Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable border that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).[1] The blood–brain barrier is formed by endothelial cells of the capillary wall, astrocyte end-feet ensheathing the capillary, and pericytes embedded in the capillary basement membrane.[2] This system allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Specialized structures participating in sensory and secretory integration within neural circuits – the circumventricular organs and choroid plexus – do not have a blood–brain barrier.

The blood–brain barrier restricts the diffusion of solutes in the blood (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while allowing the diffusion of hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, hormones) and small polar molecules.[3] Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier using specific transport proteins.[4]

Blood–brain barrier
Protective barriers of the brain
Blood and CSF brain barriers
Details
SystemNeuroimmune system
Identifiers
Acronym(s)BBB
MeSHD001812
Anatomical terminology

Structure

10.1371 journal.pbio.0050169.g001-O
Part of a network of capillaries supplying brain cells
Blood Brain Barriere
The astrocytes type 1 surrounding capillaries in the brain
Brain Microvessel
A cortical microvessel stained for blood–brain barrier protein ZO-1
Blood vessels brain english
Sketch showing constitution of blood vessels inside the brain

This "barrier" results from the selectivity of the tight junctions between endothelial cells in CNS vessels, which restricts the passage of solutes.[1] At the interface between blood and the brain, endothelial cells are stitched together by these tight junctions, which are composed of smaller subunits, frequently biochemical dimers, that are transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), or ESAM, for example.[4] Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial cells by another protein complex that includes ZO-1 and associated proteins.[4]

The blood–brain barrier is composed of high-density cells restricting passage of substances from the bloodstream much more than do the endothelial cells in capillaries elsewhere in the body.[5] Astrocyte cell projections called astrocytic feet (also known as "glia limitans") surround the endothelial cells of the BBB, providing biochemical support to those cells.[6] The BBB is distinct from the quite similar blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, which is a function of the choroidal cells of the choroid plexus, and from the blood–retinal barrier, which can be considered a part of the whole realm of such barriers.[7]

Several areas of the human brain are not on the brain side of the BBB. Some examples of this include the circumventricular organs, the roof of the third and fourth ventricles, capillaries in the pineal gland on the roof of the diencephalon and the pineal gland. The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin "directly into the systemic circulation",[8] thus melatonin is not affected by the blood–brain barrier.[9]

Development

Originally, experiments in the 1920s seemed to (wrongly) show that the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was still immature in newborns. This was due to an error in methodology (the osmotic pressure was too high and the delicate embryonal capillary vessels were partially damaged). It was later shown in experiments with a reduced volume of the injected liquids that the markers under investigation could not pass the BBB. It was reported that those natural substances such as albumin, α-1-fetoprotein or transferrin with elevated plasma concentration in the newborn could not be detected outside of cells in the brain. The transporter P-glycoprotein exists already in the embryonal endothelium.[10]

The measurement of brain uptake of acetamide, antipyrine, benzyl alcohol, butanol, caffeine, cytosine, phenytoin, ethanol, ethylene glycol, heroin, mannitol, methanol, phenobarbital, propylene glycol, thiourea, and urea in ether-anesthetized newborn vs. adult rabbits shows that newborn rabbit and adult rabbit brain endothelia are functionally similar with respect to lipid-mediated permeability.[11] These data confirmed that no differences in permeability could be detected between newborn and adult BBB capillaries. No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between adult and newborn rabbits.[11] These experiments indicate that the newborn BBB has restrictive properties similar to that of the adult. In contrast to suggestions of an immature barrier in young animals, these studies indicate that a sophisticated, selective BBB is operative at birth.

Function

The blood–brain barrier acts effectively to protect the brain from circulating pathogens. Accordingly, blood-borne infections of the brain are rare.[1] Infections of the brain that do occur are often difficult to treat. Antibodies are too large to cross the blood–brain barrier, and only certain antibiotics are able to pass.[12] In some cases, a drug has to be administered directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) where it can enter the brain by crossing the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier.[13][14]

The blood–brain barrier may become leaky in select neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, brain trauma and edema, and in systemic diseases, such as liver failure.[1] The blood–brain barrier becomes more permeable during inflammation,[1] allowing antibiotics and phagocytes to move across the BBB. However, this also allows bacteria and viruses to infiltrate the blood–brain barrier.[12][15] Examples of pathogens that can traverse the blood–brain barrier include Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis, spirochetes like Borrelia (Lyme disease), Group B streptococci which causes meningitis in newborns,[16] and Treponema pallidum which causes syphilis. Some of these harmful bacteria gain access by releasing cytotoxins like pneumolysin[17] which have a direct toxic effect on brain microvascular endothelium[18] and tight junctions.

