Blood diamond

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity. The term is used to highlight the negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas, or to label an individual diamond as having come from such an area. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Guinea Bissau have been given the label.[1][2][3] The term conflict resource refers to analogous situations involving other natural resources.

Hands ondiamonds 350
Panning for diamonds in Sierra Leone.
Unsustainable diamond mining in Sierra Leone

History

Angola

Reports estimated that as much as 20% of the total diamond production in the 1980s was being sold for illegal and unethical purposes and 19% was specifically conflict in nature.[4] By 1999, the illegal diamond trade was estimated by the World Diamond Council to have been reduced to 4% of the world's diamond production.[5][6] The World Diamond Council reported that by 2004 this percentage had fallen to approximately 1% and up to today the World Diamond Council refers to this illegal trade to be virtually eliminated, meaning that more than 99% of diamonds being sold have a legal background. [4][6][7]

Despite the UN Resolution, UNITA was able to continue to sell or trade some diamonds in order to finance its war effort. The UN set out to find how this remaining illicit trade was being conducted and appointed Canadian ambassador Robert Fowler to investigate. In 2000, he produced the Fowler Report, which named those countries, organizations and individuals involved in the trade. The report is credited with establishing the link between diamonds and third world conflicts,[8] and led directly to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1295, as well as the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme. Still, after the report was published in 2013 smugglers from these African countries were selling blood diamonds through channels less sophisticated such as social media posts. And rhinestones from Angola, produced by UNITA were being traded to Cameroon to get them a Cameroonian certificate naturalization to then be sold as legitimate.[9]

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast began to develop a fledgling diamond mining industry in the early 1990s. A coup overthrew the government in 1999, starting a civil war. The country became a route for exporting diamonds from Liberia and war-torn Sierra Leone.[10][11] Foreign investment began to withdraw from Ivory Coast. To curtail the illegal trade, the nation stopped all diamond mining and the UN Security Council banned all exports of diamonds from Ivory Coast in December 2005. This ban lasted about ten years but it was later lifted in April 2014 when members of the UN council voted to suspend the sanction. The Kimberley process officials also notified in November 2013 that Ivory Coast was right producing artisanal diamonds.[12][10]

Despite UN sanctions the illicit diamond trade still exists in Ivory Coast. Rough diamonds are exported out of the country to neighboring states and international trading centers through the northern Forces Nouvelles controlled section of the country, a group which is reported to be using these funds of chele to re-arm.[13][14]

Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) has suffered numerous looting wars in the 1990s,[15] but has been a member of the Kimberley Process since 2003 and now exports about 8% of the world's diamonds.[10]'However, even nowadays there is a warning concerning diamonds proceeding from this area[16] since there have been multiple cases of fake Kimberley certificates accompanying the gems. Once one of De Beers most celebrated and priceless diamonds, the D-colour 777 carats (155.4 g) Millennium Star was discovered in the DRC and sold to De Beers, in open competition with other diamond buyers, between 1991 and 1992.[17]

Liberia

From 1989 to 2003, Liberia was engaged in a civil war. In 2000, the UN accused Liberian president Charles G. Taylor of supporting the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) insurgency in neighboring Sierra Leone with weapons and training in exchange for diamonds.[18] In 2001, the United Nations applied sanctions on the Liberian diamond trade. In August 2003, Taylor stepped down as president and, after being exiled to Nigeria, faced trial in The Hague. On July 21, 2006, he pleaded not guilty to crimes against humanity and war crimes,[10] of which he was found guilty in April 2012. On May 30, 2012, he began a 50-year sentence in a high security prison in the United Kingdom.[19]

Around the time of the 1998 United States embassy bombings, al-Qaeda allegedly bought gems from Liberia as some of its other financial assets were frozen.[20]

Having regained peace, Liberia is attempting to construct a legitimate diamond mining industry. The UN has lifted sanctions and Liberia is now a member of the Kimberley Process.[21]

In December 2014 however, Liberian diamonds were reported to be partly produced using child labor according to the U.S. Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor.

Sierra Leone

The civil war started in 1991 and continued until 2002, costing at least 50,000 lives and causing local people to suffer killings, mutilation, rape, torture and abduction, mainly due to the brutal warfare waged by rebel group, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) claimed that they supported causes of justice and democracy in the beginning, but later on they started to control the villages and to prevent local people from voting for the new government by chopping off their limbs. Victims included children and infants. It created numerous examples of physical and psychological harm across Sierra Leone. 

