Block (periodic table)

A block of the periodic table is a set of chemical elements predominantly characterised by having their highest energy electrons in the same atomic orbital type. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet.[1] Each block is named after its characteristic orbital; thus, the blocks are:

  • s-block
  • p-block
  • d-block
  • f-block

The block names (s, p, d and f) are derived from the spectroscopic notation for the associated atomic orbitals: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.

Periodic table

There is an approximate correspondence between this nomenclature of blocks, based on electronic configuration, and groupings of elements based on chemical properties. The s-block and p-block together are usually considered as the main-group elements, the d-block corresponds to the transition metals, and the f-block are the lanthanides and the actinides. However, not everyone agrees on the exact membership of each set of elements, so that, for example the group 12 elements Zn, Cd and Hg are considered as main group by some scientists and transition metals by others, because they are chemically and physically more similar to the p-block elements than the other d-block elements. The group 3 elements are sometimes also considered main group elements due to their similarities to the s-block elements. Groups (columns) in the f-block (between groups 3 and 4) are not numbered.

Helium is from the s-block, with its outer (and only) electrons in the 1s atomic orbital, although its chemical properties are more similar to the p-block noble gases due to its full shell.

s-block

The s-block is on the left side of the periodic table and includes elements from the first two columns, the alkali metals (group 1) and alkaline earth metals (group 2), plus hydrogen and helium. Helium can be placed in the second group of s block as well as the 18th group of p-block, but most scientists consider it to rest at the top of group 18 i.e. above neon (atomic number 10) as it has many properties similar to the group 18 elements. Their general valence configration is ns1-2.

Most s-block elements are highly reactive metals due to the ease with which their outer s-orbital electrons interact to form compounds. The first period elements in this block, however, are nonmetals. Hydrogen is highly chemically reactive, like the other s-block elements, but helium is a virtually unreactive noble gas.

The s-block elements are unified by the fact that their valence electrons (outermost electrons) are in the s orbital. The s-orbital is a single spherical cloud which can contain only one pair of electrons; hence, the s-block consists of only two columns in the periodic table. Elements in column 1, with a single s-orbital valence electron, are the most reactive of the block. Elements in the second column have two s-orbital valence electrons, and, except for helium, are only slightly less reactive.

All the elements in the s-block are generally very reactive. Most of the elements in this block impart colour to the flame. Some of these elements have low melting and boiling points. They are soft in nature. They generally form ionic compounds.

p-blocks

The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table and includes elements from the six columns beginning with column 13 and ending with column 18. Helium, though being in the top of group 18, is not included in the p-block. Their general valence configration is ns2 np1-6.

This block contains a variety of elements and is the only block that contains all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Generally, the p-block elements are best described in terms of element type or group.

The p-block elements are unified by the fact that their valence electrons (outermost electrons) are in the p orbital. The p orbital consists of six lobed shapes coming from a central point at evenly spaced angles. The p orbital can hold a maximum of six electrons, hence there are six columns in the p-block. Elements in column 13, the first column of the p-block, have one p-orbital electron. Elements in column 14, the second column of the p-block, have two p-orbital electrons. The trend continues this way until column 18, which has six p-orbital electrons.

They are mostly covalent in nature. They show variable oxidation states. The reactivity of elements in a group generally decreases downwards.

d-block

The d-block is on the middle of the periodic table and includes elements from columns 3 through 12. These elements are also known as the transition metals because they show a transitivity in their properties i.e. they show a trend in their properties in simple incomplete d orbitals. Transition basically means d orbital lies between s and p orbitals and shows a transition from properties of s to p.

The d-block elements are all metals which exhibit two or more ways of forming chemical bonds. Because there is a relatively small difference in the energy of the different d-orbital electrons, the number of electrons participating in chemical bonding can vary. This results in the same element exhibiting two or more oxidation states, which determines the type and number of its nearest neighbors in chemical compounds.