Circumventricular organs

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are individual structures located adjacent to the fourth ventricle or third ventricle in the brain, and are characterized by dense capillary beds with permeable endothelial cells unlike those of the blood–brain barrier.[19][20] Included among CVOs having highly permeable capillaries are the area postrema, subfornical organ, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, median eminence, pineal gland, and three lobes of the pituitary gland.[19][21]

Permeable capillaries of the sensory CVOs (area postrema, subfornical organ, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis) enable rapid detection of circulating signals in systemic blood, while those of the secretory CVOs (median eminence, pineal gland, pituitary lobes) facilitate transport of brain-derived signals into the circulating blood.[19][20] Consequently, the CVO permeable capillaries are the point of bidirectional blood–brain communication for neuroendocrine function.[19][21][22]

Specialized permeable zones

The border zones between brain tissue "behind" the blood–brain barrier and zones "open" to blood signals in certain CVOs contain specialized hybrid capillaries that are leakier than typical brain capillaries, but not as permeable as CVO capillaries. Such zones exist at the border of the area postrema–nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS),[23] and median eminence–hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.[22][24] These zones appear to function as rapid transit regions for brain structures involved in diverse neural circuits – like the NTS and arcuate nucleus – to rapidly control neurohumoral integration.[22][23] The permeable capillary zone shared between the median eminence and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is augmented by wide pericapillary spaces, facilitating bidirectional flow of solutes between the two structures, and indicating that the median eminence is not only a secretory organ, but may also be a sensory CVO.[22][24]

Clinical significance

As a drug target

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the brain capillary endothelium and excludes from the brain ∼100% of large-molecule neurotherapeutics and more than 98% of all small-molecule drugs.[1] Overcoming the difficulty of delivering therapeutic agents to specific regions of the brain presents a major challenge to treatment of most brain disorders. In its neuroprotective role, the blood–brain barrier functions to hinder the delivery of many potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain. Therapeutic molecules and antibodies that might otherwise be effective in diagnosis and therapy do not cross the BBB in adequate amounts.

Mechanisms for drug targeting in the brain involve going either "through" or "behind" the BBB. Modalities for drug delivery in unit doses through the BBB entail its disruption by osmotic means; biochemically by the use of vasoactive substances such as bradykinin;[25] or even by localized exposure to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU).[26] Other methods used to get through the BBB may entail the use of endogenous transport systems, including carrier-mediated transporters such as glucose and amino acid carriers; receptor-mediated transcytosis for insulin or transferrin; and the blocking of active efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. However, vectors targeting BBB transporters, such as the transferrin receptor, have been found to remain entrapped in brain endothelial cells of capillaries, instead of being ferried across the BBB into the cerebral parenchyma.[27][28] Methods for drug delivery behind the BBB include intracerebral implantation (such as with needles) and convection-enhanced distribution. Mannitol can be used in bypassing the BBB.

Nanoparticles

Nanotechnology may also help in the transfer of drugs across the BBB.[29][30] Recently, researchers have been trying to build liposomes loaded with nanoparticles to gain access through the BBB. More research is needed to determine which strategies will be most effective and how they can be improved for patients with brain tumors. The potential for using BBB opening to target specific agents to brain tumors has just begun to be explored.

Delivering drugs across the blood–brain barrier is one of the most promising applications of nanotechnology in clinical neuroscience. Nanoparticles could potentially carry out multiple tasks in a predefined sequence, which is very important in the delivery of drugs across the blood–brain barrier.