Moreover, they also occupied the diamond mines in order to get access to funding and continued support of their actions.[22] For example, during that time, RUF was mining up to $125 million of diamonds yearly. Since diamonds are used as a funding source, they also created opportunities for tax evasion and financial support of crime.[23] Therefore, United Nations Security Council imposed diamond sanctions in 2000, which were then lifted in 2003. According to National Geographic News, all of these civil wars and conflicts created by rebel groups resulted in over four million deaths in the African population and injuries to over two million civilians.[24] Another latest conflict diamond statistic from Statistic Brain, revealed that Sierra Leone has been listed as second highest in the production of conflict diamonds, which is shown as 1% of the world's production, after Angola, which produced 2.1% in 2016. 15% of Sierra Leone's diamond production are conflict diamonds. It shows that the production of conflict diamonds still exists in Sierra Leone.[25]

According to the 2005 Country Reports on Human Right Practices of Africa from the United States, serious human rights issues still exist in Sierra Leone, even though the 11-year civil conflict had officially ended by 2002. Sierra Leone remains in an unstable political situation, although the country has elected a new government. The huge consequences of blood diamonds still remains a mainstream issue in Sierra Leone. One of the biggest issues is people still being abused by the security forces, including rape and the use of excessive force on detainees, including teenagers. Child abuse and child labor are other serious issues which took place in Sierra Leone after the civil conflicts.[26] As they need a huge number of workers, the security forces started kidnapping and forcing young adults to be their slaves; children were forced to join their army as soldiers, and women were raped. They even burned entire villages. Thousands of men, women, and children are used as slaves to collect diamonds, and they are forced to use their bare hands to dig in mud along river banks instead of digging with tools.[27][28]

Based on the report, The Truth About Diamonds: Conflict and Development from Global Witness, it mentioned that Sierra Leone is listed as second from the bottom of the United Nation Human Development Index. It also shows that Sierra Leone still makes slow progress, in 2016, in such different aspects as, for example, education, health, and human rights, since 1990, which is also the year that conflicts took place in Sierra Leone. It shows that it is a huge consequence of blood diamonds that it brought into Sierra Leone.[29] Even though the war had ended in 2002 and the government tried to improve and adjust the cooperation of the diamond industry. Sierra Leone resulted in an increase of over US$140 million in 2005 and attempted a percentage return of export tax to diamond mining communities. However, it does not improve anything — the money is not reaching the public and it has not provided benefit to anyone in the communities. For instance, the Kono district in Sierra Leone has been mined for 70 years, but they still have no basic facilities, like electricity and repairing of roads. Houses are destroyed because of the civil wars.[30] It also examines the unethical issues of how rebel groups treat those locals. They used brainwashing of inexperienced young children and forced them to be child soldiers as they lost their personal freedom and rights under command that included violence and intimidation. [31]

Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) was expelled from the Kimberley Process in 2004[32] because, despite having no official diamond mining industry, the country was exporting large quantities of diamonds, the origin of which it could not detail. It was also accused of falsifying certificates of origin. The Republic of the Congo was readmitted in 2007.[32]

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe Diamonds are not considered conflict diamonds by the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

In July 2010, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme agreed that diamonds from the country's disputed Marange Diamond Fields could be sold on the international market,[33] after a report from the Scheme's monitor a month earlier described diamonds mined from the fields as conflict-free.[34]

Conflict diamond campaign

Global Witness was one of the first organizations to pick up on the link between diamonds and conflicts in Africa in its 1998 report entitled "A Rough Trade".[35][36] With the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1173 in 1998, the United Nations too identified the conflict diamond issue as a funding for war. The Fowler Report in 2000 detailed in depth how UNITA was financing its war activities, and in May 2000, led directly to the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1295 and the diamond producing countries of southern Africa meeting in Kimberley, South Africa to plan a method by which the trade in conflict diamonds could be halted, and buyers of diamonds could be assured that their diamonds have not contributed to violence.[37][38] In this resolution the Security Council wrote:

