Black coucal

The black coucal (Centropus grillii) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family. It has a wide distribution in Africa south of the Sahara.

Black coucal
Centropus grillii, subvolwassene, Menongue, Birding Weto, a
Subadult in central Angola
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Cuculiformes
Family: Cuculidae
Genus: Centropus
Species:
C. grillii
Binomial name
Centropus grillii
Hartlaub, 1861

Description

The male black coucal is 30 cm (12 in) in length while the female is 34 cm (13 in), otherwise they are similar in appearance.[2] In breeding plumage the head, body and tail are black, apart from some buff barring on the rump, and the wings are rufous. Outside the breeding season, the upper parts are dark brown with rufous barring. The eyes are brown and the beak and legs are black. Juveniles are rufous with various dark and light barring and streaking.[3]

Distribution and habitat

It is found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, DRC, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.[1] It is resident in some locations and migrant in others. Its habitat is marshes, savannah, grassland, bracken, undergrowth, and clearings in woodland, and occasionally reeds and papyrus. It usually occurs below 1,500 m (5,000 ft) but occasionally up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[2]

Ecology

The species has the role of sexes reversed with the males tending the nest while females are polyandrous and maintain territories. Studies on the hormonal system show that progesterone is responsible for controlling the aggressiveness of females.[4]

Status

The black coucal is a generally uncommon bird with a very wide range. No particular threats have been identified and the population is believed to be steady, so the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Centropus grillii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b Erritzøe, Johannes; Mann, Clive F.; Brammer, Frederik; Fuller, Richard A. (2012). Cuckoos of the World. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4081-4267-7.
  3. ^ Payne, Robert B.; Sorensen, Michael D. (2005). The Cuckoos. OUP Oxford. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-19-850213-5.
  4. ^ Goymann, W., Wittenzellner, A., Schwabl, I., & Makomba, M. (2008, May 7). Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 275(1638):1053-1060.
Black-billed coucal

The black-billed coucal or lesser black coucal (Centropus bernsteini) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family. It is found in New Guinea.

Coucal

A coucal is one of about 30 species of birds in the cuckoo family. All of them belong in the subfamily Centropodinae and the genus Centropus. Unlike many Old World cuckoos, coucals are not brood parasites, though they do have their own reproductive peculiarity: all members of the genus are to varying degrees sex-role reversed so that the smaller male provides most of the parental care. At least one coucal species, the black coucal, is polyandrous. Some species (Centropus phasianinus) have the male investing more in incubation and parental care. Recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be raised to family status, as Centropodidae.

Cuckoo

The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes. The cuckoo family includes the common or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis. The coucals and anis are sometimes separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively. The cuckoo order Cuculiformes is one of three that make up the Otidimorphae, the other two being the turacos and the bustards.

The cuckoos are generally medium-sized slender birds. Most species live in trees, though a sizeable minority are ground-dwelling. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority of species being tropical. Some species are migratory. The cuckoos feed on insects, insect larvae and a variety of other animals, as well as fruit. Some species are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species, but the majority of species raise their own young.

Cuckoos have played a role in human culture for thousands of years, appearing in Greek mythology as sacred to the goddess Hera. In Europe, the cuckoo is associated with spring, and with cuckoldry, for example in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. In India, cuckoos are sacred to Kamadeva, the god of desire and longing, whereas in Japan, the cuckoo symbolises unrequited love.

Ivory-billed coucal

The ivory-billed coucal or greater black coucal (Centropus menbeki) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family. It is found in the Aru Islands and New Guinea. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Lesser coucal

The lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) is a species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae. It has a wide distribution range that overlaps with several other similar species. The habitat in which it is found is often marshy land with grass and tree cover. It is distinguished by its smaller size, less prominent bill, pale shaft streaks on the feathers of the head and back. It has a much longer claw on its hind toe and a distinct call. It is also among the few coucals that show season plumage differences but like in other coucals, the sexes cannot be distinguished in the field.

List of birds of Asia

The birds of Asia are diverse.

The taxonomy of this list adheres to James Clements' Birds of the World: A Checklist, 6th edition. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behaviour, and DNA, the order and number of families and species may change. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy).

The area covered by this list corresponds with the Asian listing area as defined by the American Birding Association[1]. The area includes Russia east of the Ural River and Ural Mountains and the Russian Arctic islands east of but not including Novaya Zemlya, as well as Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (except for the portion north of the Bosporus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles) and Cyprus. The area is separated from Africa by the Suez Canal. In the Indian Ocean it includes Sri Lanka, Lakshadweep (the Laccadive Islands), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but does not include Socotra (Africa), the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago and Christmas Island (all Indian Ocean). It includes the Russian islands in the Bering Sea and North Pacific. Japan, the Izu Islands (except Nampo Shoto and the Daitō Islands), the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and most of Indonesia. In Indonesia, the dividing line between Asia and Australasia runs through the Banda and Molucca Seas with Sulawesi, Banggai and Talaud on the Asian side, and the islands of Kai, Ceram, Buru, the Sula Group and Morotai on the Australasian side.