A significant amount of research in this area has been spent exploring methods of nanoparticle-mediated delivery of antineoplastic drugs to tumors in the central nervous system. For example, radiolabeled polyethylene glycol coated hexadecylcyanoacrylate nanospheres targeted and accumulated in a rat gliosarcoma.[31] However, this method is not yet ready for clinical trials, due to the accumulation of the nanospheres in surrounding healthy tissue. Another, more promising approach, is the coating of polyalkylcyanoacrylate or poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with polysorbate 80 or poloxamer 188. Due to this coating the particles adsorb apolipoproteins E or A-1 from the blood and thus interact with the LRP1 or with the scavenger receptor followed by transcytosis across the blood–brain barrier into the brain.[32] These particles loaded with doxorubicin for the treatment of glioblastomas are presently in Clinical Phase I. Recently, a novel class of multifunctional nanoparticles known as magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENs) has been discovered for externally controlled targeted delivery and release of drug(s) across BBB as well as wireless stimulation of cells deep in the brain. This approach depends more on the field control and less on the cellular microenvironment. In vitro and in vivo (on mice) experiments to prove the feasibility of using MENs to release a drug across BBB on demand and wirelessly stimulate the brain have been conducted by the research group of Prof. Sakhrat Khizroev at Florida International University (FIU).[33]

Vascular endothelial cells and associated pericytes are often abnormal in tumors and the blood–brain barrier may not always be intact in brain tumors. Also, the basement membrane is sometimes incomplete. Other factors, such as astrocytes, may contribute to the resistance of brain tumors to therapy.[34][35]

Peptides

Peptides are able to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) through various mechanisms, opening new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues.[36] However, their BBB transport data are scattered in the literature over different disciplines, using different methodologies reporting different influx or efflux aspects. Therefore, a comprehensive BBB peptide database (Brainpeps) was constructed to collect the BBB data available in the literature. Brainpeps currently contains BBB transport information with positive as well as negative results. The database is a useful tool to prioritize peptide choices for evaluating different BBB responses or studying quantitative structure-property (BBB behaviour) relationships of peptides. Because a multitude of methods have been used to assess the BBB behaviour of compounds, we classified these methods and their responses. Moreover, the relationships between the different BBB transport methods have been clarified and visualized.[37]

Casomorphin is a heptapeptide and could be able to pass the BBB.[38]

Disease

Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (these membranes are known as meninges). Meningitis is most commonly caused by infections with various pathogens, examples of which are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. When the meninges are inflamed, the blood–brain barrier may be disrupted.[12] This disruption may increase the penetration of various substances (including either toxins or antibiotics) into the brain. Antibiotics used to treat meningitis may aggravate the inflammatory response of the central nervous system by releasing neurotoxins from the cell walls of bacteria - like lipopolysaccharide (LPS).[39] Depending on the causative pathogen, whether it is bacterial, fungal, or protozoan, treatment with third-generation or fourth-generation cephalosporin or amphotericin B is usually prescribed.[40]

Brain abscess

A brain or cerebral abscess, like other abscesses, is caused by inflammation and collection of lymphatic cells and infected material originating from a local or remote infection. A brain abscess is a rare, life-threatening condition. Local sources may include infections of the ear, the oral cavity and teeth, the paranasal sinuses, or an epidural abscess. Remote sources may include infections in the lung, heart or kidney. A brain abscess may also be caused by head trauma or as a complication of surgery. In children cerebral abscesses are usually linked to congenital heart disease.[41] In most cases, 8–12 weeks of antibacterial therapy is required.[12]

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that is characterized by recurrent and sometimes untreatable seizures. Several clinical and experimental data have implicated the failure of blood–brain barrier function in triggering chronic or acute seizures.[42][43][44][45][46] Some studies implicate the interactions between a common blood protein (albumin) and astrocytes.[47] These findings suggest that acute seizures are a predictable consequence of disruption of the BBB by either artificial or inflammatory mechanisms. In addition, expression of drug resistance molecules and transporters at the BBB are a significant mechanism of resistance to commonly used anti-epileptic drugs.[48][49]

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be an auto-immune and neurodegenerative disorder in which the immune system attacks the myelin that protects and electrically insulates the neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Normally, a person's nervous system would be inaccessible to the white blood cells due to the blood–brain barrier. However, magnetic resonance imaging has shown that when a person is undergoing an MS "attack," the blood–brain barrier has broken down in a section of the brain or spinal cord, allowing white blood cells called T lymphocytes to cross over and attack the myelin. It has sometimes been suggested that, rather than being a disease of the immune system, MS is a disease of the blood–brain barrier.[50] The weakening of the blood–brain barrier may be a result of a disturbance in the endothelial cells on the inside of the blood vessel, due to which the production of the protein P-glycoprotein is not working well.[51]

