Black Sox Scandal

The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball match fixing incident in which eight members of the Chicago White Sox were accused of intentionally losing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for money from a gambling syndicate led by Arnold Rothstein. The fallout from the scandal resulted in the appointment of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first Commissioner of Baseball, granting him absolute control over the sport in order to restore its integrity.

Despite acquittals in a public trial in 1921, Judge Landis permanently banned all eight men from professional baseball. The punishment was eventually defined to also include banishment from post-career honors such as consideration for the Baseball Hall of Fame. Despite requests for reinstatement in the decades that followed (particularly in the case of Shoeless Joe Jackson), the ban remains in force.[1]

Eight men banned
The eight "Chicago Black Sox"

Background

Tension in the clubhouse and Charles Comiskey

1919 Chicago White Sox
1919 Chicago White Sox team photo

White Sox club owner Charles Comiskey, himself a prominent MLB player from 1882–1894, was widely disliked by the players and was resented for his miserliness. Comiskey, who as a player had taken part in the Players' League labor rebellion in 1890, long had a reputation for underpaying his players, even though they were one of the top teams in the league and had already won the 1917 World Series.

Because of baseball's reserve clause, any player who refused to accept a contract was prohibited from playing baseball on any other professional team under the auspices of "Organized Baseball." Players could not change teams without permission from their current team, and without a union the players had no bargaining power. Comiskey was probably no worse than most owners—in fact, Chicago had the largest team payroll in 1919. In the era of the reserve clause, gamblers could find players on many teams looking for extra cash—and they did.[2][3]

In addition, the clubhouse was divided into two factions. One group resented the more straitlaced players (later called the "Clean Sox"), a group that included players like second baseman Eddie Collins, a graduate of Columbia College of Columbia University, catcher Ray Schalk, and pitchers Red Faber and Dickey Kerr. By contemporary accounts, the two factions rarely spoke to each other on or off the field, and the only thing they had in common was a resentment of Comiskey.[4]

Planning the conspiracy of the Black Sox Scandal

Chick gandil 1917
Chick Gandil, the mastermind of the scandal

A meeting of White Sox ballplayers—including those committed to going ahead and those just ready to listen—took place on September 21, in Chick Gandil's room at the Ansonia Hotel in New York. Buck Weaver was the only player to attend the meetings who did not receive money. Nevertheless, he was later banned with the others for knowing about the fix but not reporting it.

Although he hardly played in the series, utility infielder Fred McMullin got word of the fix and threatened to report the others unless he was in on the payoff. As a small coincidence, McMullin was a former teammate of William "Sleepy Bill" Burns, who had a minor role in the fix. Both had played for the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League,[5] and Burns had previously pitched for the White Sox in 1909 and 1910.[6] Star outfielder Shoeless Joe Jackson was mentioned as a participant but did not attend the meetings, and his involvement is disputed.

The scheme got an unexpected boost when the straitlaced Faber could not pitch due to a bout with the flu. Years later, Schalk said that if Faber had been available, the fix would have likely never happened, since Faber would have almost certainly started games that went instead to two of the alleged conspirators, Eddie Cicotte and Lefty Williams.[7]

On October 1, the day of Game One, there were rumors amongst gamblers that the series was fixed, and a sudden influx of money being bet on Cincinnati caused the odds against them to fall rapidly. These rumors also reached the press box where a number of correspondents, including Hugh Fullerton of the Chicago Herald and Examiner and ex-player and manager Christy Mathewson, resolved to compare notes on any plays and players that they felt were questionable.

However, most fans and observers were taking the series at face value. On October 2, the Philadelphia Bulletin published a poem which would quickly prove to be ironic:

Still, it really doesn't matter,
After all, who wins the flag.
Good clean sport is what we're after,
And we aim to make our brag
To each near or distant nation
Whereon shines the sporting sun
That of all our games gymnastic
Base ball is the cleanest one!

After throwing a strike with his first pitch of the Series, Cicotte's second pitch struck Cincinnati leadoff hitter Morrie Rath in the back, delivering a pre-arranged signal confirming the players' willingness to go through with the fix.[7] In the fourth inning, Cicotte made a bad throw to Swede Risberg at second base. Sportswriters found the unsuccessful double play to be suspicious.[8]

Lefty Williams, one of the "Eight Men Out", lost three games, a Series record. Rookie Dickie Kerr, who was not part of the fix, won both of his starts. But the gamblers were now reneging on their promised progress payments (to be paid after each game lost). The gamblers claimed that all the money was let out on bets, and was in the hands of the bookmakers. After Game 5, angry at non-payment of promised money, the players involved in the fix attempted to doublecross the gamblers, and won Games 6 and 7 of the best-of-nine Series. Before Game 8, threats of violence were made on the gamblers' behalf against players and family members.[9] Williams started Game 8, but gave up four straight one-out hits for three runs before manager Kid Gleason relieved him. The White Sox lost Game 8 (and the series) on October 9, 1919.[10] Besides Weaver, the players involved in the scandal received $5,000 each or more, with Gandil taking $35,000.

