Black rice

Black rice (also known as purple rice) is a range of rice types of the species Oryza sativa L., some of which are glutinous rice. Varieties include Indonesian black rice, Philippine balatinaw rice,[1] and Thai jasmine black rice. Black rice is known as chak-hao in Manipur, where desserts made from black rice are served at major feasts. In Bangladesh it known as "kalo dhaner chaal"(Black paddy's rice) and broadly used to make polao or rice based desserts. Black rice is a source of iron, vitamin E, and antioxidants. The bran hull (outermost layer) of black rice contains one of the highest levels of anthocyanins found in food.[2] The grain has a similar amount of fiber to brown rice and, like brown rice, has a mild, nutty taste.[3]

Black rice has a deep black color and usually turns deep purple when cooked. Its dark purple color is primarily due to its anthocyanin content,[4] which is higher by weight than that of other colored grains.[5][6] It is suitable for creating porridge, dessert, traditional Chinese black rice cake, bread, and noodles.

Black Rice
Black Rice
Black rice 01
Black rice as sold in China

See also

References

  1. ^ "Heirloom rice preserved, made productive". Philippine Rice Research Institute. Department of Agriculture, Philippines. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  2. ^ Yao, S. L.; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y. H. (2013). "Black rice and anthocyanins induce inhibition of cholesterol absorption in vitro". Food & Function. 4 (11): 1602–8. doi:10.1039/c3fo60196j. PMID 24056583.
  3. ^ "Food Grains of India". Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). 232-234. 1892 (70): 234. 1892. JSTOR 4102547.
  4. ^ Oikawa, T.; Maeda, H.; Oguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Tanabe, N.; Ebana, K. Yano; M., Ebitani; T., Izawa, T. (2015). "The birth of a black rice gene and its local spread by introgression". Plant Cell. 27 (9): 2401–2414. doi:10.1105/tpc.115.00310 (inactive 2019-05-18).CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Ichikawa, Haruyo; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Xu, Bing; Yoshii, Yoichi; Nakajima, Masaharu; Konishi, Tetsuya (2001). "Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Black Rice". Journal of Medicinal Food. 4 (4): 211–218. doi:10.1089/10966200152744481. PMID 12639403.
  6. ^ Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J. Christopher; Rabalski, Iwona (2006). "Anthocyanin Composition in Black, Blue, Pink, Purple, and Red Cereal Grains". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54 (13): 4696–704. doi:10.1021/jf0606609. PMID 16787017.
Ampaw

Ampaw, usually anglicized as pop rice or puffed rice, is a Filipino sweet puffed rice cake. It is traditionally made with sun-dried leftover cooked white rice that is fried and coated with syrup.

Anthocyanin

Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins.Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. They occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars. They are odorless and moderately astringent.

Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive because they have not been verified as safe when used as food or supplement ingredients. There is no conclusive evidence that anthocyanins have any effect on human biology or diseases.

Arroz negro (Mexican cuisine)

Arroz negro ("black rice") is a Mexican dish made with rice, in which its dark color comes from black bean broth. The traditional recipe comes from southern regions as Oaxaca and Campeche.

A dark broth is made by cooking black beans with onion and butter in sufficient water. Rice is fried with garlic, then the bean broth without the beans is added, as well as epazote, serrano pepper, and salt. The rice is simmered until tender.

Arròs negre

Arròs negre (Valencian pronunciation: [aˈrɔz ˈneɣɾe], Spanish: arroz negro) is a Valencian and Catalan dish made with cuttlefish (or squid) and rice, somewhat similar to seafood paella. Some call it paella negra ("black paella"), however it is traditionally not called a paella even though it is prepared in a similar manner.

Arròs negre should not be confused with black rice, the collective name for several cultivars of heirloom rice that have a naturally dark color.

The traditional recipe for this dish calls for squid ink, cuttlefish or squid, white rice, garlic, green cubanelle peppers, sweet paprika, olive oil and seafood broth. However, many cooks add other seafood as well, such as crab and shrimp.

The dish's dark color comes from squid ink which also enhances its seafood flavor.

In addition to Valencia and Catalonia, this dish is popular in Cuba and Puerto Rico where on both islands it is known as arroz con calamares ("rice with squid" in Spanish). In the Philippines, it is considered to be a subtype of the Filipino adaptation of paelya, and is known as paella negra (or paelya negra). Black rice dishes with cuttlefish or squid ink are also made in Italy, Croatia and Montenegro.

Fideuà negra ("black noodles" in Catalan) is a variation made with noodles instead of rice and is usually served with aioli.

Bap (food)

Bap (Korean: 밥) is a Korean name of cooked rice prepared by boiling rice and/or other grains, such as black rice, barley, sorghum, various millets, and beans, until the water has cooked away. Special ingredients such as vegetables, seafood, and meat can also be added to create different kinds of bap.In Korean, the honorific forms of bap (meal) include jinji (진지) for an elderly, sura (수라) for the monarch, and me (메) for the deceased (in the ancestral rites).