There are currently active investigations into treatments for a compromised blood–brain barrier. It is believed that oxidative stress plays an important role into the breakdown of the barrier. Anti-oxidants such as lipoic acid may be able to stabilize a weakening blood–brain barrier.[52]

Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic's disease, is similar to and is often confused with multiple sclerosis. Among other differences from MS, a different target of the autoimmune response has been identified. Patients with neuromyelitis optica have high levels of antibodies against a protein called aquaporin 4 (a component of the astrocytic foot processes in the blood–brain barrier).[53]

Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a condition in which trypanosoma protozoa are found in brain tissue. It is not yet known how the parasites infect the brain from the blood, but it is suspected that they cross through the choroid plexus, a circumventricular organ.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is caused by reactivation of a latent papovavirus (the JC polyomavirus) infection, that can cross the BBB. It affects immune-compromised patients and it is usually seen with patients suffering from AIDS.

De Vivo disease

De Vivo disease (also known as GLUT1 deficiency syndrome) is a rare condition caused by inadequate transportation of the sugar glucose across the blood–brain barrier, resulting in developmental delays and other neurological problems. Genetic defects in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) appears to be the primary cause of De Vivo disease.[54][55]

Alzheimer's disease

Some evidence indicates that disruption of the blood–brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease patients allows blood plasma containing amyloid beta (Aβ) to enter the brain where the Aβ adheres preferentially to the surface of astrocytes.[56] These findings have led to the hypotheses that (1) breakdown of the blood–brain barrier allows access of neuron-binding autoantibodies and soluble exogenous Aβ42 to brain neurons and (2) binding of these autoantibodies to neurons triggers and/or facilitates the internalization and accumulation of cell surface-bound Aβ42 in vulnerable neurons through their natural tendency to clear surface-bound autoantibodies via endocytosis. Eventually the astrocyte is overwhelmed, dies, ruptures, and disintegrates, leaving behind the insoluble Aβ42 plaque. Thus, in some patients, Alzheimer's disease may be caused (or more likely, aggravated) by a breakdown in the blood–brain barrier.[57]

Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is the accumulation of excess water in the extracellular space of the brain, which can result when hypoxia causes the blood–brain barrier to open.

Prion and prion-like diseases

Many neurodegenerative diseases including synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's, and tauopathies such as Alzheimer's are thought to result from seeded misfolding from pathological extracellular protein variants known as prions. This prion-like hypothesis is gaining support in numerous studies in vitro and involving in vivo intracerebral injection of brain lysates, extracted protein (tau, alpha-synuclein) and synthetically generated fibers in alpha-synucleinopathies. These proteins are also detectable in increasing amounts in the plasma of patients suffering from these conditions (particularly total alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease patients). The extent to which and the mechanisms by which these prion-like proteins can penetrate the blood–brain barrier is currently unknown.

HIV encephalitis

It is believed[58] that latent HIV can cross the blood–brain barrier inside circulating monocytes in the bloodstream ("Trojan horse theory") within the first 14 days of infection. Once inside, these monocytes become activated and are transformed into macrophages. Activated macrophages release virions into the brain tissue proximate to brain microvessels. These viral particles likely attract the attention of sentinel brain microglia and perivascular macrophages initiating an inflammatory cascade that may cause a series of intracellular signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells and damage the functional and structural integrity of the BBB.[59] This inflammation is HIV encephalitis (HIVE). Instances of HIVE probably occur throughout the course of AIDS and are a precursor for HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The premier model for studying HIV and HIVE is the simian model.

Rabies

During lethal rabies infection of mice, the blood–brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain, the primary site of rabies virus replication. This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance. Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease, even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful.

Systemic inflammation

Inflammation in the body may lead to effects on the brain via the blood–brain barrier. During systemic inflammation, whether in the form of infection or sterile inflammation, the BBB may undergo changes which may be disruptive or non-disruptive.[60] Such changes may be part of a productive host response to systemic inflammation, or may lead to deleterious consequences within the central nervous system. These BBB changes likely play a role in the generation of sickness behaviour during systemic infection. These changes may also induce or accelerate disease within the brain, for example in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and may be part of the reason why patients with these conditions can deteriorate during an infection.[61][62] Also, in patients with neurological disease the BBB may be abnormally sensitive to the effects of systemic inflammation.