Fallout

Grand jury (1920)

The rumors dogged the White Sox throughout the 1920 season as they battled the Cleveland Indians for the American League pennant, and stories of corruption touched players on other clubs as well. At last, in September 1920, a grand jury was convened to investigate; Eddie Cicotte confessed to his participation in the scheme to the grand jury on September 28.[11]

On the eve of their final season series, the White Sox were in a virtual tie for first place with the Indians. The Sox would need to win all three of their remaining games and then hope for Cleveland to stumble, as the Indians had more games left to play than the White Sox. Despite the season being on the line, Comiskey suspended the seven White Sox still in the majors (Chick Gandil had not returned to the team in 1920 and was playing semi-pro ball). He said that he had no choice but to suspend them, even though this action likely cost the White Sox any chance of winning that year's American League pennant. The White Sox lost two of the three games in the final series against the St. Louis Browns and finished in second place, two games behind Cleveland.

The grand jury handed down its decision on October 22, 1920, and eight players and five gamblers were implicated. The indictments included nine counts of conspiracy to defraud.[12] The ten players not implicated in the gambling scandal, as well as manager Kid Gleason, were each given bonus checks in the amount of $1,500 (equivalent to $18,800 in 2018) by Comiskey in the fall of 1920, the amount equaling the difference between the winners' and losers' share for participation in the 1919 World Series.[13]

Trial (1921)

Weaver-risberg-flip
Infielders Swede Risberg (left) and Buck Weaver during their 1921 trial

The trial began on June 27, 1921 in Chicago, but was delayed by Judge Hugo Friend because two defendants, Ben Franklin and Carl Zork, claimed to be ill.[14] Player Shano Collins was named as the wronged party in the indictments, accusing his corrupt teammates of having cost him $1,784 as a result of the scandal.[15] Before the trial, key evidence went missing from the Cook County courthouse, including the signed confessions of Cicotte and Jackson, who subsequently recanted their confessions. Some years later, the missing confessions reappeared in the possession of Comiskey's lawyer.[16]

On July 1, the prosecution announced that former White Sox player "Sleepy Bill" Burns, who was under indictment for his part in the scandal, had turned state's evidence and would testify.[17] During jury selection on July 11, several members of the current White Sox team, including Manager Kid Gleason, visited the courthouse, chatting and shaking hands with the indicted ex-players; at one point they even tickled Buck Weaver, who was known to be quite ticklish.[18] Jury selection took several days, but on July 15 twelve jurors were finally empaneled in the case.[19]

Trial testimony began on July 18, 1921, when prosecutor Charles Gorman outlined the evidence he planned to present against the defendants:

The spectators added to the bleacher appearance of the courtroom, for most of them sweltered in shirtsleeves, and collars were few. Scores of small boys jammed their way into the seats and as Mr. Gorman told of the alleged sell-out, they repeatedly looked at each other in awe, remarking under their breaths: 'What do you think of that?' or 'Well, I'll be darned.'[20]

White Sox President Charles Comiskey was then called to the stand, and became so agitated with questions being posed by the defense that he rose from the witness chair and shook his fist at the defendants' counsel, Ben Short.[21]

The most explosive testimony began the following day, July 19, when "Sleepy Bill" Burns took the stand, admitting that members of the White Sox had intentionally fixed the 1919 World Series; Burns mentioned the involvement of Rothstein among others, and testified that Eddie Cicotte had threatened to throw the ball clear out of the park if needed to lose a game.[22] After additional testimony and evidence, on July 28 the defense rested and the case went to the jury.[23] The jury deliberated for less than three hours before returning verdicts of not guilty on all charges for all of the accused players.[12]

Landis appointed Commissioner, bans all eight players (1921)

Landis is hired
Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis signs the agreement to become Commissioner of Baseball, November 12, 1920.

Long before the scandal broke, many of baseball's owners had nursed longstanding grievances with the way the game was then governed by the National Commission.[24] The scandal and the damage it caused to the game's reputation gave owners the resolve to make major changes to the governance of the sport.[24] The owners' original plan was to appoint the widely respected federal judge and noted baseball fan Kenesaw Mountain Landis to head a reformed three-member National Commission.[24] But when Landis made it clear to the owners that he would only accept an appointment as the game's sole Commissioner, and even then only on the condition that he be granted essentially unchecked power over the sport, the owners agreed to appoint him as the first Commissioner of Baseball with virtually unlimited authority over every person in both the major and minor leagues.[24] Upon taking office prior to the 1921 Major League Baseball season, one of Landis' first acts as Commissioner was to use the powers granted to him by the owners to place the eight accused players on an "ineligible list", a decision that effectively left them suspended indefinitely from all of "organized" professional baseball (although not from semipro barnstorming teams).