Welcomes the proposal that a meeting of experts be convened for the purpose of devising a system of controls to facilitate the implementation of the measures contained in Resolution 1173 (1998), including arrangements that would allow for increased transparency and accountability in the control of diamonds from their point of origin to the bourses, emphasizes that it is important that, in devising such controls, every effort be made to avoid inflicting collateral damage on the legitimate diamond trade, and welcomes the intention of the Republic of South Africa to host a relevant conference this year.[39]

Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

On July 19, 2000, the World Diamond Congress at Antwerp adopted a resolution to strengthen the diamond industry's ability to block sales of conflict diamonds.[40][41] The resolution called for an international certification system on the export and import of diamonds, legislation in all countries to accept only officially sealed packages of diamonds, for countries to impose criminal charges on anyone trafficking in conflict diamonds, and instituted a ban on any individual found trading in conflict diamonds from the diamond bourses of the World Federation of Diamond Bourses.[41] The Kimberley Process was at the start led by South Africa and Canada as vice president and since then every year a new chair and vice chair country are elected to maintain the legitimacy of their practices. [42] This system tracks diamonds from the mine to the market and regulates the policing surrounding the export, manufacture and sale of the products. Also in tourist countries like Dubai and the United Kingdom. All the Kimberley members are not allowed to trade with non members. Before a gemstone is allowed through the airports to other countries, the Kimberley Certification must be presented by the gem's owner or obtained from a renowned attorney. The certificate should also be requested by the customer when the gems have reached a retail store to ensure its precedence. [43]

On January 17–18 of 2001, diamond industry figures convened and formed the new organization, the World Diamond Council. This new body set out to draft a new process, whereby all diamond rough could be certified as coming from a non-conflict source.[44]

The KPCS was given approval by the UN on March 13, 2002,[45] and in November, after two years of negotiation between governments, diamond producers, and Non-Government organizations, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme was created.

The Kimberley Process attempted to curtail the flow of conflict diamonds, help stabilize fragile countries and support their development. As the Kimberley Process has made life harder for criminals, it has brought large volumes of diamonds onto the legal market that would not otherwise have made it there. This has increased the revenues of poor governments, and helped them to address their countries’ development challenges. For instance, around $125 million worth of diamonds were legally exported from Sierra Leone in 2006, compared to almost none at the end of the 1990s.[46]

Shortcomings and criticism

The Kimberley Process has ultimately failed to stem the flow of blood diamonds, leading key proponents such as Global Witness to abandon the scheme.[47] In addition, there is no guarantee that diamonds with a Kimberley Process Certification are in fact conflict-free. This is due to the nature of the corrupt government officials in the leading diamond producing countries. It is common for these officials to be bribed with $50 to $100 a day in exchange for paperwork declaring that blood diamonds are Kimberley Process Certified.[48]

Transparency

The Kimberley system attempted to increase governments' transparency by forcing them to keep records of the diamonds they are exporting and importing and how much they are worth. In theory, this would show governments their finances so that they can be held accountable for how much they are spending for the benefit of the country's population. However non-compliance by countries such as Venezuela has led to the failure of accountability.[47]

The company Materialytics claims that it can trace the origin of virtually any diamond using Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.[49] However, there is no way to know whether a diamond purchased online is blood free or not.[50]

Policy responses

American policy

On January 18, 2001, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 13194 which prohibited the importation of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone into the United States in accordance with the UN resolutions.[51] On May 22, 2001, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13213 which banned rough diamond importation from Liberia into the United States. Liberia had been recognized by the United Nations as acting as a pipeline for conflict diamonds from Sierra Leone.[52]

United States enacted the Clean Diamond Trade Act (CDTA) on April 25, 2003,[53] implemented on July 29, 2003, by Executive Order 13312.[54][55] The CDTA installed the legislation to implement the KPCS in law in the United States. The implementation of this legislation was key to the success of the KPCS, as the United States is the largest consumer of diamonds. The CDTA states: 'As the consumer of a majority of the world's supply of diamonds, the United States has an obligation to help sever the link between diamonds and conflict and press for implementation of an effective solution.[53]

The United States Department of State also maintains an office for a Special Adviser for Conflict Diamonds. As of October 14, 2015, the position is held by Ashley Orbach.[56]

Canadian policy

During the 1990s diamond-rich areas were discovered in Northern Canada. Canada is one of the key players in the diamond industry. Partnership Africa Canada was created in 1986 to help with the crisis in Africa. This organization is also part of the Diamond Development Initiative. The Diamond Development Initiative helps improve and regulate the legal diamond industry.

