|Regions with significant populations|
|China: Yunnan; smaller populations in Burma and Thailand|
|Theravada Buddhism, Animist|
|Related ethnic groups|
Yan & Zhou (2012:147) list the following autonyms of ethnic Bulang in various counties.
Exonyms for Bulang include (Yan & Zhou 2012:147):
The Blang language belongs to the Palaungic branch of the Austroasiatic language family. Within the Palaungic branch, Blang belongs to the Waic subgroup, which also contains the languages of the Wa and Lawa peoples in addition to Blang. Some Blang also speak the Chinese language and Southwestern Tai languages in addition to Blang. Two systems of writing based on the Latin alphabet have been developed: 'Totham' in the Xishuangbanna and 'Tolek' from Dehong and Lincang.
Chinese ethnographers identify the Blang as descendants of an ancient tribe known as the "Pu" (濮), who lived in the Lancang river valley during ancient times. It is believed that these people were one branch of a number of peoples that were collectively known to the ancient Chinese as the Bǎipú (百濮, literally "Hundred Pu").
Traditionally, the Blang considered teeth blackened by chewing betel nuts a beauty characteristic.
The women usually dress in jackets with black skirts. The men had tattoos in the torso and the stomach. They dressed in wide black trousers and jackets buttoned to the front. Often they would wear turbans of either white or black fabric.
The houses of the Blang are made out of bamboo and usually consist of two floors. The first floor is designed as a warehouse for food and a stable for livestock animals, such as chickens, whereas the second is designed to house the family. The chimney is located in the center of the house.
The Blang are traditionally divided into small clans, with each clan owning its own land. Every Blang town has its own cemeteries, which are divided by clans. The deceased are buried, with the exception of those who perished due to unnatural causes. In this case they are cremated.
The Blang are traditionally associated with animism, ancestor worship, and Theravada Buddhism. Writing in 2011, James Miller described these overlapping traditions as follows, "The Blang, like many nationalities in southwest China are Theravada Buddhists, but their highly complex religious life is also informed by local beliefs and customs that relate to the traditional ecology, with special attention being paid to rice, water, bees, beeswax, and the various local spirits that are associated with them." An overtly Christian missionary source (i.e., with observations reflecting attempts to convert the Bulang) describes them as "ardent followers of Theravada Buddhism", and offers as an estimate that 80% of the Bulang are "professing Buddhists", with a lower estimate of 35% being "practicing Buddhists".
The Bulang are distributed in the following villages of Yunnan province (Tao 2012:16-18). Except for the Bulang of Xishuangbanna, the Bulang of most of these counties speak the U language (Svantesson 1991). Locations from Wang & Zhao (2013:173-179) are also included.
The Angkuic languages are spoken in Yunnan province, China and Shan State, Burma.BLR
BLR may refer to:
Base Lending Rate, the rate banks refer to when calculating how much interest to charge for a loan
Bad Lip Reading, a viral video series consisting of improperly lip-synced videos of famous musicians and politicians
Bala Lake Railway, a heritage railway operating in North Wales.
BLR, The abbreviation for the country of Belarus, its language code is 639-1
Bengaluru International Airport; and previously HAL International Airport. BLR is the IATA code of the primary airport in Bangalore, India
Beta-lactam Ring Records, an independent record label
The Biggest Little Railway in the World, a temporary model railway in the Scottish Highlands in 2017 sometimes abbreviated to BLR.
Blacklands Railroad, a Texas-based railroad
Black Luster Rooster, administrator of Dueling Network (commonly abbreviated DN), an online, unofficial Adobe Flash–based simulation of the Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game (TCG).
Blang language, the three digit ISO 639:b language designation code for the language of the Blang people of Africa
Breech-loading rifle, a rifle loaded to the rear of the trigger
Browning BLR, a hunting rifle
Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1), also known as CXCR5
Blacklight: Retribution, a free first-person shooter gameBlang language
Blang (Pulang) is the language of the Blang people of Burma and China. Samtao of Burma is a dialect.Dialects include the following (Bulangyu Jianzhi 1986).