Following the players' acquittals, Landis was quick to quash any prospect that he might reinstate the implicated players. On August 3, 1921, the day after the players were acquitted, the Commissioner issued his own verdict:

Regardless of the verdict of juries, no player who throws a ball game, no player who undertakes or promises to throw a ball game, no player who sits in confidence with a bunch of crooked ballplayers and gamblers, where the ways and means of throwing a game are discussed and does not promptly tell his club about it, will ever play professional baseball again.[25]

Making use of a precedent that had previously seen Babe Borton, Harl Maggert, Gene Dale, and Bill Rumler banned from the Pacific Coast League for match fixing,[26] Landis made it clear that all eight accused players would remain on the "ineligible list", banning them from organized baseball. The Commissioner took the line that while the players had been acquitted in court, there was no dispute they had broken the rules of baseball, and none of them could ever be allowed back in the game if it were to regain the trust of the public. Comiskey supported Landis by giving the seven who remained under contract to the White Sox their unconditional release.

Following the Commissioner's statement it was universally understood that all eight implicated White Sox players were to be banned from Major League Baseball for life. Two other players believed to be involved were also banned. One of them was Hal Chase, who had been effectively blackballed from the majors in 1919 for a long history of throwing games and had spent 1920 in the minors. He was rumored to have been a go-between for Gandil and the gamblers, though it has never been confirmed. Regardless of this, it was understood that Landis' announcement not only formalized his 1919 blacklisting from the majors, but barred him from the minors as well.

Landis, relying upon his years of experience as a Federal Court Judge and attorney, used this decision (this "case") as the founding precedent (of the reorganized league) for the Commissioner of Baseball, to be the highest, and final authority over this organized professional sport in the United States. He established the precedent, that the Commissioner of Baseball was invested by the league with plenary power; and the responsibility, to determine the fitness or suitability of anyone, anything, or any circumstance, to be associated with professional baseball, past, present, and future.

Banned players

Eight members of the White Sox baseball team were banned by Landis for their involvement in the fix:

  • Arnold "Chick" Gandil, first baseman. The leader of the players who were in on the fix. He did not play in the majors in 1920, playing semi-pro ball instead. In a 1956 Sports Illustrated article, he expressed remorse for the scheme, but wrote that the players had actually abandoned it when it became apparent they were going to be watched closely. According to Gandil, the players' numerous errors were a result of fear that they were being watched.[27][28]
  • Eddie Cicotte, pitcher. Admitted involvement in the fix.[11]
  • Oscar "Happy" Felsch, center fielder.
  • "Shoeless" Joe Jackson, the star outfielder, one of the best hitters in the game, confessed in sworn grand jury testimony to having accepted $5,000 cash from the gamblers. It was also Jackson’s sworn testimony that he never met or spoke to any of the gamblers and was only told about the fix through conversations with other White Sox players. The other White Sox players that were in on the fix informed him that he would be getting $20,000 cash divided up in equal payments after each loss. Jackson’s testimony was that he played to win in the entire Series and did nothing on the field to throw any of the games in any way. His roommate, pitcher Lefty Williams, brought $5,000 cash up to their hotel room after losing game 4 in Chicago, and threw it down as they were packing to leave to travel back to Cincinnati and this was the only money that Jackson received at any time.[29] He later recanted his confession and protested his innocence to no effect until his death in 1951. The extent of Jackson's collaboration with the scheme is hotly controversial.[7]
  • Fred McMullin, utility infielder. McMullin would not have been included in the fix had he not overheard the other players' conversations. His role as team scout may have had more impact on the fix, since he saw minimal playing time in the series.
  • Charles "Swede" Risberg, shortstop. Risberg was Gandil's assistant and the "muscle" of the playing group. He went 2-for-25 at the plate and committed four errors in the series.
  • George "Buck" Weaver, third baseman. Weaver attended the initial meetings, and while he did not go in on the fix, he knew about it. In an interview in 1956, Chick Gandil said that it was Weaver's idea to get the money up front from the gamblers.[12] Landis banished him on this basis, stating "Men associating with crooks and gamblers could expect no leniency." On January 13, 1922, Weaver unsuccessfully applied for reinstatement. Like Jackson, Weaver continued to profess his innocence to successive baseball commissioners to no effect.
  • Claude "Lefty" Williams, pitcher. Went 0–3 with a 6.63 ERA for the series. Only one other pitcher in baseball history, reliever George Frazier of the 1981 New York Yankees has ever lost three games in one World Series. The third game Williams lost was Game Eight – baseball's decision to revert to a best of seven Series in 1922 significantly reduced the opportunity for a pitcher to obtain three decisions in a Series.

