Bleach

Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains. It often refers, specifically, to a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite, also called "liquid bleach".

Many bleaches have broad spectrum bactericidal properties, making them useful for disinfecting and sterilizing and are used in swimming pool sanitation to control bacteria, viruses, and algae and in many places where sterile conditions are required. They are also used in many industrial processes, notably in the bleaching of wood pulp. Bleaches also have other minor uses like removing mildew, killing weeds, and increasing the longevity of cut flowers.[1]

Bleaches work by reacting with many colored organic compounds, such as natural pigments, and turning them into colorless ones. While most bleaches are oxidizing agents (chemicals that can remove electrons from other molecules), some are reducing agents (that donate electrons).

Chlorine, a powerful oxidizer, is the active agent in many household bleaches. Since pure chlorine is a toxic corrosive gas, these products usually contain hypochlorite which releases chlorine when needed. "Bleaching powder" usually means a formulation containing calcium hypochlorite.

Oxidizing bleaching agents that do not contain chlorine are usually based on peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, and sodium perborate. These bleaches are called 'non-chlorine bleach,' 'oxygen bleach' or 'color-safe bleach.'[2]

Reducing bleaches have niche uses, such as sulfur dioxide used to bleach wool, either as gas or from solutions of sodium dithionite;[3] and sodium borohydride.

Bleaches generally react with many other organic substances besides the intended colored pigments, so they can weaken or damage natural materials like fibers, cloth, and leather, and intentionally applied dyes such as the indigo of denim. For the same reason, ingestion of the products, breathing of the fumes, or contact with skin or eyes can cause health damage.

Clorox Bleach products
Clorox brand bleach

History

The earliest form of bleaching involved spreading fabrics and cloth out in a bleachfield to be whitened by the action of the sun and water.[4][5] By the 17th century, there was a significant cloth bleaching industry in Western Europe, using alternating alkaline baths (generally lye) and acid baths (such as lactic acid from sour milk, and later diluted sulfuric acid). The whole process lasted up to six months.[4]

Chlorine-based bleaches, which shortened that process from months to hours, were invented in Europe in the late 18th century. Swedish chemist Scheele discovered chlorine in 1774,[4] and in 1785 French scientist Claude Berthollet recognized that it could be used to bleach fabrics.[4] Berthollet also discovered sodium hypochlorite, which became the first commercial bleach, named Eau de Javel ("Javel water") after the borough in Paris where it was produced. Scottish chemist and industrialist Charles Tennant proposed in 1798 a solution of calcium hypochlorite as an alternative for Javel water, and patented bleaching powder (solid calcium hypochlorite) in 1799.[4][6] Around 1820, French chemist Labarraque discovered the disinfecting and deodorizing ability of hypochlorites, and was instrumental in popularizing their use for such purpose.[7] His work greatly improved medical practice, public health, and the sanitary conditions in hospitals, slaughterhouses, and all industries dealing with animal products.[8]

Louis Jacques Thénard first produced hydrogen peroxide in 1818 by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid.[9] Hydrogen peroxide was first used for bleaching in 1882, but did not become commercially important until after 1930.[10] Sodium perborate as a laundry bleach had been used in Europe since the early twentieth century, but did not become popular in North America until the 1980s.[11]

Mechanism of action

Whitening

Colors of natural organic materials typically arise from organic pigments, such as beta carotene. Chemical bleaches work in one of two ways:

  • An oxidizing bleach works by breaking the chemical bonds that make up the chromophore. This changes the molecule into a different substance that either does not contain a chromophore, or contains a chromophore that does not absorb visible light. This is the mechanism of bleaches based on chlorine but also of oxygen-anions which react through initial nucleophilic attack.[12]
  • A reducing bleach works by converting double bonds in the chromophore into single bonds. This eliminates the ability of the chromophore to absorb visible light. This is the mechanism of bleaches based on sulfur dioxide.[13]

Sunlight acts as a bleach through a process leading to similar results: high energy photons of light, often in the violet or ultraviolet range, can disrupt the bonds in the chromophore, rendering the resulting substance colorless. Extended exposure often leads to massive discoloration usually reducing the colors to white and typically very faded blue spectrums.[14]

Antimicrobial efficacy

The broad-spectrum effectiveness of most bleaches is due to their general chemical reactivity against organic compounds, rather than the selective inhibitory or toxic actions of antibiotics. They irreversibly denature or destroy many proteins, making them extremely versatile disinfectants.

