The earthen dam was constructed in 1941 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers with a height of 69 feet (21 m) and 1,150 feet (350 m) long at its crest. It impounds the Blackwater River for flood control and storm water management as one of five related projects in the Merrimack River basin. The dam is owned and operated by the New England District, North Atlantic Division, Army Corps of Engineers.
The seasonal flood-control reservoir created by the dam has a maximum capacity of 93,400 acre-feet, but is normally dry, apart from the normal flow of the Blackwater. The site includes 8 miles (13 km) of river popular for canoeing and kayaking, and fishing for brown and rainbow trout.
The A82 is a major road in Scotland that runs from Glasgow to Inverness via Fort William. It is mostly a trunk road managed by Transport Scotland, who view it as an important link from the Central Belt to the Scottish Highlands and beyond. The road passes close to numerous landmarks in the Highlands, including Loch Lomond, Rannoch Moor, Glen Coe, the Ballachulish Bridge, Ben Nevis, the Commando Memorial, Loch Ness and Urquhart Castle.
The route is derived in several places from the military roads constructed through the Highlands by General George Wade and Major William Caulfeild in the 18th century, along with later roads constructed by Thomas Telford in the 19th. The modern route is based on that designed by Telford, but with a number of improvements primarily dating from the 1920s and 30s. These include a diversion across Rannoch Moor and another around Loch Leven, which was subsequently replaced by the Ballachulish Bridge.
Several travel guides have praised individual parts of the road, such as the section from Tyndrum to Glencoe across Rannoch Moor, as providing memorable driving experiences. Tourists find the A82 a popular route because of its scenery, and it serves as a main artery for commercial and heavy goods traffic. Transport Scotland have publicly declared a commitment to improve congestion and safety along the road. Parts of the A82 are occasionally closed for maintenance, which has resulted in strong protest from the local community, and the road has been criticised for its poor accident record.Aonach Eagach
For the mathematical function known as a "Devil's staircase", see Singular function.The Aonach Eagach is a rocky ridge lying to the north of Glen Coe in the Scottish Highlands, boasting two Munro summits.
In length the full ridge continues for 10 km from the Pap of Glencoe at the west to the eastern end at the Devil's Staircase. The central section, some 2 km in length, is very rocky and the route along it requires scrambling ability. The slopes to each side are extremely dangerous, with steep grass and scree slopes hiding even steeper slopes which end in cliffs on both north and south sides of the ridge.
The Aonach Eagach is usually regarded as the most difficult horizontal 'scrambling' ridge in mainland Scotland, though it vies with Liathach (and, in winter, An Teallach) for this title. In his book "Scrambles in Lochaber", local climber Noel Williams warns that there are no other ridges in the area that are "so narrow and so difficult to escape from once committed. Some sections are extremely exposed. This makes it a difficult outing to grade, because the technical difficulties are not great". Williams settled on grade 2, implying it is easier than the (optional) grade 2/3 approach scramble up A'Chailleach, but added a further warning (in bold type) that "there are no safe descents on the south side of the ridge".Blackwater Reservoir
For the dam in New Hampshire, see Blackwater DamThe Blackwater Reservoir is a reservoir created behind a dam in the mountains above Kinlochleven, Lochaber, Highland, Scotland. At over 914 m long, the dam is the longest in the Highlands.
The hydroelectric scheme was constructed in the early 1900s for the British Aluminium Company (later: British Alcan) for the purpose of smelting aluminium and was designed by engineers Patrick Meik and Charles Meik. Chief assistant resident engineer was William Halcrow.
The dam, at 27 m high, was built at an elevation of over 305m in rugged and almost inaccessible terrain, and involved the construction of some 6 km of concrete aqueduct and nearly 13 km of steel pipe in total (four parallel pipelines).
The dam was built using hand tools, without the benefit of mechanical earth moving machinery, and has been described as the last major creation of the traditional 'navvy' whose activities in the construction of canals and railways left an indelible mark on the British countryside.
The power house and aluminium smelting plant were situated in Kinlochleven, which is adjacent to the sea loch Loch Leven.
In recent years the smelting works has closed and has mostly been demolished albeit that a few buildings remain and have been given over to other uses, including a climbing wall which - unusually - has a refrigerated face so that people can practice ice climbing.