Also banned was Joe Gedeon, second baseman for the St. Louis Browns. Gedeon placed bets since he learned of the fix from Risberg, a friend of his. He informed Comiskey of the fix after the Series in an effort to gain a reward. He was banned for life by Landis along with the eight White Sox, and died in 1941.[30]

The indefinite suspensions imposed by Landis in relation to the Black Sox Scandal were the most suspensions of any duration to be simultaneously imposed until 2013 when thirteen player suspensions of between 50 and 211 games were announced following the doping-related Biogenesis scandal.

Joe Jackson

The extent of Joe Jackson's part in the conspiracy remains controversial. Jackson maintained that he was innocent. He had a Series-leading .375 batting average – including the Series' only home run – threw out five baserunners, and handled 30 chances in the outfield with no errors. In general, baseball players perform worse in games their team loses, and Jackson batted worse in the five games that the White Sox lost, with a batting average of .286 in those games. This was still an above-average batting average (the National and American Leagues hit a combined .263 in the 1919 season).[31] Jackson hit .351 for the season, fourth best in the major leagues (his .356 career batting average is the third best in history, surpassed only by his contemporaries Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby).[32] Three of his six RBIs came in the losses, including the aforementioned home run, and a double in Game 8 when the Reds had a large lead and the series was all but over. Still, in that game a long foul ball was caught at the fence with runners on second and third, depriving Jackson of a chance to drive in the runners.

One play in particular has been subjected to scrutiny. In the fifth inning of Game 4, with a Cincinnati player on second, Jackson fielded a single hit to left field and threw home, which was cut off by Cicotte. Chick Gandil, another leader of the fix, later admitted to yelling at Cicotte to intercept the throw. The run scored and the White Sox lost the game, 2–0.[33] Cicotte, whose guilt is undisputed, made two errors in that fifth inning alone.

Another argument, presented in the book Eight Men Out, is that because Jackson was largely illiterate, he had little awareness of the seriousness of the plot, and thus he consented to it only when Risberg threatened him and his family.

Years later, all of the implicated players said that Jackson was never present at any of the meetings they had with the gamblers. Lefty Williams, Jackson's roommate, later said that they only brought up Jackson in hopes of giving them more credibility with the gamblers.[7]

Aftermath

After being banned, Risberg and several other members of the Black Sox tried to organize a three-state barnstorming tour. However, they were forced to cancel those plans after Landis let it be known that anyone who played with or against them would also be banned from baseball for life. They then announced plans to play a regular exhibition game every Sunday in Chicago, but the Chicago City Council threatened to cancel the license of any ballpark that hosted them.[7]

With seven of their best players permanently sidelined, the White Sox crashed into seventh place in 1921 and would not be a factor in a pennant race again until 1936, five years after Comiskey's death. They would not win another American League championship until 1959 (a then-record 40-year gap) nor another World Series until 2005, prompting some to comment about a Curse of the Black Sox.

Name

Although many believe the Black Sox name to be related to the dark and corrupt nature of the conspiracy, the term "Black Sox" may already have existed before the fix. There is a story that the name "Black Sox" derived from parsimonious owner Charles Comiskey's refusal to pay for the players' uniforms to be laundered, instead insisting that the players themselves pay for the cleaning. As the story goes, the players refused and subsequent games saw the White Sox play in progressively filthier uniforms as dirt, sweat and grime collected on the white, woolen uniforms until they took on a much darker shade. Comiskey then had the uniforms washed and deducted the laundry bill from the players' salaries.[34] On the other hand, Eliot Asinof in his book Eight Men Out makes no such connection, mentioning the filthy uniforms early on but referring to the term "Black Sox" only in connection with the scandal.