The Kimberley Process was initiated in May 2000 by South Africa with Canada a major supporter of instituting the scheme. Canada has now passed several laws that help stop the trade of conflict diamonds. The laws deal with the export and import of rough diamonds, and also how they are transferred. In December 2002 the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act was passed by the Canadian government. This law acts as a system that helps control the importing, exporting and transporting of rough diamonds through Canada. The Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act also states that the Kimberley Process is the minimum requirement of certifying rough diamonds and a certificate is also required for all shipments of diamonds. This certificate is called the Canadian Certificate, it gives permission for an officer to seize any shipment of diamonds that does not meet the requirements of the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act.[57]

The Government of the Northwest Territories of Canada (GNWT) also has a unique certification program. They offer a Government certificate on all diamonds that are mined, cut, and polished in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Canadian diamonds are tracked from the mine, through the refining process, to the retail jeweler with a unique diamond identification number (DIN) laser inscribed on the diamond's girdle. To obtain this certificate one must cut and polish the diamond in the NWT.

Technology response

Technical services have emerged that may act as a solution for tracking diamond movement across borders. A service was launched in July 2016 that allows managers to build systems using a blockchain database for tracking high-value or highly regulated items through a supply chain. Everledger is one using such a system to "record the movement of diamonds from mines to jewelry stores" and is one of the inaugural clients of a new blockchain-based tracking service from IBM.[58]

