Blephariceromorpha

The Blephariceromorpha are an infraorder of nematoceran flies, including three families associated with fast-flowing, high-mountain streams, where the larvae can be found.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into two infraorders, and removes the Nymphomyiidae to its own suborder, but this has not gained wide acceptance. More recently, the family Blephariceridae has been considered a member of the infraorder Psychodomorpha, with Deuterophlebiidae and Nymphomyiidae either assigned their own infraorders or left unassigned to infraorder. The placement of these three families remains controversial.[1][2]

Blephariceromorpha
Imago of Blepharicera fasciata as Asthenia fasciata in Westwood 1842, plate 94
Blepharicera fasciata imago in Westwood 1842
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Nematocera
Infraorder: Blephariceromorpha
Families

Blephariceridae
Deuterophlebiidae
Nymphomyiidae

References

  1. ^ Savage, Jade; Borkent, Art; Brodo, Fenja; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; et al. (2019). "Diptera of Canada. In: Langor DW, Sheffield CS (Eds) The Biota of Canada – A Biodiversity Assessment. Part 1: The Terrestrial Arthropods". ZooKeys. 819. doi:10.3897/zookeys.819.27625.
  2. ^ Pape, Thomas; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Mostovski, Mikhail B. (2011). Zhang, Zhi-Qiang (ed.). "Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148. ISBN 978-1-86977-849-1. ISSN 1175-5326.

External links

Agathon (fly)

Agathon is a genus of net-winged midges in the family Blephariceridae. There are about 19 described species in Agathon.

Agathon comstocki

Agathon comstocki is a species of net-winged midges in the family Blephariceridae.

Archidiptera

Archidiptera is a suborder of Diptera under an alternative classification based largely on fossil taxa; it has not gained wide acceptance among non-paleontological dipterists.

Its sole living representative, the family Nymphomyiidae, is normally considered a member of the Blephariceromorpha within the Nematocera.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Bibiocephala

Bibiocephala is a genus of net-winged midges in the family Blephariceridae. There are about five described species in Bibiocephala.

Bibiocephala grandis

Bibiocephala grandis is a species of net-winged midges in the family Blephariceridae.

Blephariceridae

The Blephariceridae, commonly known as net-winged midges, are a nematoceran family in the order Diptera. The adults resemble crane flies except with a projecting anal angle in the wings, and different head shape, absence of the V on the mesonotum, and more laterally outstretched, forward-facing legs. They are uncommon, but dozens of genera occur worldwide, and over 200 species.

They are found near fast-flowing streams where the larvae live. Blepharicerid larvae are filter feeders and have suckers on their abdominal sternites, used to adhere to rocks in the torrents in which they live. These suckers are sometimes called creeping welts. These are of unique evolutionary origin within the Diptera.

One recent classification based largely on fossils treats this family as the sole member of its infraorder, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Deuterophlebia

The fly genus Deuterophlebia is the sole member of the small monotypic family Deuterophlebiidae or mountain midges. Adults have broad, fan-shaped wings, and males have extremely long antennae which they employ when contesting territories over running water, waiting for females to hatch. Larvae occur in swiftly flowing streams and are easily recognized by their forked antennae and the prolegs on the abdomen.

One classification places this family in its own infraorder Deuterophlebiomorpha, but this has not gained wide acceptance. A recent phylogeny of the entire order Diptera places them as the sister group to all other flies.

Edwardsina

Edwardsina is a genus of flies in family Blephariceridae.

Edwardsina gigantea

Edwardsina gigantea or the giant torrent midge is a species of fly in family Blephariceridae. It is endemic to Australia.

Edwardsina tasmaniensis

Edwardsina tasmaniensis or the Tasmanian torrent midge is a species of fly in family Blephariceridae. It is endemic to Australia. As their name suggests, they make their homes in the fastest-flowing parts of rivers and streams of Tasmania.

Nematocera

The Nematocera (the name means "thread-horns") are a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae. Major families in the suborder include the mosquitoes, crane flies, gnats, black flies, and a group of families described as midges.

The Nematocera typically have fairly long, fine, finely-jointed antennae. In this they differ from the most familiar flies, the suborder Brachycera (the name means "short-horns"), which includes the house flies, blow flies and many similar flies; Brachycera generally have short, stubby antennae. In many species, such as most mosquitoes, the female antennae are more or less threadlike, but the males have spectacularly plumose antennae.

The larvae of most families of Nematocera are aquatic, either free-swimming, rock-dwelling, plant-dwelling, or luticolous. Some families however, are not aquatic; for instance the Tipulidae tend to be soil-dwelling and the Mycetophilidae feed on fungi such as mushrooms. Unlike most of the Brachycera, the larvae of Nematocera have distinct heads with mouthparts that may be modified for filter feeding or chewing, depending on their lifestyles.

The pupae are orthorrhaphous which means that adults emerge from the pupa through a straight, longitudinal seam in the dorsal surface of the pupal cuticle.

The bodies and legs of most adult Nematocera are elongated, and many species have relatively long abdomens.

Males of many species form mating swarms like faint pillars of smoke, competing for females that visit the cloud of males to find a mate.

Nymphomyiidae

The Nymphomyiidae are a family of tiny (2 mm) slender, delicate flies (Diptera). Larvae are found among aquatic mosses in small, rapid streams in northern regions of the world, including northeastern North America, Japan, the Himalayas, and eastern Russia. Many fossil species and a few extant species are known. Under an alternative classification, they are considered the only living representatives of a separate, suborder called Archidiptera (or Archaediptera) which includes several Triassic fossil members. The family has characteristics associated with the Nematocera as well as the Brachycera. The antennae are shortened as in the Brachycera and these flies are long, having a snout with vestigeal mouthparts, non-differentiated abdominal segments with large cerci. The wings are narrow and hair-fringed and have very weak venation. They are known to form cloud-like swarms in summer and the short-lived non-feeding adults have wings that fracture at the base shortly after mating.The family Nymphomyiidae has several species which were originally placed in separate genera of their own. Nymphomyia alba, the type species for this family, was discovered in a fast-flowing stream in Japan by Masaaki Tokunaga in 1932. This was followed by Palaeodipteron walkeri described by Ide in Quebec in 1965 and Felicitomyia brundini was described from the Himalayas in 1970. Hennig examined the pupal characteristics of Nymphomyia and placed it in the family Psychodidae. Rohdendorf considered Nymphomyia so distinct that he put it in a separate superfamily Nymphomyioidea related to Triassic Dictyodipteridae which are in a suborder Archidiptera. Modern classifications put all the species in a single genus Nymphomyia. Based on larval morphology, the family is suggested to be close to the Deuterophlebiidae.Nymphomyiidae are neotenic, retaining various larval features. They have strap-like wings with a very reduced venation, and the wing margins have long fringes like those of the Thysanoptera. The wings break at the base after mating. The antennae are very reduced. Species in the genus Nymphomyia have atrophied mouthparts. Nymphomyiidae are unusual in that the adults are ventrally holoptic, meaning they possess two eyes that meet on the underside of the head. Adults form large swarms above water. One or two generations may breed in a single year depending on the region and climate.

Oestroidea

Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:

Calliphoridae

Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Mystacinobiidae

Oestridae

Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Rhinophoridae

Sarcophagidae

Tachinidae

Ulurumyiidae

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Tipulomorpha

The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Extant Diptera families

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