Popular culture

Literature

  • Eliot Asinof's book Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series is the best-known history of the scandal.
  • Brendan Boyd's novel Blue Ruin: A Novel of the 1919 World Series offers a first-person narrative of the event from the perspective of Sport Sullivan, a Boston gambler involved in fixing the series.
  • Mark Allen Baker's book The Fighting Times of Abe Attell is the first biography on the former featherweight champion and details his life and relationship to the scandal.
  • In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, a minor character named Meyer Wolfsheim was said to have helped in the Black Sox scandal, though this is purely fictional. In explanatory notes accompanying the novel's 75th anniversary edition, editor Matthew Bruccoli describes the character as being directly based on Arnold Rothstein.
  • In Dan Gutman's novel Shoeless Joe & Me (2002), the protagonist, Joe, goes back in time to try to prevent Shoeless Joe from being banned for life.
  • W. P. Kinsella's novel Shoeless Joe is the story of an Iowa farmer who builds a baseball field in his cornfield after hearing a mysterious voice. Later, Shoeless Joe Jackson and other members of the Black Sox come to play on his field. The novel was adapted into the 1989 hit film Field of Dreams. Joe Jackson plays a central role in inspiring protagonist Ray Kinsella to reconcile with his past.
  • Bernard Malamud's 1952 novel The Natural and its 1984 filmed dramatization of the same name were inspired significantly by the events of the scandal.
  • Harry Stein's novel Hoopla, alternatingly co-narrated by Buck Weaver and Luther Pond, a fictitious New York Daily News columnist, attempts to view the Black Sox Scandal from Weaver's perspective.
  • Dan Elish's book The Black Sox Scandal of 1919 gives a general overview of the events involved while not going in-depth about any particular area of the scandal.
  • The Black Sox Scandal: The History And Legacy Of America's Most Notorious Sports Controversy by Charles River Editors talks about the events surrounding the scandal and gives a detailed description of each person involved in the scandal.
  • "Go! Go! Go! Forty Years Ago" Nelson Algren, Chicago Sun-Times,1959
  • "Ballet for Opening Day: The Swede Was a Hard Guy" Algren, Nelson. The Southern Review, Baton Rouge. Spring 1942: p. 873.
  • "The Last Carousel" © Nelson Algren, 1973, Seven Stories Press, New York 1997 (both Algren stories are included in this collection)

Film

Television

Music

Theatre

"Say it ain't so, Joe"

After the grand jury returned its indictments, Charley Owens of the Chicago Daily News wrote a regretful tribute directed at Jackson headlined, "Say it ain't so, Joe."[37] The phrase became legend when another reporter later erroneously attributed it to a child outside the courthouse:

When Jackson left the criminal court building in the custody of a sheriff after telling his story to the grand jury, he found several hundred youngsters, aged from 6 to 16, waiting for a glimpse of their idol. One child stepped up to the outfielder, and, grabbing his coat sleeve, said:

"It ain't true, is it, Joe?"
"Yes, kid, I'm afraid it is", Jackson replied. The boys opened a path for the ball player and stood in silence until he passed out of sight.

"Well, I'd never have thought it," sighed the lad.[38]

In an interview in Sport nearly three decades later, Jackson confirmed that the legendary exchange never occurred.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ Owens, John. "Buck Weaver's family pushes to get 'Black Sox' player reinstated". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  2. ^ "The Black Sox". chicagohs.org. Archived from the original on November 24, 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  3. ^ Douglas Linder (2010). "The Black Sox Trial: An Account".
  4. ^ "The White Sox at". 1919blacksox.com. Archived from the original on July 26, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  5. ^ http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/blacksox/blacksoxaccount.html http://www.1919blacksox.com/mcmullin2.htm
  6. ^ "Baseball Reference". Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e Purdy, Dennis (2006). The Team-by-Team Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York City: Workman. ISBN 0-7611-3943-5.
  8. ^ Weschler, Lawrence (September 14, 2016). "The Discovery, and Remarkable Recovery, of the King Tut's Tomb of Silent-Era Cinema". Vanity Fair.
  9. ^ Linder, Douglas (2010). "The Black Sox Trial: An Account". Law.umkc.edu. Retrieved November 4, 2016. Asinof's Eight Men Out includes a dramatic, but entirely fictional, report of what happened before the Game Eight. Asinof admitted in 2003 that the story was made up ... Threats were, however, made.
  10. ^ "1919 World Series". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Chicotte Tells What His Orders Were in Series". Minnesota Daily Star. September 29, 1920. p. 5.
  12. ^ a b c Linder, Douglas. "Famous American Trials". The Black Sox Trial: An Account. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  13. ^ "Honest White Sox Get $1,500 Apiece for 1919 Loses". Minnesota Daily Star. October 5, 1920. p. 5.
  14. ^ "New Setback Halts Ball Players' Trial". The New York Times. June 28, 1921. p. 7. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  15. ^ Linder, Doug (July 5, 1921). "Indictment & Bill of Particulars in People of Illinois v Cicotte (The Black Sox Trial): Indictments". Law.umkc.edu. Archived from the original on May 24, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  16. ^ Eight Men Out. pp. 289–291.
  17. ^ "Ex-White Sox Player Turns State Evidence". The New York Times. July 2, 1921. p. 7. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  18. ^ "White Sox Players Greet Indicted Men". The New York Times. July 12, 1912. p. 13. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  19. ^ "Jury is Completed for Baseball Trial". The New York Times. July 16, 1921. p. 5. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  20. ^ "Came Near Blows at Baseball Trial". The New York Times. July 19, 1921. p. 16. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  21. ^ "Came Near Blows at Baseball Trial". The New York Times. July 19, 1921. p. 16. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  22. ^ "Burns Tells Story of Plot to Throw 1919 World Series". The New York Times. July 20, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  23. ^ "Defense Rests Case in Baseball Trial". The New York Times. July 29, 1921. p. 28. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d Leifer, Eric M. (1998). Making the majors: The transformation of team sports in America. Harvard University Press. p. 88-89. ISBN 978-0674543317.
  25. ^ "The Chicago Black Sox banned from baseball". ESPN. November 19, 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  26. ^ Gene Dale at the SABR Baseball Biography Project, by Bill Lamb, Retrieved January 10, 2013.
  27. ^ Chick Gandil at the SABR Baseball Biography Project, by Daniel Ginsburg, Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  28. ^ Gandil, Arnold (Chick) (September 17, 1956). "This is My Story of the Black Sox Series". Sports Illustrated.
  29. ^ Jackson, Joe (September 28, 1920). "Before the Grand Jury of Cook County In the Matter of the Investigation of Alleged Baseball Scandal". Baseball Almanac (Interview). Interviewed by Hartley L. Replogle. Miami, Florida: Baseball Almanac, Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  30. ^ Joe Gedeon at the SABR Baseball Biography Project, by Rick Swaine, Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  31. ^ "League Year-by-Year Batting". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  32. ^ "Shoeless Joe Jackson Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com.
  33. ^ Arnold "Chick" Gandil (as told to Mel Durslag), "This is My Story of the Black Sox Series", Sports Illustrated, September 17, 1956
  34. ^ Burns, Ken (Director) (1994). Baseball: Inning 3 (PBS Television miniseries). PBS. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  35. ^ https://archive.org/details/1919ABaseballOpera
  36. ^ https://www.minnpost.com/arts-culture/2019/03/minnesota-operas-the-fix-recounts-the-world-series-scandal-of-1919/
  37. ^ ""Black Sox" trial, 1921: "Say it ain't so, Joe"". Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  38. ^ "'It Ain't True, Is It, Joe?' Youngster Asks". Minnesota Daily Star. September 29, 1920. p. 5.
  39. ^ "Shoeless Joe Jackson Virtual Hall of Fame – 1949 Sport Magazine Interview". Black Betsy.