However, hypochlorite bleaches in low concentration were found to also attack bacteria by interfering with heat shock proteins on their walls.[15]

Classes of bleaches

Most industrial and household bleaches belong to three broad classes:

Chlorine-based bleaches

Chlorine-based bleaches are found in many household "bleach" products, as well as in specialized products for hospitals, public health, water chlorination, and industrial processes.

The grade of chlorine-based bleaches is often expressed as percent active chlorine. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the same bleaching power as one gram of elemental chlorine.

Mixing these bleaches with an acid such as vinegar can liberate chlorine gas, which is a respiratory irritant that attacks mucous membranes and burns the skin. Mixing these bleaches with other common household chemicals, such as ammonia, can produce other toxic gases.

The most common chlorine-based bleaches are:

Other examples of chlorine-based bleaches, used mostly as disinfectants, are chloramine, halazone, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate.[17]

Peroxide-based bleaches

Peroxide-based bleaches are characterized by the peroxide chemical group, namely two oxygen atoms connected by a single bond, (–O–O–). This bond is easily broken, giving rise to very reactive oxygen species, which are the active agents of the bleach.

The main products in this class are:

  • Hydrogen peroxide itself (H
    2
    O
    2
    ). It is used, for example, to bleach wood pulp and hair or to prepare other bleaching agents like the perborates, percarbonates, peracids, etc.
  • Sodium percarbonate (Na
    2
    H
    3
    CO
    6
    ), an adduct of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate ("soda ash" or "washing soda", Na
    2
    CO
    3
    ). Dissolved in water, it yields a solution of the two products, that combines the degreasing action of the carbonate with the bleaching action of the peroxide.
  • Sodium perborate (Na
    2
    H
    4
    B
    2
    O
    8
    ). Dissolved in water it forms some hydrogen peroxide, but also the perborate anion (B(OOH)(OH)
    3
    ) which can perform nucleophilic oxidation.[18]
  • Peracetic (peroxoacetic) acid (H
    3
    CC(O)OOH
    ). Generated in situ by some laundry detergents, and also marketed for use as industrial and agricultural disinfection and water treatment.[19]
  • benzoyl peroxide ((C
    6
    H
    5
    COO)
    2
    ). It is used in topical medications for acne[17] and to bleach flour.[20]
  • Ozone (O
    3
    ). While not properly a peroxide, its mechanism of action is similar. It is used in the manufacture of paper products, especially newsprint and white Kraft paper.[21]
  • Potassium persulfate ( K2S2O8) and other persulfate salts. It, alongside ammonium and sodium persulfate, are common in hair lightening products.[22]
  • Permanganate salts such as Potassium permanganate (KMnO4).

In the food industry, other oxidizing products like bromates are used as flour bleaching and maturing agents.

Reducing bleaches

Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is one of the most important reductive bleaching agents. It is a white crystalline powder with a weak sulfurous odor. It can be obtained by reacting sodium bisulfite with zinc

2 NaHSO3 + Zn → Na2S2O4 + Zn(OH)2

It is used as such in some industrial dyeing processes to eliminate excess dye, residual oxide, and unintended pigments and for bleaching wood pulp.

Reaction of sodium dithionite with formaldehyde produces Rongalite,

Na2S2O4 + 2 CH2O + H2O → NaHOCH2SO3 + NaHOCH2SO2

which is used in bleaching wood pulp, cotton, wool, leather and clay.[23]

Environmental impact

A Risk Assessment Report (RAR) conducted by the European Union on sodium hypochlorite conducted under Regulation EEC 793/93 concluded that this substance is safe for the environment in all its current, normal uses.[24] This is due to its high reactivity and instability. Disappearance of hypochlorite is practically immediate in the natural aquatic environment, reaching in a short time concentration as low as 10−22 μg/L or less in all emission scenarios. In addition, it was found that while volatile chlorine species may be relevant in some indoor scenarios, they have negligible impact in open environmental conditions. Further, the role of hypochlorite pollution is assumed as negligible in soils.

Industrial bleaching agents can also be sources of concern. For example, the use of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of wood pulp produces organochlorines and persistent organic pollutants, including dioxins. According to an industry group, the use of chlorine dioxide in these processes has reduced the dioxin generation to under detectable levels.[25] However, respiratory risk from chlorine and highly toxic chlorinated byproducts still exists.

