The Black Music Research Journal is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of the Center for Black Music Research at the University of Illinois. It covers the philosophy, aesthetics, history, and criticism of black music. It was established in 1980 and the editor-in-chief is Horace J. Maxile, Jr. (Columbia College Chicago).
|Black Music Research Journal|
|Edited by||Gayle M. Murchison|
University of Illinois Press (United States)
|Black Music Res. J.|
"April in Paris" is a popular song composed by Vernon Duke with lyrics by Yip Harburg in 1932 for the Broadway musical Walk a Little Faster. The original 1933 hit was performed by Freddy Martin, and the 1952 remake (inspired by the movie of the same name) was by the Sauter-Finegan Orchestra, whose version made the Cashbox Top 50.
Composer Alec Wilder writes, "There are no two ways about it: this is a perfect theater song. If that sounds too reverent, then I'll reduce the praise to 'perfectly wonderful,' or else say that if it's not perfect, show me why it isn't."Freddy Martin and Henry King had the earliest hits of this song, at the very end of 1933.It has been performed by many artists, including Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Billy Eckstine, Bill Evans, Charlie Parker, Coleman Hawkins, Frank Sinatra, Mary Kaye Trio, Billie Holiday, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Erroll Garner, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan, Benny Goodman, Dinah Shore, Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Joni James, Blossom Dearie, Doris Day, Alex Chilton, Wynton Marsalis, Andy Williams, Amanda Thorpe, Michel Legrand, and Dawn Upshaw. Basie's 1955 recording is the most famous, and that particular performance was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. On this recording, trumpeter Thad Jones played his famous "Pop Goes the Weasel" solo, trombonist Benny Powell performed his much noted bridge, and Basie directs the band to play the short chorus "one more time" and then "one more once."
Shirley Bassey recorded the song for her 1959 album "The Fabulous Shirley Bassey".
Sammy Davis Jr. recorded the song for his album "When the Feeling Hits You!" (1965)The song is also featured in the film Blazing Saddles from 1974, being played by Count Basie in a cameo appearance. Basie's recording is also featured in the video game Grand Theft Auto IV, on the fictional jazz radio station JNR 108.5.Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians
The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1965 in Chicago by pianist Muhal Richard Abrams, pianist Jodie Christian, drummer Steve McCall, and composer Phil Cohran. The AACM is devoted "to nurturing, performing, and recording serious, original music," according to its charter. It supports and encourages jazz performers, composers and educators. Although founded in the jazz tradition, the group's outreach and influence has, according to Larry Blumenfeld, "touched nearly all corners of modern music."Bessemer, Virginia
Bessemer is an unincorporated community in Botetourt County, Virginia, United States. It was the birthplace of labor leader Frank Fairfax.Black, Brown and Beige
Black, Brown and Beige is an extended jazz work written by Duke Ellington for his first concert at Carnegie Hall, on January 23, 1943. Ellington introduced it at Carnegie Hall as "a parallel to the history of the Negro in America." It was Ellington's longest and most ambitious composition.Blind Lemon Jefferson
Lemon Henry "Blind Lemon" Jefferson (September 24, 1893 – December 19, 1929) was an American blues and gospel singer, songwriter, and musician. He was one of the most popular blues singers of the 1920s and has been called the "Father of the Texas Blues".Jefferson's performances were distinctive because of his high-pitched voice and the originality of his guitar playing. His recordings sold well, but he was not a strong influence on younger blues singers of his generation, who could not imitate him as easily as they could other commercially successful artists. Later blues and rock and roll musicians, however, did attempt to imitate both his songs and his musical style.Frank Fairfax
Frank Thurmond Fairfax (25 November 1899 – 25 January 1972) was the organizer of Philadelphia's Protective Union Local 274 (1935–1971), a charter of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM/AFofM) for black musicians. Fairfax was also a bandleader, musician, music arranger and songwriter, performing in Philadelphia and other northeastern cities.Henry Wehrmann
Henry Wehrmann was an American engraver of the 19th century. With his wife, he became a successful engraver in the South in the early 1850s and throughout the American Civil War. He also published a collection of Louisiana Creole songs.Jeffrey Green
Jeffrey P. Green (born 1944) is a south London-based British historian and writer, who has been particularly active in researching and documenting the Black British experience.Kansas City jazz
Kansas City jazz is a style of jazz that developed in Kansas City, Missouri during the 1920s and 1930s, which marked the transition from the structured big band style to the musical improvisation style of Bebop. The hard-swinging, bluesy transition style is bracketed by Count Basie who in 1929 signed with the Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra and Kansas City native Charlie Parker who ushered in the Bebop style in America. "While New Orleans was the birthplace of jazz, America's music grew up in Kansas City". Kansas City is known as one of the most popular "cradles of jazz". Other cities include New Orleans, Chicago, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and New York City. Kansas City was known for the organized musicians of the Local 627 A.F.M., which controlled a number of venues in the city.List of Caribbean idiophones
Historically, idiophones (percussion instruments without membranes or strings) have been widespread throughout the Caribbean music area, which encompasses the islands and coasts of the Caribbean Sea. Some areas of South America that are not geographically part of the Caribbean, but are culturally associated with its traditions, such as Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and parts of Brazil are also taken into account.
