provincial governor, diplomat, author and a high-ranking Kuomintang official of the Republic of China.He Yingqin
He Yingqin, (simplified Chinese: 何应钦; traditional Chinese: 何應欽; pinyin: Hé Yìngqīn; Wade–Giles: Ho Ying-chin; April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987) also Ho Ying-chin, was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republic of China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.He–Umezu Agreement
The He-Umezu Agreement (梅津・何應欽協定, Umezu-Ka Okin Kyōtei) (Chinese: 何梅協定); was a secret agreement between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China concluded on 10 June 1935, 2 years prior to the outbreak of general hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China (, KMT), also spelled as Guomindang and often alternatively translated as the Nationalist Party of China (NPC) or the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP), is a major political party in the Republic of China based in Taipei that was founded in 1911. The KMT is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he later ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era. It was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan where it continued to govern as an authoritarian single-party state. This government retained China's United Nations seat (with considerable Western support) until 1971.
Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986 and political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power. Nevertheless, the KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. In the 2016 general and presidential election, the KMT was defeated in both elections and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President.
The party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely. The KMT holds to the one-China policy in that it officially considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus. In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the Three Noes policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou, namely no unification, no independence and no use of force.List of fascist movements
This article discusses regimes and movements that have described themselves as fascist, or are alleged to have been fascist or sympathetic to fascism.
It is often a matter of dispute whether a certain government is to be characterized as fascist (radical authoritarian nationalism), authoritarian, totalitarian, or a police state. The term "fascism" itself is controversial, and has been defined in various ways by different authors. Many of the regimes and movements discussed in this article can be considered fascist according to some definitions but not according to others. See definitions of fascism for more information on that subject.Nanjing National Theatre Academy
The Nanjing National Theatre Academy, also known as the National Drama School or the National Theatre Academy (zh: 南京国立戏剧专科学校 or 国立戏剧学校 or 国立戏剧专科学校) was a Drama school in the Republic of China and the first institute of higher education in the field of drama in China.Nanjing decade
The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Chinese: 南京十年 Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Chinese: 黃金十年 Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China. It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing from Zhili clique warlord Sun Chuanfang halfway through the Northern Expedition in 1927. Chiang declared it to be the national capital despite the existence of a left-wing Nationalist government in Wuhan. The Wuhan faction gave in and the Northern Expedition continued until the Beiyang government in Beijing was overthrown in 1928. The decade ended with the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and the retreat of the Nationalist government to Wuhan. GDP growth averaged 3.9 per cent a year from 1929 to 1941 and per capita GDP about 1.8 per cent.Nanjing was of symbolic and strategic importance. The Ming dynasty had made Nanjing a capital, the republic had been established there in 1912, and Sun Yat-sen's provisional government had been there. Sun's body was brought and placed in a grand mausoleum to cement Chiang's legitimacy. Chiang was born in the neighboring province and the general area had strong popular support for him.
The Nanjing decade was marked by both progress and frustration. The period was far more stable than the preceding Warlord Era. There was enough stability to allow economic growth and the start of ambitious government projects, some of which were taken up again by the new government of the People's Republic after 1949. Nationalist foreign service officers negotiated diplomatic recognition from western governments and began to unravel the unequal treaties. Entrepreneurs, educators, lawyers, doctors, and other professionals were more free to create modern institutions than at any earlier time. Yet there was also government suppression of dissent, corruption and nepotism, revolt of several provinces, conflict within the government, the survival and growth of the Chinese Communist Party, and widespread protest against the government's failure to stop Japanese aggression.New Life Movement
The New Life Movement (Chinese: 新生活運動; pinyin: Xīn Shēnghuó yùndòng) was a government-led civic movement in 1930s China to promote cultural reform and Neo-Confucian social morality and to ultimately unite China under a centralised ideology following the emergence of ideological challenges to the status quo. Chiang Kai-shek as head of the government and the Chinese Nationalist Party launched the initiative on 19 February 1934 as part of an anti-Communist campaign, and soon enlarged the campaign to target the whole nation.Chiang and his wife, Soong Mei-ling, who played a major role in the campaign, advocated a life guided by four virtues, lǐ (禮/礼, proper rite), yì (義/义, righteousness or justice), lián (廉, honesty and cleanness) and chǐ (恥/耻, shame; sense of right and wrong). The campaign proceeded with help of the Blue Shirts Society and the CC Clique within the Nationalist Party, and Christian missionaries in China.Shirt
A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body (from the neck to the waist).
Originally an undergarment worn exclusively by men, it has become, in American English, a catch-all term for a broad variety of upper-body garments and undergarments. In British English, a shirt is more specifically a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs, and a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps (North Americans would call that a "dress shirt", a specific type of "collared shirt"). A shirt can also be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar.Sturmabteilung
The Sturmabteilung (SA; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊɐ̯mʔapˌtaɪlʊŋ] (listen)), literally Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (Rotfrontkämpferbund) of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Romani, trade unionists, and, especially, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.
The SA were also called the "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts. The SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members, with ranks that were later adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the Schutzstaffel (SS), which originated as a branch of the SA before being separated. Brown-colored shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large number of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives (die Nacht der langen Messer). The SA continued to exist, but was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after Nazi Germany's final capitulation to the Allies in 1945.The Game Changer
The Game Changer (Chinese: 游戏规则) is a 2017 Chinese action film directed by Gao Xixi, starring Peter Ho, Huang Zitao, Guli Nazha and Wang Xueqi. Inspired from the television series Shanghai Bund, the film is set in 1930s Shanghai. It was released in China on February 10, 2017 in 2D, 3D and China Film Giant Screen.
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