A recent European study indicated that sodium hypochlorite and organic chemicals (e.g., surfactants, fragrances) contained in several household cleaning products can react to generate chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs).[26] These chlorinated compounds are emitted during cleaning applications, some of which are toxic and probable human carcinogens. The study showed that indoor air concentrations significantly increase (8–52 times for chloroform and 1–1170 times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) during the use of bleach containing products. The increase in chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations was the lowest for plain bleach and the highest for the products in the form of “thick liquid and gel”. The significant increases observed in indoor air concentrations of several chlorinated VOCs (especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of inhalation exposure to these compounds. While the authors suggested that using these cleaning products may significantly increase the cancer risk,[27] this conclusion appears to be hypothetical:

  • The highest level cited for concentration of carbon tetrachloride (seemingly of highest concern) is 459 micrograms per cubic meter, translating to 0.073 ppm (part per million), or 73 ppb (part per billion). The OSHA-allowable time-weighted average concentration over an eight-hour period is 10 ppm,[28] almost 140 times higher;
  • The OSHA highest allowable peak concentration (5 minute exposure for five minutes in a 4-hour period) is 200 ppm,[28] twice as high as the reported highest peak level (from the headspace of a bottle of a sample of bleach plus detergent).

Disinfection

Sodium hypochlorite solution, 3–6%, (common household bleach) is typically diluted for safe use when disinfecting surfaces and when used to treat drinking water.[29][30]

A weak solution of 2% household bleach in warm water is typical for sanitizing smooth surfaces prior to brewing of beer or wine.

US Government regulations (21 CFR Part 178) allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water).

A 1-in-5 dilution of household bleach with water (1 part bleach to 4 parts water) is effective against many bacteria and some viruses, and is often the disinfectant of choice in cleaning surfaces in hospitals (primarily in the United States). Even "scientific-grade", commercially produced disinfection solutions such as Virocidin-X usually have sodium hypochlorite as their sole active ingredient, though they also contain surfactants (to prevent beading) and fragrances (to conceal the bleach smell).[31]

See Hypochlorous acid for a discussion of the mechanism for disinfectant action.

Treatment of gingivitis [32]

Diluted sodium hypochlorite at a rate of 2000–1 (0.05% concentration) may represent an efficacious, safe and affordable antimicrobial agent in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease.

Color safe bleach

Color safe bleach is a chemical that uses hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient (to help remove stains) rather than sodium hypochlorite or chlorine.[33] It also has chemicals in it that help brighten colors.[34] Hydrogen peroxide is also used for sterilization purposes and water treatment, but its disinfectant capabilities may be limited due to the concentration in the colorsafe bleach solution as compared to other applications.[34]

Health hazards

The safety of bleaches depends on the compounds present, and their concentration. Generally speaking, ingestion of bleaches can cause damage to the esophagus and stomach, possibly leading to death. On contact with the skin or eyes, they may cause irritation, drying, and potentially burns. Inhalation of bleach fumes can damage the lungs.