History

Paul Ehrlich was a bacteriologist studying staining, a procedure that is used in many microscopy studies to make fine biological structures visible using chemical dyes.[63] As Ehrlich injected some of these dyes (notably the aniline dyes that were then widely used), the dye stained all of the organs of some kinds of animals except for their brains.[63] At that time, Ehrlich attributed this lack of staining to the brain simply not picking up as much of the dye.[64]

However, in a later experiment in 1913, Edwin Goldmann (one of Ehrlich's students) injected the dye directly into the cerebrospinal fluids of animal brains. He found then the brains did become dyed, but the rest of the body did not, demonstrating the existence of a compartmentalization between the two. At that time, it was thought that the blood vessels themselves were responsible for the barrier, since no obvious membrane could be found. The concept of the blood–brain barrier (then termed hematoencephalic barrier) was proposed by a Berlin physician, Lewandowsky, in 1900.[65]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

77-LH-28-1

77-LH-28-1 is a selective agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 1 (M1) discovered in 2008. It is an allosteric agonist, exhibiting over 100-fold specificity for M1 over other muscarinic receptor subtypes. 77-LH-28-1 penetrates the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier and is therefore a useful pharmacological tool with cognition enhancing effects.

Benserazide

Benserazide (also called Serazide or Ro 4-4602) is a peripherally-acting aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, which is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier.

CSF/serum albumin ratio

CSF/serum albumin ratio is a test performed to compare the levels of albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid and the serum.

It is useful as a measure of the integrity of the blood–brain barrier.

Carbidopa

Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa. This property is significant in that it allows a greater proportion of peripheral levodopa to cross the blood–brain barrier for central nervous system effect.

Central chemoreceptors

Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.

These act to detect the changes in pH of nearby cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that are indicative of altered oxygen or carbon dioxide concentrations available to brain tissues. An increase in carbon dioxide causes tension of the arteries, often resulting from decreased CO2 output (hypercapnia), indirectly causes the blood to become more acidic; the cerebrospinal fluid pH is closely comparable to plasma, as carbon dioxide easily diffuses across the blood–brain barrier.

However, a change in plasma pH alone will not stimulate central chemoreceptors as H+ are not able to diffuse across the blood–brain barrier into the CSF. Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central chemoreception remains, in this way, distinct from peripheral chemoreceptors.

The central chemoreception system has also been shown experimentally to respond to hypercapnic hypoxia (elevated CO2, decreased O2) and aqueous sodium cyanide injection into the whole animal and in vitro slice preparation. These methods can be used to mimic some forms of hypoxic hypoxia and they are currently being studied including the detection of variation in arterial CO2 tension acting as a quick-response-system for short term (or emergency) regulation.

This system utilizes a negative feedback system, therefore if the pH of the cerebral spinal fluid does not compare to an ideal “set” level, then the receptor will send an error signal to the effectors and appropriate action may be executed.

Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies) and central chemoreceptors (medullary neurons) primarily function to regulate respiratory activity. This is an important mechanism for maintaining arterial blood pO2, pCO2, and pH within appropriate physiological ranges. For example, a fall in arterial pO2 (hypoxemia) or an increase in arterial pCO2 (hypercapnia) leads to an increase in the rate and depth of respiration through activation of the chemoreceptor reflex. Chemoreceptor activity, however, also affects cardiovascular function either directly (by interacting with medullary vasomotor centers) or indirectly (via altered pulmonary stretch receptor activity). Respiratory arrest and circulatory shock (these conditions decrease arterial pO2 and pH, and increase arterial pCO2) dramatically increase chemoreceptor activity leading to enhanced sympathetic outflow to the heart and vasculature via activation of the vasomotor center in the medulla.

Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid (edema) in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

Drug delivery to the brain

Drug delivery to the brain is the process of passing therapeutically active molecules across the blood–brain barrier for the purpose of treating brain maladies. This is a complex process that must take into account the complex anatomy of the brain as well as the restrictions imposed by the special junctions of the blood–brain barrier.