In popular culture

  • Conflict diamonds are a central plot point throughout the James Bond film Die Another Day (2002).
  • The origins of the Kimberley Process were dramatized in Ed Zwick's motion picture Blood Diamond (2006), starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Djimon Hounsou. The film helped to publicize the controversy surrounding conflict diamonds and led to worldwide awareness of the Western African involvement in the diamond trade.
  • The CSI: Miami episode "Man Down" (2007) involves the trafficking of African blood diamonds.
  • CSI: NY episode "Not What It Looks Like" (2006) involves when a group of robbers stole blood diamonds and the men who brought them into the country wanted them back.
  • Law & Order episode "Soldier of Fortune" (2001) involves the murder of a diamond broker who has knowledge of a blood diamond connection between Sierra Leone and a Swiss diamond company.
  • Danish filmmaker Mads Brügger's documentary Ambassadøren (2011, in English: "The Ambassador") addresses the trade in diplomatic passports in order to make money with blood diamonds.
  • Players compete in Diamond Trust of London to extract diamonds out of Angola before the implementation of the Kimberley Process.
  • The remix version of Grammy-winning song Diamonds from Sierra Leone performed by American artist Kanye West, has verses that detail the blood diamond trade in Sierra Leone, and comments about the Western public unawareness of the origins of the diamonds linked to the conflict.
  • Blood diamonds play a part in Far Cry 2, serving as the player's currency, acquired by missions from the two warlord factions or from guarded briefcases. One of the endings also involves delivering a case of stolen diamonds to a border guard as a bribe.
  • Blood Diamonds is a thriller fiction book title by Jon Land, copyright 2002; ISBN 0-765-30226-8
  • The 2013 game Splinter Cell: Blacklist features an optional mission: Infiltrating and shutting down a blood diamond mine in Equatorial Guinea.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Conflict Diamonds. United Nations Department of Public Information, March 21, 2001, archived online 23 October 2013.
  2. ^ "Conflict resources: from 'curse' to blessing" by Ernest Harsch. Africa Renewal: January 2007.
  3. ^ "Global Summary 2008" (PDF). Kimberley Process Certification Scheme. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26.
  4. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-01-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "WORLDDIAMONDCOUNCIL.COM". worlddiamondcouncil.com.
  6. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2006-12-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Conflict Diamonds". Venetia Major - Bespoke Jewellery. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10.
  8. ^ Arthur V. Levy (2003). Diamonds and Conflict: Problems and Solutions. N ova Publishers. pp. 5–6. ISBN 1-59033-715-8.
  9. ^ Chutel, Lynsey. "Selling blood diamonds is as simple as a Facebook post and a WhatsApp message". Quartz Africa. Quartz Africa. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2006-12-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-01-20. Retrieved 2006-12-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "The Land of Conflict: Ivory Coast Diamonds". Israeli Diamond Industry. The Israeli Diamond Industry. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2011-05-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ ODS Team. "ODS HOME PAGE" (PDF). un.org.
  15. ^ "Democratic Republic of Congo". Mining Africa. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
  16. ^ "Enforcement". Kimberley Process. Kimberley Process. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  17. ^ MacAskill, Ewen; McGreal, Chris; Vidal, John (9 November 2000). "Blood, sweat and ice". The Guardian.
  18. ^ Bornstein, Maya (September 2012). "Pressure Makes Diamonds".
  19. ^ Simons, Marlise (May 30, 2012). "Ex-Liberian Leader Gets 50 Years for War Crimes". The New York Times.
  20. ^ "BBC NEWS - Africa - Al-Qaeda 'traded blood diamonds'". bbc.co.uk.
  21. ^ "UN Security Council votes to lift ban on Liberian diamond exports". Associated Press. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  22. ^ Smillie, I (2013). "Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law". Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. 46(04): 1004–1004.
  23. ^ Global Witness (2006). "The Truth About Diamonds : Conflict and Development" (PDF). Global Witness.
  24. ^ Hoyt, A. "How the African Diamond Trade Works". Howstuffworks.com.
  25. ^ Statistics Brain (2016). "Conflict Diamond statistics". Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
  26. ^ U.S. Department of State (2006). "2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in Africa : Sierra Leone".
  27. ^ Paul, Armstrong (2012). "How diamonds fuel Africa's conflicts". CNN.
  28. ^ Tammy, Hanna (2012). "Ethical Issue Analysis: Blood Diamond Analysis".
  29. ^ Human Development Report (2016). "Human Development Report - Sierra Leone".
  30. ^ Global Witness (2006). "The Truth About Diamonds: Conflict and Development" (PDF). The Truth About Diamonds: Conflict and Development.
  31. ^ Tammy, Hanna (2012). "Ethical Issue Analysis : Blood Diamond Analysis".
  32. ^ a b "Blood Diamonds No Longer Congo-Brazzaville's Best Friend". IPS. 30 Nov 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  33. ^ "Zimbabwe gets go-ahead to sell diamonds again". The Independent.
  34. ^ Farai Mutsaka; Peter Wonacott; Sarah Childress (28 May 2010). "Zimbabwe Nears Approval for Marange-Field Diamond Exports - WSJ". WSJ.
  35. ^ Dan Brown (1998-12-01). "A Rough Trade: The Role of Companies and Governments in the Angolan Conflict" (PDF). Global Witness. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
  36. ^ Janine P. Roberts (2003). Glitter & Greed: The Secret World of the Diamond Empire. The Disinformation Company. p. 233. ISBN 0-9713942-9-6.
  37. ^ Robert Fowler (2000-03-10). "Final Report of the UN Panel of Experts ("The "Fowler Report")". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  38. ^ "Resolution 1295 (2000)" (PDF).
  39. ^ "RESOLUTIONS AND STATEMENTS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL 2000". un.org.
  40. ^ "Fact #6- The Facts - DiamondFacts.org". diamondfacts.org.
  41. ^ a b "Diamond leaders in pact to ban 'conflict gems' funding African wars". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012.
  42. ^ "Chair". Kimberley Process. Kimberley Process. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  43. ^ Oppenheimer, Nicky. "Diamonds, Development, and Democracy" (PDF). debeersgroup.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-05.
  44. ^ "WORLDDIAMONDCOUNCIL.COM". www.worlddiamondcouncil.com. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
  45. ^ "UN Resolution 56/263 - The role of diamonds in fueling conflict: breaking the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds and armed conflict as a contribution to prevention and settlement of conflicts" (PDF). UN 96th plenary meeting, 13 March 2002, accessed online November 6, 2006
  46. ^ "Kimberley Process basics". Kimberley Process. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05.
  47. ^ a b "NGO Global Witness leaves diamond vetting scheme". BBC News. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  48. ^ Ryan, E. Kieron (11 August 2010). "Blood Diamond Farce". Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  49. ^ "Diamonds: GSA 2015: Determination of Diamond Provenance". materialytics.com.
  50. ^ "The Real Story & History of Conflict Blood Diamonds". www.thediamondringreview.com. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
  51. ^ Clinton, William "FR Doc. 01–2140 - Executive Order 13194 of January 18, 2001 - Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone" (PDF). The White House, January 18, 2001, accessed online December 24, 2006
  52. ^ Bush, George W. "FR Doc. 01–13381 - Executive Order 13213—Additional Measures With Respect To Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone" (PDF). The White House, May 22, 2001, accessed online December 24, 2006
  53. ^ a b "Public Law 108–19 - An Act To implement effective measures to stop trade in conflict diamonds, and for other purposes. Apr. 25, 2003" (PDF). (42.1 KiB) 108th Congress of the United States, April 25, 2003, accessed online December 24, 2006
  54. ^ Bush, George W "FR Doc. 03–19676 - Executive Order 13312 of July 29, 2003 - Implementing the Clean Diamond Trade Act" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2007.  (26.3 KiB) The White House, July 29, 2003, accessed online December 24, 2006
  55. ^ "GAO-06-978, Conflict Diamonds: Agency Actions Needed to Enhance Implementation of the Clean Diamond Trade Act". gao.gov. 27 September 2006.
  56. ^ https://www.state.gov/e/eb/diamonds/
  57. ^ "Stop Blood Diamonds - Creating a Conflict Free Diamond World". stopblooddiamonds.org. Archived from the original on 2007-05-10.
  58. ^ Nash, Kim S. (2016-07-14). "IBM Pushes Blockchain into the Supply Chain". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-07-24.