See also

References

  1. ^ "12 Smart Ways to Use Bleach - Reader's Digest". 9 March 2010.
  2. ^ "Oxygen Bleach Vs. Chlorine Bleach". Sciencing. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  3. ^ H. Phillips (1938): "The Bleaching of Wool with Sulphur Dioxide and with Solutions of Sulphites". The Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, Proceedings of the Society's West Riding Section, 10 March 1938; volume 64, issue 11, pages 503-512. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1938.tb01992.x
  4. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bleaching" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Aspin, Chris (1981). The Cotton Industry. Shire Publications. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-85263-545-2.
  6. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  7. ^ Scott, James, transl. (1828). On the disinfecting properties of Labarraque's preparations of chlorine Published by S. Highley.
  8. ^ Labarraque, Antoine-Germain, Nouvelle biographie générale, volume 28 (1859), columns 323-324.
  9. ^ L. J. Thénard (1818). "Observations sur des nouvelles combinaisons entre l'oxigène et divers acides". Annales de chimie et de physique. 2nd Series. 8: 306–312.
  10. ^ Tatjana Topalović (2007). Catalytic Bleaching Of Cotton: Molecular and Macroscopic Aspects p 16. Thesis, University of Twente, the Netherlands. ISBN 978-90-365-2454-4. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  11. ^ Milne, Neil (1998). "Oxygen bleaching systems in domestic laundry". J. Surfactants and Detergents. 1 (2): 253–261. doi:10.1007/s11743-998-0029-z. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  12. ^ Mayer, Robert J.; Ofial, Armin R. (2018-02-22). "Nucleophilic Reactivities of Bleach Reagents". Organic Letters. 20 (10): 2816–2820. doi:10.1021/acs.orglett.8b00645. PMID 29741385.
  13. ^ Field, Simon Q (2006). "Ingredients – Bleach". Science Toys. Retrieved 2006-03-02.
  14. ^ Bloomfield, Louis A (2006). "Sunlight". How Things Work Home Page. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  15. ^ Jakob, U.; J. Winter; M. Ilbert; P.C.F. Graf; D. Özcelik (14 November 2008). "Bleach Activates A Redox-Regulated Chaperone by Oxidative Protein Unfolding". Cell. 135 (4): 691–701. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.024. PMC 2606091. PMID 19013278. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
  16. ^ Vogt, H.; Balej, J.; Bennett, J. E.; Wintzer, P.; Sheikh, S. A.; Gallone, P.; Vasudevan, S.; Pelin, K. (2010). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483.pub2
  17. ^ a b "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  18. ^ Douglass F. Taber. "Oxidizing agents: Sodium perborate". Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  19. ^ V. Namboodiri and A. Garg (2017): "Evaluation of Combined Peracetic acid and UV treatment for Disinfection of Secondary Wastewater Effluent". document EPA/600/R-17/172, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
  20. ^ (2004) "Benzoyl peroxide" FAO Publication FNP 52 Addendum 12.
  21. ^ "Ozo formulas". Ozone Information.
  22. ^ "SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research". International Journal of Toxicology. 20 (3_suppl): 7–21. 2001. doi:10.1080/10915810152630710.
  23. ^ Herman Harry Szmant (1989). Organic building blocks of the chemical industry. John Wiley and Sons. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-471-85545-3.
  24. ^ European Union Risk Assessment Report. 2007. Sodium Hypochlorite (CAS No: 7681-52-9; EINECS No: 231-668-3): Final report, November 2007 (Final Approved Version); see Risk Assessment Report on Sodium Hypochlorite, Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, 12 March 2008.
  25. ^ "ECF: The Sustainable Technology" (PDF). Alliance for Environmental Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
  26. ^ Odabasi, Mustafa (March 2008). "Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds from the Use of Chlorine-Bleach-Containing Household Products". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (5): 1445–1451. Bibcode:2008EnST...42.1445O. doi:10.1021/es702355u.
  27. ^ Odabasi, M., Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds from the Use of Chlorine-Bleach- Containing Household Products, Slide presentation (2008)
  28. ^ a b "Chemical Sampling Information: Carbon Tetrachloride". OSHA. 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  29. ^ Dvorak, Glenda (February 2005). "Disinfection" (PDF). Center for Food Security and Public Health. Ames, IA: Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  30. ^ "Guidelines for the Use of Sanitizers and Disinfectants in Child Care Facilities". Virginia Department of Health. Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  31. ^ "KAM Scientific".
  32. ^ De Nardo, R.; Chiappe, V. N.; Gómez, M.; Romanelli, H.; Slots, J. R. (2012). "Effects of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite oral rinse on supragingival biofilm and gingival inflammation". International Dental Journal. 62 (4): 208–212. doi:10.1111/j.1875-595X.2011.00111.x. PMID 23017003.
  33. ^ "Dr Laundry - Clorox". 28 October 2015. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011.
  34. ^ a b Non Chlorine Bleach – Stain Fighter & Color Booster Liquid | Clorox

Further reading

  • Bodkins, Dr. Bailey. Bleach. Philadelphia: Virginia Printing Press, 1995.
  • Trotman, E.R. Textile Scouring and Bleaching. London: Charles Griffin & Co., 1968. ISBN 0-85264-067-6.

External links

Bleach (Nirvana album)

Bleach is the debut studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on June 15, 1989 by Sub Pop. The main recording sessions took place at Reciprocal Recording in Seattle, Washington between December 1988 and January 1989.

Bleach failed to chart upon its original release, but was well received by critics. The album was re-released internationally by Geffen Records in 1992 following the success of Nirvana's second album, Nevermind (1991). The re-release debuted at number 89 on the Billboard 200, and peaked at number 33 on the UK Albums Chart and 34 on the Australian albums chart. In 2009 Sub Pop released a 20th anniversary edition of Bleach featuring a live recording of a Nirvana show in Portland, Oregon from 1990 as extra material. Since its release in 1989, Bleach has sold more than 1,900,000 copies in the United States alone. It is Sub Pop's best-selling album to date.

Bleach (TV series)

Bleach (Japanese: ブリーチ, Hepburn: Burīchi) is a Japanese anime television series based on Tite Kubo's manga of the same name. The series ran for a total of 366 episodes. Bleach was produced by Studio Pierrot and directed by Noriyuki Abe. Bleach's Japanese and English voice actors include some of the most credited and known voice actors, including Masakazu Morita and Johnny Yong Bosch. The music was composed by Shirō Sagisu, who also composed the music for Neon Genesis Evangelion. A total of fifteen opening themes and thirty ending themes were used throughout the series, featuring a diverse group of Japanese artists.