Evans Blue (dye)

T-1824 or Evans blue, often incorrectly rendered as Evan's blue, is an azo dye that has a very high affinity for serum albumin. Because of this, it can be useful in physiology in estimating the proportion of body water contained in blood plasma. It fluoresces with excitation peaks at 470 and 540 nm and an emission peak at 680 nm.Evans blue dye has been used as a viability assay on the basis of its penetration into non-viable cells, although the method is subject to error because it assumes that damaged or otherwise altered cells are not capable of repair and therefore are not viable.Evans blue is also used to assess the permeability of the blood–brain barrier to macromolecules. Because serum albumin cannot cross the barrier and virtually all Evans blue is bound to albumin, normally the neural tissue remains unstained. When the blood–brain barrier has been compromised, albumin-bound Evans blue enters the CNS.

Evans blue is pharmacologically active, acting as a negative allosteric modulator of the AMPA and kainate receptors and as an inhibitor of vesicular glutamate transporters. It also acts on P2 receptors.It was named after Herbert McLean Evans, an American anatomist.

Isovaline

Isovaline is a rare amino acid transported to earth by the Murchison meteorite, which landed in Australia in 1969. The discovery of isovaline in the biosphere demonstrates an extraterrestrial origin of amino acids and has been linked to the homochirality of life on earth suggesting a role in the origin of life.The structure of isovaline is similar to the amino acids GABA and glycine, the chief inhibitory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system. Isovaline acts as an analgesic in mice by activating peripheral GABAB receptors. In a mouse model of osteoarthritis isovaline restored mobility, suggesting inhibition of nociception by isovaline in the synovial membrane of the mouse knee.Isovaline does not cross the blood-brain barrier and does not enter into the brain or spinal cord. Drugs such as opioids cross the blood-brain barrier to produce analgesia but often produce confusion, sedation and addiction.

Isovaline acts downstream to the cyclooxygenase system that NSAIDs inhibit, suggesting a means to avoid adverse effects such as irritation of the gastrointestinal system.

This novel first-in-class compound has potential for treatment of acute and chronic pain, without the negative side effects associated with other commonly used analgesics.

Lina Stern

Lina Solomonovna Stern (or Shtern; Russian: Лина Соломоновна Штерн; 26 August 1878 – 7 March 1968) was a Soviet biochemist, physiologist and humanist whose medical discoveries saved thousands of lives at the fronts of World War II. She is best known for her pioneering work on the blood–brain barrier, which she described as hemato-encephalic barrier in 1921.

Median eminence

The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum. The median eminence is a small swelling on the tuber cinereum, posterior to and atop the pituitary stalk; it lies in the area roughly bounded on its posterolateral region by the cerebral peduncles, and on its anterolateral region by the optic chiasm.

As one of the seven areas of the brain devoid of a blood–brain barrier, the median eminence is a circumventricular organ having permeable capillaries. Its main function is as a gateway for release of hypothalamic hormones, although it does share contiguous perivascular spaces with the adjacent hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, indicating a potential sensory role.

Microglia

Microglia are a collective type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord., very recently found to have 9 distinct subtypes with different functions, appearance, and presence. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia (and other neuroglia including astrocytes) are distributed in large non-overlapping regions throughout the CNS. Microglia are key cells in overall brain maintenance—they are constantly scavenging the CNS for plaques, damaged or unnecessary neurons and synapses, and infectious agents. Since these processes must be efficient to prevent potentially fatal damage, microglia are extremely sensitive to even small pathological changes in the CNS. This sensitivity is achieved in part by the presence of unique potassium channels that respond to even small changes in extracellular potassium.The brain and spinal cord, which make up the CNS, are not usually accessed directly by pathogenic factors in the body's circulation due to a series of endothelial cells known as the blood–brain barrier, or BBB. The BBB prevents most infections from reaching the vulnerable nervous tissue. In the case where infectious agents are directly introduced to the brain or cross the blood–brain barrier, microglial cells must react quickly to decrease inflammation and destroy the infectious agents before they damage the sensitive neural tissue. Due to the unavailability of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood–brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells.

Miotine

Miotine is an anticholinesterase drug. Miotine was the first synthetic carbamate that was used clinically.Unlike the miotine analog neostigmine, it doesn't have a quaternary ammonium group to give it a permanent positive charge. It can exist as an uncharged free base which could allow it to cross the blood–brain barrier and cause unwanted central nervous system (CNS) side effects.