Sources

External links

1919 Chicago White Sox season

The 1919 Chicago White Sox season was their 19th season in the American League. They won 88 games to advance to the World Series but lost to the Cincinnati Reds. More significantly, some of the players were found to have taken money from gamblers in return for throwing the series. The "Black Sox Scandal" had permanent ramifications for baseball, including the establishment of the office of Commissioner of Baseball.

1920 Major League Baseball season

The 1920 Major League Baseball season, was the first to be presided over by the newly created office of Baseball Commissioner. In the wake of the Black Sox scandal, the credibility of baseball had been tarnished with the public and fans and the owners of the teams clamored for credibility to be restored. A three-person National Commission ran the major and minor leagues – composed of the American League President, National League President, and one team owner – but the owners felt that creating one position with near-unlimited authority was the answer. In the World Series, the Cleveland Indians triumphed over the Brooklyn Robins, 5–2.

1921 Chicago White Sox season

The 1921 Chicago White Sox season involved the White Sox attempting to win the American League pennant. However, with the core of the team banned after the Black Sox Scandal broke, they fell back to seventh place.

Abe Attell

Abraham Washington "Abe" Attell (February 22, 1883 – February 7, 1970), often referred to by newspapers as "The Little Hebrew", was a boxer who became known for his record-setting, six year consecutive reign as World Featherweight Champion from 1906-1912, and his nearly consecutive ten-year reign starting in 1902. Said to be a friend of the gangster Arnold Rothstein, Attell was charged with game fixing in the Black Sox Scandal in 1919, but the charges were dismissed before trial. He also was suspected of other infractions including fixing fights, and using drugs during a fight.

Bill Burns (baseball)

William Thomas "Bill" Burns (January 27, 1880 – June 6, 1953), nicknamed "Sleepy Bill," was an American baseball player who played as a pitcher in Major League Baseball for five different teams from 1908 to 1912. Burns earned his nickname for his noticeable lack of intensity on the mound.Burns is best known for his involvement in the alleged fixing of the 1919 Chicago White Sox World Series, dubbed the Black Sox Scandal.

In his five-year career, Burns played for the Washington Senators, Chicago White Sox, Cincinnati Reds, Philadelphia Phillies, and Detroit Tigers. In his rookie season, 1908, Burns had a 1.69 earned run average (ERA) which was sixth best in the American League. However, he had a career record of 30–52 as a pitcher and never won more than eight games in a season.