Black rice (disambiguation)

Black rice refers to a range of rice types that are colored black.

Black rice may also refer to:

Arròs negre, a Spanish dish involving rice colored with squid

Arroz negro (Mexican cuisine), a Mexican dish involving rice dyed with bean broth

Brown rice

Brown rice is whole-grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer, and cereal germ removed. Red rice, gold rice, and black rice (also called purple rice) are all whole rices, but with differently pigmented outer layers.

Any type of rice may be eaten whole. Whole rice has a mild, nutty flavour, and is chewier.

Bubur ketan hitam

Bubur ketan hitam, bubur pulut hitam or bubur injun is an Indonesian sweet dessert made from black glutinous rice porridge with coconut milk and palm sugar or cane sugar. The black glutinous rice are boiled until soft, and sugar and coconut milk are added. It is often described as "black glutinous rice pudding" and is very similar to black rice tong sui made from black rice. It is often served as dessert or snack, for supper, for tea time, anytime of the day; however, it is a popular choice for breakfast for those who prefer sweet treat instead of its savory counterpart bubur ayam.

Casalbeltrame

Casalbeltrame (Casabaltram in Piedmontese and Lombard) is an Italian town of 962 inhabitants in the province of Novara in Piedmont.

A part of the municipal territory is included in the Natural Park of the Lame del Sesia.

The rice paddies of Casalbeltrame are known for the production of riso venere, an unusual black rice of Chinese origins. Venere refers to Venus, the goddess of love, and to the aphrodisiac properties claimed for the rice. The variety is included in the Slow Food Atlas.Casalbeltrame borders the following municipalities: Biandrate, Casalino, Casalvolone, and San Nazzaro Sesia.

Columbian exchange

The Columbian exchange, also known as the Columbian interchange, named for Christopher Columbus, was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and ideas between the Americas, West Africa, and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries. It also relates to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage. Invasive species, including communicable diseases, were a byproduct of the Exchange. The changes in agriculture significantly altered and changed global populations. The most significant immediate impact of the Columbian exchange was the cultural exchanges and the transfer of people (both free and enslaved) between continents.

The new contact between the global population circulated a wide variety of crops and livestock, which supported increases in population in both hemispheres, although diseases initially caused precipitous declines in the numbers of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traders returned to Europe with maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the 18th century.

The term was first used in 1972 by American historian Alfred W. Crosby in his environmental history book The Columbian Exchange. It was rapidly adopted by other historians and journalists and has become widely known.

Dalaketnon

Dalaketnon are the evil engkanto. Dalaketnons are a race of Elf-like creatures in Philippine mythology In Visayans they were believed to be handsome and beautiful creatures that resemble nobles and monarchs of the prehispanic Philippines, They dwell on Dalakit trees (Balete, Dakit) hence the name Dalakitnon which literally means From the Dalakit or Dakit tree

These mythological race exhibits sexual dimorphism the men having light colored skin and very dark hair and women having bronze-brown skin and brown hair. Stories say that they have leaf-shaped pointy ears. depicted in modern times as gothic-like tall, handsome males and beautiful females. They dress in fashionable manner, live in the "haunted house-like" mansions and try to fit in with mortal people. Some believe that the only way to Dalaket, their dwelling place, is by entering the Dalaket trees. These creatures abduct people and take them to their world. They hold a feast for their victims and force them to eat the Black Rice that put them under their spell making them their slaves.Dalaketnons were known to be rather beautiful elitists. They have a bit of a coño, a kind of telekinesis as well as corporeal duplication—meaning they could generate tangible, living copies of themselves indefinitely, and their hairs and eyes turn white whenever their power manifests.The Dalaketnons have a normal contact with humans but the humans do not know that they are engkanto. Old folks believed that Dalaketnons can change an ordinary human into creatures like them. They use a magical black rice to change their victims into a Dalaketnon. It was also believed that they were the mortal enemies of the good engkanto. They are from the royal blood of evil engkantos that served as their ruler. They were associated to be the masters of Tiyanak, Aswang, Bal-Bal, Wak Wak, Manananggal, Amalanhig, and even Tiktik.

Jindo County

Jindo County (Jindo-gun) is a county in South Jeolla Province, South Korea. It consists of the island of Jindo and several smaller nearby islands. Jindo Bridge connects Jindo county with Haenam county.

Together with Jindo Island, Jindo County contains an archipelago of about 230 small islands, of which only 45 are inhabited by 4,855 people. Women made up 50.4% of the total county population of 29,538 in 2015. Most of the land is covered by forests (60%) and cultivated fields (30%). The county tree is Malchilus thunbergii, the flower camellia and the bird the swan. The local food specialties are wolfberry, which is used for liquor, tea and paste; cheongju red-colored rice wine, brown seaweed and black rice.