Naloxegol

Naloxegol (INN; PEGylated naloxol; trade names Movantik and Moventig) is a peripherally selective opioid antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, licensed from Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. It was approved in 2014 in adult patients with chronic, non-cancer pain. Doses of 25 mg were found safe and well tolerated for 52 weeks. When given concomitantly with opioid analgesics, naloxegol reduced constipation-related side effects, while maintaining comparable levels of analgesia.Chemically, naloxegol is a pegylated (polyethylene glycol-modified) derivative of α-naloxol. Specifically, the 6-α-hydroxyl group of α-naloxol is connected via an ether linkage to the free hydroxyl group of a monomethoxy-terminated n=7 oligomer of PEG, shown extending at the lower left of the molecule image at right. The "n=7" defines the number of two-carbon ethylenes, and so the chain length, of the attached PEG chain, and the "monomethoxy" indicates that the terminal hydroxyl group of the PEG is "capped" with a methyl group. The pegylation of the 6-α-hydroxyl side chain of naloxol prevents the drug from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, it can be considered the antithesis of the peripherally-acting opiate loperamide which is utilized as an opiate-targeting anti-diarrheal agent that does not cause traditional opiate side-effects due to its inability to accumulate in the central nervous system in normal subjects.

Naloxegol was previously a Schedule II drug in the United States because of its chemical similarity to opium alkaloids, but was recently reclassified as a prescription drug after the FDA concluded that the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to this compound made it non-habit-forming, and so without the potential for abuse—specifically, naloxegol was officially decontrolled on 23 January 2015.As a pure opioid antagonist Naloxegol has no potential for abuse.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity. In the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are activated in response to these cues. The CNS is typically an immunologically privileged site because peripheral immune cells are generally blocked by the blood–brain barrier (BBB), a specialized structure composed of astrocytes and endothelial cells. However, circulating peripheral immune cells may surpass a compromised BBB and encounter neurons and glial cells expressing major histocompatibility complex molecules, perpetuating the immune response. Although the response is initiated to protect the central nervous system from the infectious agent, the effect may be toxic and widespread inflammation as well as further migration of leukocytes through the blood–brain barrier.

Pericyte

Pericytes (also known as Rouget cells, or mural cells) are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body. Pericytes are embedded in basement membrane where they communicate with endothelial cells of the body's smallest blood vessels by means of both direct physical contact and paracrine signaling. In the brain, pericytes help sustain the blood–brain barrier as well as several other homeostatic and hemostatic functions of the brain. These cells are also a key component of the neurovascular unit, which includes endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Pericytes regulate capillary blood flow, the clearance and phagocytosis of cellular debris, and the permeability of the blood–brain barrier. Pericytes stabilize and monitor the maturation of endothelial cells by means of direct communication between the cell membrane as well as through paracrine signaling. A deficiency of pericytes in the central nervous system can cause the blood–brain barrier to break down.

Ro 3-0419

Ro 3-0419 is a highly toxic organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It's the neutral analog of Ro 3-0422. Although Ro 3-0419 is less potent than Ro 3-0422, it does not have a positively charged nitrogen atom, so it's able to cross the blood brain barrier to inhibit cholinesterases in the brain. The intravenous LD50 of Ro 3-0419 is 1 mg/kg in mice.

T-1123

T-1123 is a carbamate-based acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It was investigated as a chemical warfare agent starting in 1940. It does not go through the blood-brain barrier due to the charge on quaternary nitrogen. The antidote is atropine. T-1123 is a quaternary ammonium ion. A phenyl carbamate ester is bonded in the meta position to the nitrogen on a diethylmethyl amine.

Thioperamide

Thioperamide is a potent HRH4 antagonist and selective HRH3 antagonist capable of crossing the blood–brain barrier.

It was used by Jean-Charles Schwartz in his early experiments regarding the H3 receptor. Thioperamide was found to be an antagonist of histamine autoreceptors, which negatively regulate the release of histamine, and enhances the activity of histaminergic neurons by blocking autoreceptors, leading to greater release of histamine.

Its action on H3 is thought to promote wakefulness and improve memory consolidation.

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