Bleach follows the adventures of Ichigo Kurosaki after he obtains the powers of a Soul Reaper (死神, Shinigami, literally, "Death God") — a death personification similar to the Grim Reaper — from another Soul Reaper, Rukia Kuchiki. His newfound powers force him to take on the duties of defending humans from evil spirits and guiding departed souls to the afterlife. The anime adaptation includes original storylines not found in the manga with repeated appearances and stories containing these original characters. Studio Pierrot produced the series from 2004 to 2012, consisting of 366 episodes. Viz Media obtained foreign television and home video distribution rights to the Bleach anime on March 15, 2004. Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block began airing Bleach in the United States on September 9, 2006. The series' international release extends through dozens of countries in several languages, such as Spanish, French, German, Brazilian Portuguese and Tagalog.

Bleach (disambiguation)

Bleach is a chemical that removes color or whitens.

Bleach may also refer to:

Bleach (American band), an American Christian rock group

Bleach (American band Bleach album), their third album

Bleach (British band), a British shoegazing group active in the early 1990s

Bleach (Japanese band), a Japanese all-girl punk group, known as Bleach03 in North America

Bleach (Japanese band Bleach album), 2003

Bleach (Nirvana album), a 1989 album by Nirvana

"Bleach", a song by Easyworld from This Is Where I Stand

"Bleach", a song by Brockhampton from Saturation III

Bleach (manga), a Japanese comic and media franchise

Bleach (TV series), the anime adaptation of the manga

Any of a number of video games based on the manga and anime

Bleach (2018 film), a live-action film based on the manga

Bleach (1998 film), a 1998 science-fiction short film

Bleach, a 2002 film starring Adam Scott

Bleach (manga)

Bleach (Japanese: ブリーチ, Hepburn: Burīchi) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Tite Kubo. Bleach follows the adventures of the hotheaded teenager Ichigo Kurosaki who inherits his parents' destiny, after he obtains the powers of a Soul Reaper (死神, Shinigami, literally "Death God")—a death personification similar to the Grim Reaper—from another Soul Reaper, Rukia Kuchiki. His new-found powers force him to take on the duties of defending humans from evil spirits and guiding departed souls to the afterlife, and set him on journeys to various ghostly realms of existence.

Bleach was serialized in the Japanese manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump from August 2001 to August 2016, with its chapters collected into 74 tankōbon volumes. The series has spawned a media franchise that includes an anime television series that was produced by Studio Pierrot from 2004 to 2012, two original video animation episodes, four animated feature films, ten stage musicals, and numerous video games, as well as many types of Bleach-related merchandise. A live-action film adaptation was released in 2018. English-language releases of Bleach are coordinated by Viz Media, which has released several volumes of the manga each year since 2004, and published chapters of Bleach in its Shonen Jump magazine since November 2007. Viz Media secured foreign television and home video distribution rights to the Bleach anime in 2006. Cartoon Network's Adult Swim began airing dubbed episodes of Bleach in the United States that Fall, and Hulu later began to stream subtitled versions of the anime a week after each episode aired in Japan. Viz Media has also released each of the Bleach feature films in English.

Bleach received the Shogakukan Manga Award for the shōnen demographic in 2005, and is among the best-selling manga in both Japan and the United States. Despite significant downturns in both the Japanese and English manga markets, Bleach had continued to perform well commercially, and it has sold more than 90 million tankōbon copies in Japan alone. As of 2018, the series had over 120 million tankōbon volumes in print worldwide.

Bleach (season 1)

The Agent of the Shinigami arc (死神代行篇, Shinigami Daikō Hen) is the first season of the Bleach anime series. The episodes are directed by Noriyuki Abe, and produced by TV Tokyo, Dentsu and Studio Pierrot. In the English release by Viz Media, its title is translated as The Substitute. The episodes are based on Tite Kubo's Bleach manga series, spanning twenty episodes. The episodes' plot covers the adventures of Ichigo Kurosaki after becoming a Soul Reaper and assuming the duties of Soul Reaper Rukia Kuchiki.