Literature

  • Bell, Udy (2000). "Sierra Leone: Building on a Hard-Won Peace". UN Chronicle Online Edition (4). Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  • Bergner, Daniel (2003). In the Land of Magic Soldiers: A Story of White and Black in West Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-26653-0.
  • Campbell, Greg (2002). Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3939-1.
  • Cilliers, Jakkie; Christian Dietrich (2000). Angola’s War Economy. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies. ISBN 978-0-620-26645-1.
  • Epstein, Edward Jay (1982). The Rise and Fall of Diamonds: The Shattering of a Brilliant Illusion. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-41289-2.
  • Billon, Philippe Le (2005). Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-37970-9.
  • Levy, Arthur V. (2003). Diamonds and Conflict: Problems and Solutions. New York: Hauppauge. ISBN 1-59033-715-8.
  • Le Billon, Philippe (2006). "Fatal Transactions: Conflict Diamonds and the (Anti)terrorist Consumer". Antipode. 38 (4): 778–801. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2006.00476.x.
  • Reno, William (1995). Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47179-6.
  • Roberts, Janine (2007) [2003]. Glitter and Greed: The Secret World of the Diamond Cartel. New York: Disinformation. ISBN 978-1-932857-60-3.
  • Tamm, Ingrid J. (2002). Diamonds In Peace and War: Severing the Conflict Diamond Connection. Cambridge, Mass: World peace foundation. ISBN 0-9721033-5-X."PDF" (PDF). (673 KiB)
  • Zoellner, Tom (2006). The Heartless Stone: A Journey the Money Through the World of Diamonds, Deceit and Desire. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-33969-0.

External links

12th Critics' Choice Awards

The 12th Critics' Choice Awards were presented on January 20, 2007, honoring the finest achievements of 2006 filmmaking. The event was held at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California and was broadcast on E!.

79th Academy Awards

The 79th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2006 and took place February 25, 2007, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Laura Ziskin and directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actress Ellen DeGeneres hosted for the first time. Two weeks earlier in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 10, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Maggie Gyllenhaal.The Departed won four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Martin Scorsese. Other winners included Pan's Labyrinth with three, An Inconvenient Truth, Dreamgirls and Little Miss Sunshine with two, and Babel, The Blood of Yingzhou District, The Danish Poet, Happy Feet, The Last King of Scotland, Letters from Iwo Jima, The Lives of Others, Marie Antoinette, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, The Queen and West Bank Story with one. The telecast garnered nearly 40 million viewers in the United States.