Bulang 布朗; representative dialect: Xinman'e 新曼俄, Bulangshan District 布朗山区, Menghai County
A'erwa 阿尔佤 (Awa 阿佤); representative dialect: Guanshuang 关双, Mengman Township 勐满镇, Menghai CountyBulong
Bulong may refer to:
Bulong, Western Australia
Bulong (film), a 2011 Philippine film
Blang people, also known as Bulong, an ethnic group in China
Blang language, also known as Bulong
Bilung, pinyin as Bulong, township in TibetFermented tea
Fermented tea (also known as post-fermented tea or dark tea) is a class of tea that has undergone microbial fermentation, from several months to many years. The exposure of the tea leaves to humidity and oxygen during the process also causes endo-oxidation (derived from the tea-leaf enzymes themselves) and exo-oxidation (which is microbially catalysed). The tea leaves and the liquor made from them become darker with oxidation. Thus, the various kinds of fermented teas produced across China are also referred to as dark tea, not be confused with black tea. The most famous fermented tea is Pu-erh, produced in Yunnan Province, and the Anhua dark tea produced in Anhua County of Hunan Province.
The fermentation of tea leaves alters their chemistry, affecting the organoleptic qualities of the tea made from them. Fermentation affects the smell of the tea and typically mellows its taste, reducing astringency and bitterness while improving mouthfeel and aftertaste. The microbes may also produce metabolites with health benefits.The fermentation is carried out primarily by molds. Aspergillus niger was implicated as the main microbial organism in the Pu-erh process, but that species identification has been challenged by comprehensive PCR-DGGE analysis, which points to Aspergillus luchuensis as the primary agent of fermentation.Most fermented teas are made in China, but several varieties are produced in Japan. In Shan State, Myanmar, lahpet is a form of fermented tea that is eaten, and similar pickled teas are also eaten in northern Thailand and southern Yunnan.Haplogroup O-K18
Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and (as of 2017) Haplogroup O1b1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-K18 is a descendant branch of Haplogroup O-P31. It is best known for the high frequency of its O-M95 subclade among populations of Southeast Asia and among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South Asia.Index of China-related articles (0–L)
The following is a breakdown of the list of China-related topics.Shuangjiang Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai Autonomous County
Shuangjiang Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai Autonomous County (Chinese: 雙江拉祜族佤族布朗族傣族自治縣; pinyin: Shuāngjiāng Lāhùzú Wǎzú Bùlǎngzú Dǎizú Zìzhìxiàn) is a county in the southwest of Yunnan province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Lincang.Tao (surname)
Tao is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname 陶 (Táo). It ranked 31st among the Song-era Hundred Family Surnames.
Tào is also a Vietnamese surname derived from the Chinese surname Cao (Chữ Nôm: 曹).Teeth blackening
Teeth blackening or teeth lacquering is a custom of dyeing one's teeth black. It was most predominantly practiced in Southeast Asian and Oceanic cultures, particularly among Austronesian, Austroasiatic, and Kra-Dai-speaking peoples. It was also practiced in Japan prior the Meiji era, and among minorities in southern China. It was also performed among some groups in the Americas, most notably among the Shuar people of northern Peru and Ecuador.Teeth blackening is usually done during puberty. It was primarily done to preserve the teeth into old age, as it prevents tooth decay similar to the mechanism of modern dental sealants. It was seen as a sign of maturity, beauty, and of civilization. A common belief is that blackened teeth differentiated humans from animals. Teeth blackening is often done in conjunction with traditions of teeth filing and evulsion, as well as other body modification customs like tattoos. Teeth blackening and filing were regarded with fascination and disapproval by early European explorers and colonists. The practice survives in some isolated ethnic groups in Southeast Asia and Oceania, but have mostly disappeared due to the introduction of western beauty standards during the colonial era.Teeth blackening is commonly confused with the red-stained teeth from betel chewing. However, betel chewing damages the teeth and gums, while teeth blackening does not.Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture
Xishuangbanna, Sibsongbanna, or Sipsong Panna, shortened to Banna (full name: Tham: ᩈᩥ᩠ᨷᩈ᩠ᩋᨦᨻᩢ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ; New Tai Lü script: ᦈᦹᧈᦈᦹᧈᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈᦘᦱᦉᦱᦺᦑ᧑᧒ᦗᧃᦓᦱ; Chinese: 西双版纳傣族自治州; Thai: สิบสองปันนา; Lao: ສິບສອງພັນນາ; Shan: သိပ်းသွင်ပၼ်းၼႃး; Burmese: စစ်ဆောင်ပန္နား) is a Tai Lü autonomous prefecture in the extreme south of Yunnan, China. The prefectural seat is Jinghong, the largest settlement in the area and one that straddles the Mekong, called the "Lancang River" in Chinese.This region of China is noted for its distinct culture, one unlike that of the Han Chinese. The people, architecture, language, and culture more closely resemble those of the Shan, Dai and Tai peoples, which includes the Thai and Lao.