The arc initially ran from October 2004 to February 2005 in Japan on TV Tokyo. The first English airing of the series was from September 2006 until January 2007. It was shown on YTV's Bionix programming block in Canada and Adult Swim in the United States, with Bionix airing the show one day sooner. The arc started airing in the UK starting in September 2007 on AnimeCentral.The episodes use three pieces of theme music: one opening theme and two ending themes. The opening theme is Orange Range's single "Asterisk". The ending theme for the first thirteen episodes is "Life is Like a Boat" by Rie Fu, while the remaining seven used "Thank You!!" by Home Made Kazoku.The arc was released on five DVD compilations, each containing four episodes of the show. They were released in Japan from February 2, 2005 to June 1, 2005. Viz Media's release of the DVDs was made from November 5, 2007 to July 31, 2007. The first of these compilations, with art featuring the series main character Ichigo Kurosaki, was nominated at the American Anime Awards in 2007 for best DVD package design. A DVD collection box, containing all twenty episodes of the arc, was released by Viz Media on October 30, 2007. Manga Entertainment released two DVDs containing the first season in the United Kingdom on November 5, 2007 and March 3, 2008. A compilation of these two volumes was released on May 5, 2008.The first season of Bleach (AKA Bleach: The Substitute in the English adaptation), or the Agent of the Shinigami arc, is currently licensed by VIZ Entertainment LLC, when it aired on Cartoon Network’s Adult Swim late-night primetime programming block. It is now distributed by Warner Bros. Animation/Warner Home Video on home media.

Bleach bypass

Bleach bypass, also known as skip bleach or silver retention, is an optical effect which entails either the partial or complete skipping of the bleaching function during the processing of a color film. By doing this, the silver is retained in the emulsion along with the color dyes. The result is a black-and-white image over a color image. The images usually have reduced saturation and exposure latitude, along with increased contrast and graininess. It usually is used to maximum effect in conjunction with a one-stop underexposure.

Ichigo Kurosaki

Ichigo Kurosaki (Japanese: 黒崎 一護, Hepburn: Kurosaki Ichigo) is a fictional character in the Bleach manga series and its adaptations created by Tite Kubo. He is the main protagonist of the series, who receives Soul Reaper powers after befriending Rukia Kuchiki, the Soul Reaper assigned to patrol around the fictional city of Karakura Town. These powers come at the cost of Rukia's own, and as a result, Ichigo concedes to work as Rukia's stand-in, fighting to protect people from evil spirits called Hollows and sending good spirits, wholes, to a dimension known as the Soul Society. In addition to the manga series, Ichigo appears in many other pieces of Bleach media, including the anime series, the four featured films, the two original video animations, rock musicals, several video games, light novels and the 2018 live-action film.

Kubo said that Ichigo was created to replace Rukia as the protagonist of the series because he felt she wasn't suited for the role. His character has been well received among both readers and reviewers. Ichigo is often featured in Weekly Shōnen Jump character popularity polls. He was consistently ranked as the most popular character in Bleach. The 2007 Japanese Newtype magazine polls ranked Ichigo as one of the top 100 most-loved anime characters. Reviewers of the series have praised his personality, though some consider him to be a stereotypical anti-hero. Merchandise based on Ichigo's likeness has been released, including toys, clothing and action figures. In the animated adaptations of Bleach, Ichigo is voiced by Masakazu Morita in Japanese. In the English adaptations, he is voiced by Johnny Yong Bosch. In the live-action film, he is played by Sota Fukushi.

List of Bleach characters

The Bleach manga and anime created by Tite Kubo. The series takes place in a fictional universe in which the characters are split into various factionalized fictional races. All these races are subdivisions of humanity, but are distinguished by whether they live on earth or in one of the afterlives, by possession of thematically contrasting supernatural powers, and by the use of aesthetics drawn from the artistic traditions of different real-life regions.

The main character of Bleach is a Japanese teenager named Ichigo Kurosaki who has the ability to interact with ghosts. one day he is visited by a spirit named Rukia Kuchiki, who is a Soul Reaper from the Soul Society whose mission is deal with hungering lost souls known as Hollows. When he sees Rukia getting grievously wounded by a Hollow in his presence, Ichigo is granted her powers of exorcism and psychopompy to carry out Rukia's Soul Reaper duties as she recovers. As Ichigo guides the recently deceased to the afterlife while contending with Hollows, he clashes and forms alliances with the other supernaturally powered residents of his city, namely three of his high school classmates.

Many individual Bleach characters and the series' character design work have been praised, though Bleach's constantly-expanding character roster has been a point of criticism in the press. The size of the cast has been explained by author Kubo as the result of his writing process, in which he first creates new figures, then writes their personalities and character arcs, and finally assembles these interactions into a new plot. The overall response to this technique is mixed, with some reviewers believing the resulting characters are still relatively stereotypical and often get little individual focus, while others have remarked that even secondary characters feel like protagonists of their own stories.