List of birds of Burkina Faso

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Burkina Faso. The avifauna of Burkina Faso include a total of 499 species, of which seven are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Burkina Faso and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Burkina Faso.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Burkina Faso

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Burkina Faso although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Equatorial Guinea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Equatorial Guinea. The avifauna of Equatorial Guinea include a total of 835 species, of which three are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Equatorial Guinea.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Equatorial Guinea

List of birds of Eswatini

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Eswatini. The avifauna of Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) include a total of 507 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and 52 are rare or accidental. Three species listed are extirpated in Eswatini and are not included in the species count. Eleven species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Eswatini.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Eswatini

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Eswatini as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Eswatini although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Ethiopia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ethiopia. The avifauna of Ethiopia include a total of 864 confirmed species as of June 2018. Of them, 25 are accidental, 17 are endemic, and one has been introduced by humans. An additional 16 species are hypothetical as defined below. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of iGoTerra.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ethiopia (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Ethiopia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ethiopia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species possibly present but which has not been documented.

List of birds of Indonesia

Indonesia, with its vast islands, tropical weather and rainforests is one of the world's richest and most important country in term of biodiversity. In addition to the many resident birds, of which the most important are the 380 endemics, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.

The list will be growing, since many new species are discovered every year in many unexplored areas of Indonesia. In December 2005, a honeyeater Melipotes carolae was discovered in Foja Mountains among other new animal and plant species.

In June 2011 there are 123 Indonesian bird species threatened, 18 were categorized as endangered while 31 others endangered and 74 vulnerable.

List of birds of Mali

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mali. The avifauna of Mali include a total of 606 species, of which one is endemic and nine are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Mali.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mali

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Mali

List of birds of Mozambique

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mozambique. The avifauna of Mozambique include a total of 740 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and thirteen are rare or accidental. Twenty species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Mozambique.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mozambique

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Mozambique as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Namibia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Namibia. The avifauna of Namibia include a total of 676 confirmed species, of which one is endemic, 15 are near endemic, four have been introduced by humans, and 56 are vagrants. An additional 35 species are unconfirmed and are not included in the total above.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Namibia Bird Records Committee (NBRC). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the NBRC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Namibia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Namibia

(NE) Near endemic - a species with "90% or more of its population in Namibia" per the NBRC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Namibia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population

(U) Unconfirmed - a "species reported to occur in Namibia but for which there is as yet no unequivocal evidence" per the NBRC

List of birds of Papua New Guinea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Papua New Guinea. The avifauna of Papua New Guinea include a total of 781 species, of which 76 are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and eighteen are rare or accidental. Twenty-eight species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Papua New Guinea.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Papua New Guinea

(E) Endemic - a species that is native only to Papua New Guinea

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Papua New Guinea as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Rwanda

This is a list of bird species recorded in Rwanda. The avifauna of Rwanda include a total of 703 confirmed species. 510 resident species. 183 visiting species (including vagrants and migrants). Ten species are considered extirpated in Rwanda.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) largely follows The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 update. However, in an attempt to make the list more accessible to a wide range of users several things have been done.

Scientific names follow those used in the linked articles.

Where there is an alternative common name (that may be used more frequently in the UK and East Africa) this is included after the Clements' common name.

Where subspecies or an eBird preferred taxon is available this is included e.g. yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava.

The species listed here are the same as used on the eBird in Rwanda.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Rwanda, where known the number of sightings for rare records is indicated.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Rwanda although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of the Gambia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Gambia. The avifauna of the Gambia include a total of 576 species, one of which has been introduced by humans and two of which are globally threatened. The country, which is very small and almost completely surrounded by Senegal, has no endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species will fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Gambia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Gambia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Nkasa Rupara National Park

Nkasa Rupara National Park, also Nkasa Lupala National Park, formerly Mamili National Park, is a national park in Namibia. It is centered on the Nkasa and Rupara islands on the Kwando/Linyanti River in the south-western corner of East Caprivi. Botswana lies to the west, south and east, and Sangwali village to the north. It is Namibia's largest formally protected wetland area.

It is one of Namibia’s protected areas that benefits local communities surrounding parks. The unfenced park forms a trans-boundary link for wildlife migration between Angola, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia. Nkasa Rupara is part of the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KaZa TFCA).

Sibley-Monroe checklist 4

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

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