The power station now produces electricity for the aluminium smelter in Fort William, supplementing the supply from the Lochaber hydroelectric scheme. Any surplus energy is sold to the national grid for public supply. Consequently, the dam, penstocks and other works associated with it remain in use.
A number of workers lost their lives constructing the dam; their graves, which are marked by concrete markers, are close to the dam.Blackwater River (Contoocook River tributary)
The Blackwater River is a 37.5-mile-long (60.4 km) river located in central New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Contoocook River, part of the Merrimack River watershed.
The Blackwater River is formed at Cilleyville, a village in the western part of the town of Andover, by the junction of two branch streams that lack official names on current maps. The western branch begins at the outlet of Pleasant Lake in New London and flows east through Chase and Tannery ponds in Wilmot Flat. The northern stream branch begins at the outlet of Eagle Pond in Wilmot and flows south past West Andover and through Bog Pond, joining the outlet of Pleasant Lake just south of the outlet of Bog Pond. Kimpton Brook (formerly known as Quickwater Brook), flowing easterly through the village of Wilmot Center, is the primary tributary of Eagle Pond.
From its start at Cilleyville, the Blackwater River flows east through the town of Andover, passing the village of Potter Place. Beyond Andover village, the river continues to wind its way east, eventually turning south near the Blackwater Bays and dropping over rapids through the village of West Salisbury to the impoundment area of the Blackwater Dam in the town of Webster. Below the reservoir dam, the Blackwater encounters a short, intense whitewater stretch before flattening again for the final miles to the Contoocook in Hopkinton.Dam
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC.
The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities. The first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, Obdam, that is already mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth". The names of more than 40 places (with minor changes) from the Middle Dutch era (1150–1500 CE) such as Amsterdam (founded as 'Amstelredam' in the late 12th century) and Rotterdam, also bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time.Kinlochleven
Kinlochleven () (Scottish Gaelic: Ceann Loch Lìobhann) is a village located in Lochaber, in the Scottish Highlands and lies at the eastern end of Loch Leven. To the north lie the Mamores ridge; to the south lie the mountains flanking Glen Coe.
The village was formed from two previously separate small communities - Kinlochmore to the north of the River Leven in Inverness-shire and Kinlochbeg to the south of the Leven in Argyll - following the construction of an aluminium smelter and associated housing for its employees. The processing plant was powered by a hydroelectric scheme situated in the mountains above, and made Kinlochleven the first village in the world to have every house connected to electricity, coining the phrase "The Electric Village". In 1991, the village (according to annual census returns) had just over 1000 inhabitants in some 420 households. Today it is a notable tourist destination and centre for mountain pursuits.List of dams and reservoirs in New Hampshire
Following is a list of dams and reservoirs in New Hampshire.
All major dams are linked below. The National Inventory of Dams defines any "major dam" as being 50 feet (15 m) tall with a storage capacity of at least 5,000 acre feet (6,200,000 m3), or of any height with a storage capacity of 25,000 acre feet (31,000,000 m3).Scottish Youth Hostels Association
Hostelling Scotland (SYHA; Gaelic: Comann Osdailean Òigridh na h-Alba), founded in 1931, is part of Hostelling International and provides youth hostel accommodation in Scotland. As of 2013, around 60% of its guests come from outwith Scotland.As of 2016, the hostel guide and website lists over 60 hostels, 28 of which are independently owned affiliate hostels such as those of the Gatliff Hebridean Hostel Trust and various local communities and authorities. Hostels vary from modern purpose-built premises to historic buildings and country cottages, sited in major towns and cities and in rural locations, including remote islands.Accommodation is generally dormitory-style but increasingly this is being subdivided into smaller units. For example, the most modern hostel, Edinburgh Central, has many single and twin-bedded rooms with ensuite facilities. All have a lounge/sitting room, shared bathrooms and self-catering kitchens. Many hostels provide meals at request.
Hostelling Scotland is a self-funding charitable organisation, and as a not-for-profit business invests all surplus back into the organisation, both to develop the network and to improve older hostels. Today it faces competition from the more numerous independent hostels, and from rural hotels which provide bunkhouse accommodation.It has been claimed that it has left its roots as a working class movement to "provide accommodation to people of limited means" behind, and become too expensive. The SYHA's defenders, including Allan Wilson MSP, point out that hostellers today require higher levels of comfort than when the hostelling movement began.