List of Bleach episodes

The episodes of Bleach anime series are based on Tite Kubo's manga series of the same name. They are directed by Noriyuki Abe, and produced by TV Tokyo, Dentsu and Studio Pierrot. The series follows the adventures of a teenager named Ichigo Kurosaki, who can see spirits and becomes a Soul Reaper after assuming the duties of Soul Reaper Rukia Kuchiki.

The episodes have aired since October 5, 2004, on TV Tokyo in Japan. Viz Media obtained the foreign television, home video, and merchandising rights to the Bleach anime from TV Tokyo Corporation and Shueisha on March 15, 2006. Subsequently, Viz Media contracted Studiopolis to create the English adaptation of the anime, and has licensed its individual Bleach merchandising rights to several different companies. The English adaptation of the Bleach anime premiered on Canada's YTV channel in the Bionix programming block on September 8, 2006. Cartoon Network began airing Bleach the following evening as part of Adult Swim. Adult Swim stopped broadcasting new episodes of the English adaptation on October 20, 2007, after airing the first 52 episodes of the series. It was replaced with another Viz Media series, Death Note, to provide Studiopolis more time to dub additional episodes of the series. The series returned from hiatus on March 2, 2008, and had returned to hiatus for almost a year after airing episode 167 on November 21, 2009. The hiatus ended on August 28, 2010, with the airing of episode 168 and the show has been regularly airing with new episodes since.

Episode 366, "Changing History, Unchanging Heart", which aired March 27, 2012 was the last episode of Bleach to air on TV Tokyo.

Forty-five pieces of theme music are used for the episodes: Fifteen opening themes and thirty closing themes. Several CDs that contain the theme music and other tracks have been released by Studio Pierrot. As of January 23, 2013, all 366 episodes have been released by Aniplex in Japan in 88 DVD compilations. 32 DVD compilations of the English adaptation of the anime have been released by Viz Media, and twenty six season boxsets have been released that contain all the seasons of the anime.

List of Bleach video games

There are several video games based on Tite Kubo's manga and anime series Bleach. The titles consist mostly of side-scrolling fighters, but also include other genres such as strategy role-playing games and action role-playing games. Most of the games retell the plot of the manga, following Ichigo Kurosaki and his friends. Some games, however, have veered from the source material and incorporated original stories and characters. The games have been released on a variety of home and handheld consoles.

The first game to be released based on the Bleach series was Bleach: Heat the Soul, which debuted on March 24, 2005, and the latest releases are Bleach: Soul Resurrección, which was released in North America on August 2, 2011 and Bleach: Bankai Batoru, a social network game which was released in Japan on April 14, 2014. There are 23 games bearing the "Bleach" name, not including the three crossover games—Jump Super Stars, Jump Ultimate Stars and J-Stars Victory VS—which feature characters from numerous other Weekly Shōnen Jump anime and manga series. Most Bleach games have been released only in Japan, though Sega has localized the first Wii game and the first three Nintendo DS games for North America, Australia, and Europe. Reception toward the games has been mixed, ranging from "the best fighter" for Bleach: The Blade of Fate, to "(not) a bad first effort, but the competition is leaving this one in the dust" for Bleach: Shattered Blade.

List of Bleach volumes

The manga Bleach is written and illustrated by Tite Kubo. The plot starts with Ichigo Kurosaki, a teenager who accidentally steals the powers of the Soul Reaper Rukia Kuchiki and subsequently assumes her duties while she convalesces. Since that event, Ichigo has to fight Hollows, evil spirits of past humans that feed on unwary people.

The manga was first published in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump from August 20, 2001, to August 22, 2016. The 686 individual chapters were collected by Shueisha in a series of 74 tankōbon volumes between January 5, 2002, and November 4, 2016. Most chapter names are written in English and have katakana above them to indicate how they are read in Japanese, similar to the usage of furigana ruby characters with advanced kanji characters. The total count of published Bleach chapters and the number on the highest-numbered chapter do not match. This is because, in addition to the positive numbered chapters, some chapters are published with a negative or fractional chapter number. These "negative" chapters are side stories that involve events that precede the main plot of the series.