Arnold Vosloo

Arnold Vosloo (born 16 June 1962) is a South African actor. He is known for his roles as Imhotep in The Mummy and The Mummy Returns, Colonel Coetzee in Blood Diamond, Pik van Cleef in Hard Target, Dr. Peyton Westlake / Darkman in Darkman II and Darkman III, Zartan in G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra and its sequel, and terrorist Habib Marwan during the fourth season of 24.

Bedford Falls Productions

Bedford Falls Productions (or The Bedford Falls Company) is the production company of Marshall Herskovitz and Edward Zwick, the creators of the television series thirtysomething and Once and Again, and producers of Legends of the Fall and Blood Diamond. The company is also known for producing the series My So-Called Life, and the Academy Award-winning films Shakespeare in Love and Traffic.

In honor of the 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life; the Bedford Falls Company was named after the fictional town, and an overhead view of a facsimile of the Bailey household appears in the production logo, which also features a man and a woman singing the last line of "Buffalo Gals" (a song featured in the movie), "..and dance by the light of the moon."

Black Reel Award for Best Supporting Actor

This page lists the winners and nominees for the Black Reel Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture. Academy Award-nominated or winning performances also honored with nominations or wins at the Black Reel Awards include Barkhad Abdi (Captain Phillips), Morgan Freeman (Million Dollar Baby), Michael Clark Duncan (The Green Mile), Jamie Foxx (Collateral), Djimon Hounsou (Blood Diamond, In America) and Eddie Murphy (Dreamgirls).

Black Reel Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor

This page lists the winners and nominees for the Black Reel Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture. Academy Award-nominated or winning performances also honored with nominations or wins at the Black Reel Awards include Barkhad Abdi (Captain Phillips), Morgan Freeman (Million Dollar Baby), Michael Clark Duncan (The Green Mile), Jamie Foxx (Collateral), Djimon Hounsou (Blood Diamond, In America) and Eddie Murphy (Dreamgirls).

Blood Diamonds

Blood Diamonds is a made-for-TV documentary series, originally broadcast on the History Channel, that looks into the trade of diamonds which fund rebellions and wars in many African nations. The program focuses primarily on two nations: Sierra Leone and Angola. Diamonds which are traded for this purpose are known as blood diamonds. As with many History Channel specials, its original airdate coincides with a mainstream period film, in this case, Blood Diamond (2006). Producer of the documentary was Bill Brummel.

Charles Leavitt

Charles Leavitt (born 1970) is an American screenwriter best known for writing the 2006 film Blood Diamond.

Djimon Hounsou

Djimon Gaston Hounsou (; French: [dʒimɔ̃ unsu]; born April 24, 1964) is a Beninese American actor and model. Hounsou began his career appearing in music videos. He made his film debut in the Sandra Bernhard film Without You I'm Nothing (1990) and gained widespread recognition for his role as Cinqué in the Steven Spielberg film Amistad (1997). He gained further recognition for his roles in Gladiator (2000), In America (2003), and Blood Diamond (2006), receiving Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor nominations for both the latter films. He also had a minor role in Furious 7 (2015). He has been nominated for a Golden Globe Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards. Djimon Hounsou plays an important role as well in the French movie Forces spéciales in 2011.

In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, he plays the role of Korath the Pursuer in Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), and is set to reprise his role in the upcoming Captain Marvel coming out March 2019. Additionally, in the DC Extended Universe, he played the role of the Fisherman King in Aquaman (2018), and is set to play the wizard Shazam in Shazam! (2019).

Edward Zwick

Edward M. Zwick (born October 8, 1952) is an American filmmaker, director and Academy Award-winning film and television producer. He has worked primarily in the comedy-drama and epic historical film genres, including About Last Night, Glory, Legends of the Fall, and The Last Samurai.

Gaurav Chopra

Gourav Chopra is an Indian TV actor. He is best known for starring on Uttaran as Raghuvendra Pratap Rathore. He has appeared as a contestant on Bigg Boss season 10. He has also acted in the Oscar winning Hollywood movie Blood Diamond, and appeared on the Georgian edition of International dance reality show Dancing with the Stars. He was last seen in ALT Balaji's web series titled Fourplay & Viu's Love Lust & Confusion. He is also the Indian voice of Thor, having given his voice for Thor: Ragnarok. He is currently working on a theatrical adaptation of Devdas with Ashvin Gidwani Productions (AGP World).