L.A. Black Rice Milling Association Inc. Office

The L.A. Black Rice Milling Association Inc. Office is a historic office building at 508 South Monroe Street in DeWitt, Arkansas. It is a single-story brick structure with a low-pitch shed roof. Built in 1942, the building has minimal styling, with a recessed porch on its eastern facade sheltering the entries to two storefronts. It is notable as the only surviving element associated with the business activities of Lester Asher Black (1880-1945), a leading businessman in DeWitt. Black was the president of the First National Bank of DeWitt from its founding in 1912 until his death, and operated a rice mill (no longer standing) as well as a hardware and agricultural supply store catering to rice farmers. He also owned thousands of acres of land planted in rice, at a time when Arkansas was the largest national supplier of the crop.The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013.

Lotus Foods

Lotus Foods is a Richmond, California, based company that focuses on importing handcrafted rice from small family farms to the United States. The company was founded in 1995 by Caryl Levine and Kenneth Lee. Their first and most popular product is Forbidden Rice.

Misu

Misu (미수) is a beverage made from Korean traditional grain powder, misu-garu (미숫가루; misutgaru; "misu powder") which is a combination of 7–10 different grains. It is usually served in the hot summer days to quench thirst or as an instant nutritious drink for breakfast or as a healthy snack.

In a Joseon Dynasty (an ancient Korean Dynasty) recipe book, misu was mentioned as stir-fried barley (gu). Gu was a delicacy of that time and easy to serve as one went to travel.

Misu is made of glutinous rice and other ingredients such as barley, yulmu (Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen), brown rice, black rice, black soybeans, corn, white bean, millet, and sesame seeds which are ground, roasted and/or steamed, then mixed together. Misugaru is commonly added to water or milk and stirred to make a drink. Sugar or condensed milk can be added as sweetener. It is known for health benefits such as being high in protein, vitamins, calcium, magnesium, molybdenum, folate, and selenium, as well as being a dieter's drink as it is quite filling but low in calories.

Oryza sativa

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. Oryza sativa is a grass with a genome consisting of 430Mb across 12 chromosomes. It is renowned for being easy to genetically modify, and is a model organism for cereal biology.

Peonidin

Peonidin is an O-methylated anthocyanidin derived from Cyanidin, and a primary plant pigment. Peonidin gives purplish-red hues to flowers such as the peony, from which it takes its name, and roses. It is also present in some blue flowers, such as the morning glory.

Like most anthocyanidins, it is pH sensitive, and changes from red to blue as pH rises because anthocyanidins are highly conjugated chromophores. When the pH is changed, the extent of the conjugation (of the double bonds) is altered, which alters the wavelength of light energy absorbed by the molecule. (Natural anthocyanidins are most stable in a very low pH environment; at pH 8.0, most become colorless.) At pH 2.0, peonidin is cherry red; at 3.0 a strong yellowish pink; at 5.0 it is grape red-purple; and at 8.0 it becomes deep blue; unlike many anthocyanidins, however, it is stable at higher pH, and has been isolated as a blue colorant from the brilliant "Heavenly Blue" morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav cv).

Because of its unusual color stability, a cafeyl-acylated buffered formulation of it has been patented for use as food coloring.

Peonidin, like many anthocyanidins, has shown potent inhibitory and apoptotic effects on cancer cells in vitro, notably metastatic human breast cancer cells.

A very large question, however, has been raised about anthocyanidins' penetration and retention in human cells in vivo, due to their rapid elimination from the human body.

By far the greatest dietary source of peonidin is raw cranberries, which contain 42 mg per 100 g of fruit. Blueberries, plums, grapes, and cherries also contain significant amounts, ranging from 5 to 12 mg/100 g. Only fresh fruit has been shown to contain significant peonidin; frozen blueberries have been shown to contain almost none. Peonidin has been found in concentrations of up to 40 mg per 100 g (cooked) of certain cultivars of purple fleshed sweet potatoes; the amount of peonidin varies greatly across cultivars. It has also been isolated from raw black rice and black bananas.

The higher level of peonidin in fresh fruit corresponds to the rule of thumb that more natural fruit is healthier. Specifically, the amount of phenolic compounds in cranberries has been found to be inversely correlated with fruit size and crop yield.

Rice vinegar

Rice vinegar is a vinegar made from fermented rice in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Women (band)

Women was an art rock band formed in 2007 in Calgary. Their debut album Women was released on Chad VanGaalen's label Flemish Eye on July 8, 2008 in Canada and on Jagjaguwar in the United States on October 7, 2008. It was rumoured that the band broke up on October 29, 2010, after a fight on stage at a show at the Lucky Bar in Victoria although their management stated that they merely cancelled the rest of their tour.

Species of rice
Varieties
Selected varieties of Asian rice
Selected varieties of African rice
Characteristics of rice
Processed forms of rice
Selected rice dishes
Decoration

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