The d-block elements are unified by mostly having one or more chemically active d-orbital electrons. The d-orbitals can contain up to five pairs of electrons; hence, the block includes ten columns in the periodic table.

f-block

The f-block is in the center-left of a 32-column periodic table but in the footnoted appendage of 18-column tables. These elements are not generally considered as part of any group. They are often called inner transition metals because they provide a transition between the s-block and d-block in the 6th and 7th row (period), in the same way that the d-block transition metals provide a transitional bridge between the s-block and p-block in the 4th and 5th rows.

The known f-block elements come in two series, the lanthanides of period 6 and the radioactive actinides of period 7. All are metals. Because the f-orbital electrons are less active in determining the chemistry of these elements, their chemical properties are mostly determined by outer s-orbital electrons. Consequently, there is much less chemical variability within the f-block than within the s-, p-, or d-blocks.

The f-block elements are unified by mostly having one or more of their outermost electrons in an f-orbital. The f-orbitals can contain up to seven pairs of electrons; hence, the block includes fourteen columns in the periodic table.

See also

References

  1. ^ Charles Janet, La classification hélicoïdale des éléments chimiques, Beauvais, 1928
Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table. This group, like other d-block groups, should contain four elements, but it is not agreed what elements belong in the group. Scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) are always included, but the other two spaces are usually occupied by lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac), or by lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr); less frequently, it is considered the group should be expanded to 32 elements (with all the lanthanides and actinides included) or contracted to contain only scandium and yttrium. When the group is understood to contain all of the lanthanides, its trivial name is the rare-earth metals.

Three group 3 elements occur naturally: scandium, yttrium, and either lanthanum or lutetium. Lanthanum continues the trend started by two lighter members in general chemical behavior, while lutetium behaves more similarly to yttrium. While the choice of lutetium would be in accordance with the trend for period 6 transition metals to behave more similarly to their upper periodic table neighbors, the choice of lanthanum is in accordance with the trends in the s-block, which the group 3 elements are chemically more similar to. They all are silvery-white metals under standard conditions. The fourth element, either actinium or lawrencium, has only radioactive isotopes. Actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions with a noble gas configuration; synthetic lawrencium is calculated and partially shown to be more similar to lutetium and yttrium. So far, no experiments have been conducted to synthesize any element that could be the next group 3 element. Unbiunium (Ubu), which could be considered a group 3 element if preceded by lanthanum and actinium, might be synthesized in the near future, it being only three spaces away from the current heaviest element known, oganesson.

Index of chemistry articles

Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the physical science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.Below is a list of chemistry-related articles. Chemical compounds are listed separately at list of organic compounds, list of inorganic compounds or list of biomolecules.

Term symbol

In quantum mechanics, the term symbol is an abbreviated description of the (total) angular momentum quantum numbers in a multi-electron atom (however, even a single electron can be described by a term symbol). Each energy level of an atom with a given electron configuration is described by not only the electron configuration but also its own term symbol, as the energy level also depends on the total angular momentum including spin. The usual atomic term symbols assume LS coupling (also known as Russell-Saunders coupling or spin-orbit coupling). The ground state term symbol is predicted by Hund's rules.

The use of the word term for an energy level is based on the Rydberg-Ritz combination principle, an empirical observation that the wavenumbers of spectral lines can be expressed as the difference of two terms. This was later explained by the Bohr quantum theory, which identified the terms (multiplied by hc, where h is the Planck constant and c the speed of light) with quantized energy levels and the spectral wavenumbers (again multiplied by hc) with photon energies.

Tables of atomic energy levels identified by their term symbols have been compiled by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In this database, neutral atoms are identified as I, singly ionized atoms as II, etc. Neutral atoms of the chemical elements have the same term symbol for each column in the s-block and p-block elements, but may differ in d-block and f-block elements, if the ground state electron configuration changes within a column. Ground state term symbols for chemical elements are given below.

Blocks in the periodic table
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Period
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
57
La
1 asterisk 72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
89
Ac
1 asterisk 104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og

1 asterisk 58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
1 asterisk 90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

Periodic table forms
Sets of elements
Elements
History
See also
Periodic table '"`UNIQ--templatestyles-00000003-QINU`"'(Large cells)

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