Pitching against the Tigers on May 21, 1908, Burns' bid for a no-hitter ended after 8 2/3 innings when Germany Schaefer singled to drive in the game's only run. On July 31, 1909, now pitching for the White Sox against Walter Johnson and the Senators, Burns again was one out from a no-hitter when it was broken up. This made him the first pitcher in baseball history to suffer this fate twice, a feat not repeated until Dave Stieb lost no-hitters with two outs in the ninth inning in consecutive starts on September 24 and 30, 1988. Yu Darvish would have become the third on May 9, 2014

, but a seventh-inning error was officially re-scored as a hit five days later after an appeal by David Ortiz

. Stieb would go on to break Burns's record on August 4, 1989, this time losing a perfect game with one out to go.

Billy Maharg

William Joseph Maharg, also known as William Joseph Graham, (March 19, 1881 – November 20, 1953) was a professional boxer that has three distinct historical connections with Major League Baseball—first, as a replacement player in the 1912 Detroit Tigers' players strike; second, for a one-game stint with the Philadelphia Phillies in 1916, and third, for his role in the 1919 Chicago Black Sox Scandal.

Chick Gandil

Charles Arnold "Chick" Gandil (January 19, 1888 – December 13, 1970) was a professional baseball player. He played for the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, and Chicago White Sox of the American League. He is best known as the ringleader of the players involved in the 1919 Black Sox scandal. Described by his contemporaries as a "professional malcontent", he was physically well-built at 6'2" and 195 pounds, and had a mean and callous expression. He used both to display his toughness, and also did not hesitate to use sheer strength to get his point across.

Eddie Cicotte

Edward Victor Cicotte (; June 19, 1884 – May 5, 1969), nicknamed "Knuckles", was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball best known for his time with the Chicago White Sox. He was one of eight players permanently ineligible for professional baseball for his alleged participation in the Black Sox scandal in the 1919 World Series, in which the favored White Sox lost to the Cincinnati Reds in eight games. The "fixing" of the 1919 World Series is the only recognized gambling scandal to tarnish a World Series.

Eddie Murphy (baseball)

John Edward Murphy (October 2, 1891 – February 21, 1969), nicknamed "Honest Eddie", was an American professional baseball right fielder. He played in Major League Baseball for the Philadelphia Athletics, Chicago White Sox and Pittsburgh Pirates.

He appeared in three World Series. His first two were with the Athletics in 1913 and 1914 World Series. Murphy appeared in the 1919 World Series as a member of the Chicago White Sox, a series best known for the Black Sox Scandal.

Fred McMullin

Fred Drury McMullin (October 13, 1891 – November 20, 1952) was an American Major League Baseball third baseman. He is best known for his involvement in the 1919 Black Sox scandal.

Hugh Fullerton

Hugh Stuart Fullerton III (10 September 1873 – 27 December 1945) was an American sportswriter in the first half of the 20th century. He was one of the founders of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. He is best remembered for his role in uncovering the 1919 "Black Sox" Scandal. Studs Terkel played Fullerton in the film Eight Men Out.

Jean Dubuc

Jean Joseph Octave Dubuc (September 15, 1888 – August 28, 1958), sometimes known by the nickname "Chauncey", was a right-handed American baseball pitcher, manager, and scout, and a coach of both baseball and ice hockey.

A native of Vermont, Dubuc played professional baseball for 17 years between 1908 and 1926, including nine seasons in Major League Baseball with the Cincinnati Reds (1908–1909), Detroit Tigers (1912–1916), Boston Red Sox (1918), and New York Giants (1919). During his major league career, he had an 85–76 win–loss record with a 3.04 earned run average (ERA). His best season was 1912 when he compiled a 17–10 record with a 2.77 ERA.

During the investigation of the Black Sox Scandal, he was implicated for having "guilty knowledge" of the fix. He later served as the coach of the Brown University baseball team in the 1920s and worked as a scout for the Detroit Tigers in the late 1920s and 1930. He was responsible for signing Birdie Tebbetts and Hank Greenberg.

Joseph J. Sullivan

Joseph J. "Sport" Sullivan (November 2, 1870 – April 6, 1949) was an American bookmaker and gambler from Boston, Massachusetts who helped to initiate the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.

Kid Gleason

William Jethro "Kid" Gleason (October 26, 1866 – January 2, 1933) was an American Major League Baseball player and manager. Gleason managed the Chicago White Sox from 1919 through 1923. His first season as a major league manager was notable for his team's appearance in the World Series and the ensuing Black Sox Scandal, but Gleason was not involved in the scandal. After leaving the White Sox, Gleason was on the coaching staff for the Philadelphia Athletics until 1931.