North American licensee Viz Media serialized the individual chapters in Shonen Jump from its November 2007 to April 2012 issues. The series moved to the digital anthology Weekly Shonen Jump Alpha in January 2012 and Viz Media published it digitally as Shueisha released new chapters in Japan. The first volume on English was released on April 19, 2004, and the latest volume–the 71th–was released on November 7, 2017. The company released a hardcover "collector's edition" of the first volume with a dust jacket on August 5, 2008, followed by a box set on September 2, 2008, containing the first 21 volumes, a poster, and a booklet about the series. A second box set was released on July 7, 2015, containing volumes 22–48, the Bleach pilot and a poster. A re-release of the series under the label of "3-in-1 Edition" started on June 7, 2011; as of February 6, 2018, twenty two volumes have been released.Viz Media released digital forms of the first 16 volumes in English on June 17, 2011. As of October 2, 2018, all 74 digital volumes have been published. On September 21, 2012, Shueisha released 45 digital volumes in Japanese e-book stores. As of November 4, 2016, all 74 digital volumes have been released.

List of Hollows in Bleach

In the fictional Bleach manga/anime universe, a hollow (虚(ホロウ, horō) is a monstrous ghost that if not slain and purified will feed on other souls. Many of the series' antagonists are hollows; also, the fictional universe also has hollows with Soul Reaper (a death-related entity)-like characteristics called arrancars (破面(アランカル), arankaru, from Spanish arrancar "to tear off," kanji translates as "broken mask"). One of the series' main storylines has Sōsuke Aizen (the primary antagonist for the majority of the series) and his arrancars (particularly the ten Espadas, the strongest ones) as the force opposing the protagonists.

The creator of the series, Tite Kubo, used many Spanish motifs for the series' hollow-related elements. The fictional creatures have been praised by reviewers for the early hollows' strong emotional ties to their victims and the "interesting" concept of the arrancar; the visual appearance of the characters has also been commented on.

List of Soul Reapers in Bleach

This is a list of Soul Reapers (死神, Shinigami, literally, "death gods") featured in the manga and anime series Bleach, created by Tite Kubo. Soul Reapers are a fictional race of spirits who govern the flow of souls between the human world and the afterlife realm called the Soul Society.

The Bleach story tells of how Ichigo Kurosaki becomes substitute Soul Reaper in Karakura Town in place of Rukia Kuchiki. He assumes her duties to protect souls and put them to peaceful rest, as well as to fight against dangerous, lost souls that could not rest, called hollows.

As the series progresses, however, Rukia is captured by the Soul Society's Soul Reaper military for giving her powers to Ichigo, and she is sentenced to death. Ichigo and his friends go to save her and are forced to fight against many of the Soul Society's Thirteen Court Guard Squads. Eventually, the fifth Squad Captain Sōsuke Aizen, the third Squad Captain Gin Ichimaru, and the ninth Squad Captain Kaname Tosen all defect from the Soul Society at the time of the rescue and start a plan, interrupting Ichigo's battles, to gain greater power with the arrancars, focusing the story with the main antagonist Sōsuke Aizen. In the manga, the last antagonist is Yhwach who is the son of Soul King and father of Quincy.

Rukia Kuchiki

Rukia Kuchiki (Japanese: 朽木 ルキア, Hepburn: Kuchiki Rukia) is a fictional character in the anime and manga series Bleach created by Tite Kubo. In the series, Rukia is a Soul Reaper in charge of slaying evil spirits known as Hollows. At the beginning, after a brief meeting with the protagonist of the series, Ichigo Kurosaki, who can see supernatural beings such as Soul Reapers, she is forced to give him her powers in order to fulfill her duties as a Soul Reaper. Rukia has appeared in several other pieces of Bleach media, including the four featured films in the series, the two original video animations and several video games.

Rukia was the first character of the series created by Kubo, her design being the one he decided to use for all the other Soul Reapers. Reaction to her character is generally positive. Her differences from typical shōnen heroines is praised, as is her interaction with other characters. Additionally, she usually ranks second in Weekly Shōnen Jump's Bleach popularity polls, and is consistently the most popular female character in those polls. Several pieces of merchandise have been released in Rukia's likeness, including a plush doll and several figurines.

Sodium hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation (Na+) and a hypochlorite anion (OCl−or ClO−). It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H2O, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. The compound in solution is unstable and easily decomposes, liberating chlorine, which is the active principle of such products. Indeed, sodium hypochlorite is the oldest and still most important chlorine-based bleach.While sodium hypochlorite is non-toxic, its corrosive properties, common availability, and reaction products make it a significant safety risk. In particular, mixing liquid bleach with other cleaning products, such as acids or ammonia, may produce toxic fumes.

Tite Kubo

Tite Kubo (久保 帯人, Kubo Taito, born June 26, 1977) is a Japanese manga artist. He is best known for his manga series Bleach, which has sold over 120 million copies as of 2018.

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