Jimi Mistry

Jimi Mistry (born 1 January 1973) is a British actor, known for appearing in numerous films such as East Is East, Blood Diamond, The Guru, 2012, West is West, Ella Enchanted and The Truth About Love. He is also best known for his roles, as Dr Fonseca in BBC1 soap opera EastEnders, Maj. Jamal Ashkani in HBO series Strike Back, Kal Nazir in long-running ITV soap opera Coronation Street, and as Tom Bedford in Kay Mellor drama The Syndicate.

Leonardo DiCaprio

Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (; born November 11, 1974) is an American actor, film producer, and environmentalist. He has been nominated for six Academy Awards, four British Academy Film Awards and nine Screen Actors Guild Awards, winning one of each award from them and three Golden Globe Awards from eleven nominations.

DiCaprio began his career by appearing in television commercials in the late 1980s. He next had recurring roles in various television series, such as the soap opera Santa Barbara and the sitcom Growing Pains. He debuted in his film career by starring as Josh in Critters 3 (1991). He starred in the film adaptation of the memoir This Boy's Life (1993), and received acclaim and his first Academy Award nomination for his supporting role in What's Eating Gilbert Grape (1993). He gained public recognition with leading roles in The Basketball Diaries (1995) and the romantic drama Romeo + Juliet (1996). He achieved international fame as a star in James Cameron's epic romance Titanic (1997), which became the highest-grossing film of all time to that point.

Since 2000, DiCaprio has received critical acclaim for his work in a wide range of film genres. DiCaprio's subsequent films include The Man in the Iron Mask (1998), the biographical crime drama Catch Me If You Can (2002), and the epic historical drama Gangs of New York (2002), which marked his first of many collaborations with director Martin Scorsese. He was acclaimed for his performances in the political war thriller Blood Diamond (2006), the neo-noir crime drama The Departed (2006), the espionage thriller Body of Lies (2008), the drama Revolutionary Road (2008), the psychological thriller Shutter Island (2010), the science fiction thriller Inception (2010), the biographical film J. Edgar (2011), the western Django Unchained (2012), and the period drama The Great Gatsby (2013).

DiCaprio's portrayals of Howard Hughes in The Aviator (2004) and Hugh Glass in The Revenant (2015) won him the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. His performance as Jordan Belfort in The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) won him the Golden Globe award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. He also won the Academy Award and BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Revenant. DiCaprio is the founder of his own production company, Appian Way Productions.

Lon Bender

Lon Bender is an American supervising sound editor, business executive and inventor. Bender won the Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing for his work on Braveheart (1995). He has been recognized for numerous other industry awards as well, including Oscar nominations for The Revenant (2015), Drive (2011) and Blood Diamond (2006). Bender is the co-founder of post production sound services company Soundelux.

While Bender is primarily known for his work on feature films, Bender has also provided sound design for a variety of commercials, created sonic branding for major corporations, and created the soundscape for Disney's Broadway production of Tarzan.Bender is also an inventor and founder of several early-stage ventures, including companies that develop devices, technologies, resources, and service solutions designed to assist individuals living with the effects of hearing loss.

A cycling enthusiast and a competitive race car driver, Bender resides in the Los Angeles area.

Marshall Herskovitz

Marshall Schreiber Herskovitz (born February 23, 1952) is an American film director, writer and producer, and currently the President Emeritus of the Producers Guild of America. Among his productions are Traffic, The Last Samurai, Blood Diamond, and I Am Sam. Herskovitz has directed two feature films, Jack the Bear and Dangerous Beauty. Herskovitz was a creator and executive producer of the television shows thirtysomething, My So-Called Life, and Once and Again, and also wrote and directed several episodes of all three series.

Naomi Campbell

Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is a British model, actress, singer and businesswoman. Recruited at the age of 15, she established herself amongst the most recognizable and in-demand models of the late 1980s and the 1990s and was one of six models of her generation declared supermodels by the fashion industry and the international press.In addition to her modelling career, Campbell has embarked on other ventures, which include an R&B-pop studio album and several acting appearances in film and television, such as the modelling competition reality show The Face and its international offshoots. Campbell is also involved in charity work for various causes.

St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Awards 2006

The 3rd St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Awards were given on January 7, 2007.

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