Lefty Williams

Claude Preston "Lefty" Williams (March 9, 1893 – November 4, 1959) was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball. He is probably best known for his involvement in the 1919 World Series fix, known as the Black Sox Scandal.

Shano Collins

John Francis "Shano" Collins (December 4, 1885 – September 10, 1955) was an American right fielder and first baseman in Major League Baseball for the Chicago White Sox and Boston Red Sox.

In 1910, Collins played first base for the White Sox, but he was quickly moved to right field, where he would enjoy a reputation for having one of the strongest throwing arms in baseball. He won a World Series with the Sox in 1917, delivering the game-winning hit in the pennant-clinching game. He batted .286 (6 for 21) in the 1917 World Series, going 3-for-4 in Game 1. In 1918, he set a record with three bases-loaded triples in one season, which would stand alone for 31 years until Elmer Valo tied the mark in 1949. Collins still holds the MLB career record of eight triples with the bases loaded.During the notorious 1919 World Series, tainted by the Black Sox Scandal, Collins went 4-for-16 at the plate for the White Sox. He was not among those implicated in the scandal.

In 1921, he was traded to the Red Sox, with whom he finished his career. In 1930, he was named manager of the Red Sox, but he only won a total of 73 games in parts of two seasons. He was fired after 55 games in 1931.

In the indictments of the key figures in the Black Sox scandal, Collins is named as the wronged party. The indictment claims that by throwing the World Series the alleged conspirators defrauded him of $1,784 dollars.Collins died in Newton, Massachusetts, at age 69.

Shoeless Joe (novel)

Shoeless Joe is a 1982 magic realist novel by Canadian author W. P. Kinsella which became better known due to its 1989 film adaptation, Field of Dreams. The book was written when Kinsella attended the Iowa Writers' Workshop, and decided to incorporate the stories he told about the Black Sox Scandal, imagining if Shoeless Joe Jackson came back to the same city Kinsella was living in, Iowa City.

Shoeless Joe Jackson

Joseph Jefferson Jackson (July 16, 1887 – December 5, 1951), nicknamed "Shoeless Joe", was an American star outfielder who played Major League Baseball (MLB) in the early 1900s. He is remembered for his performance on the field and for his alleged association with the Black Sox Scandal, in which members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series. As a result of Jackson's association with the scandal, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Major League Baseball's first commissioner, banned Jackson from playing after the 1920 season despite exceptional play in the 1919 World Series, leading both teams in several statistical categories and setting a World Series record with 12 base hits. Since then, Jackson's guilt has been fiercely debated with new accounts claiming his innocence, urging Major League Baseball to reconsider his banishment. As a result of the scandal, Jackson's career was abruptly halted in his prime, ensuring him a place in baseball lore.

Jackson played for three Major League teams during his 12-year career. He spent 1908–1909 as a member of the Philadelphia Athletics and 1910 with the minor league New Orleans Pelicans before joining the Cleveland Naps at the end of the 1910 season. He remained in Cleveland through the first part of 1915; he played the remainder of the 1915 season through 1920 with the Chicago White Sox. Later in life, Jackson played ball under assumed names throughout the south.

Jackson, who played left field for most of his career, currently has the third-highest career batting average in major league history. In 1911, Jackson hit for a .408 average. It is still the sixth-highest single-season total since 1901, which marked the beginning of the modern era for the sport. His average that year also set the record for batting average in a single season by a rookie. Babe Ruth said that he modeled his hitting technique after Jackson's.Jackson still holds the Indians and White Sox franchise records for both triples in a season and career batting average. In 1999, he ranked number 35 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players and was nominated as a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. The fans voted him as the 12th-best outfielder of all-time. He also ranks 33rd on the all-time list for non-pitchers according to the win shares formula developed by Bill James.

Tom Seaton

Thomas Gordon Seaton (August 30, 1887 – April 10, 1940), he was signed in 1909 as a pitcher by the Portland, Oregon baseball team in the Pacific Coast League. In 1910 he was part of a pitching staff that included Gene Krapp, Jack Graney, Bill Steen and Vean Gregg. The Philadelphia Phillies drafted Seaton in 1912.

After struggling through a mediocre season in 1912, Seaton became a dominating pitcher in 1913 appearing in 52 games and compiling a 27–12 record in 322 innings. After a dispute involving his wife and the Phillies, Seaton signed with the Brooklyn Tip-Tops of the Federal League. Seaton went 25–14 that year. Seaton struggled in 1915.

After the Federal League folded after the 1915 season, Seaton pitched for the Chicago Cubs. He eventually was released and returned to the Pacific Coast League.

After the Black Sox Scandal of 1919, Seaton and Luther "Casey" Smith were released in May 1920 due to rumors "...regarding the practices of the players (Seaton and Smith) and their associates."

He died April 10, 1940.

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