Although some idiophones such as the mayohuacán and probably the maraca already existed among the indigenous Taíno population of the Greater Antilles before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, most idiophones were introduced in the Caribbean between the 17th and 19th centuries by enslaved Africans, which were ethnically diverse (Yoruba, Ewe, Fon, Efik, Mandinka and Kongo, among others). Because of the different materials present in the islands, African slaves had to construct their instruments differently, and thus new instruments began to be developed.List of Caribbean membranophones
This is a list of membranophones used in the Caribbean music area, including the islands of the Caribbean Sea, as well as the musics of Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Belize, Garifuna music, and Bermuda. It only includes membranophones that are indigenous to the local music area or are a vital and long-standing part of local culture. It does not include membranophones that are, for example, a part of Western style orchestras, nor does it include trap sets and other common membranophones used in popular music recordings of many genres across the world. Almost all membranophones are drums and percussion instruments.The Hornbostel-Sachs number is given after each instrument.List of Caribbean music genres
Caribbean music genres are diverse. They are each syntheses of African, European, Indian and Indigenous influences, largely created by descendants of African slaves (see Afro-Caribbean music), along with contributions from other communities (such as Indo-Caribbean music). Some of the styles to gain wide popularity outside the Caribbean include, bachata, merenque, palo, mombo, denbo, baithak gana, bouyon, cadence-lypso, calypso, chutney, chutney-soca, compas, dancehall, jing ping, parang, pichakaree, punta, ragga, reggae, reggaeton, salsa, soca, and zouk. Caribbean is also related to Central American and South American music.
The history of Caribbean music originates from the history of the Caribbean itself. That history is one of the native land invaded by outsiders; violence, slavery, and even genocide factor in. It's surprising that the music itself is so gentle, with this type of formative background.
Blame it on Christopher Columbus, the first European to land in this region in 1492. based on Columbus's voyage, Spain claimed the entire region as its own. That didn't sit well with either the natives or Spain's European neighbors; within a few years, bloody battles raged across the islands of the Caribbean, fought by Spain, France, England, Denmark, and the Netherlands. All these battles (and diseases brought from Europe) decimated the native tribes, with entire cultures wiped out.
Thus the Caribbean was colonized as part of the various European empires. the native culture was further eroded when the Europeans imported African slaves to work the sugar and coffee plantations on their island colonies. in many cases, the native cultures -and the native musics- were replaced with those brought over from Africa.
At this point, whatever common Caribbean culture existed was splintered. Each of the European powers carved out their on cultures on their respective islands. Even with the ending of colonial period, this is the Caribbean we have today - a series of subtly different cultures from island to island.
This island-specific culture also informs the music of the Caribbean. Every island has its distinct musical styles, all inspired, to one degree or another, by the music brought over from the African slaves. As such, most Caribbean music, however unique to its own island culture, includes elements of African music - heavy use of percussion instruments, complex rhythmic patterns, and call-and-response vocals.
That said, it's Important to recognize the musical styles unique to each island. In many cases, the difference between one style and another comes down to the rhythms utilized in each music; there is almost a different rhythm for every island.
The complex deep origins of Caribbean music are understood with a knowledge of Western Hemisphere colonial immigration patterns, human trafficking patterns, the resulting melting pot of people each of its nations and territories, and thus resulting influx of original musical influences. Colonial Caribbean ancestors were predominantly from West Africa, West Europe, and India. In the 20th and 21st centuries immigrants have also come from Taiwan, China, Indonesia/Java, and the Middle East. In addition, neighboring Latin American and North American (particularly hip hop and pop music) countries have naturally influenced Caribbean culture and vice versa. One must understand these influences to have a deep understanding of the resulting Caribbean music that reflects the culture of the people. Although there are musical commonalities among Caribbean nations and territories, the variation in immigration patterns and colonial hegemony tend to parallel the variations in musical influence. Language barriers (Spanish, Portuguese, English, Hindustani, Tamil, Telugu, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Yiddish, Yoruba, African languages, Indian languages, Amerindian languages, French, Indonesian, Javanese, and Dutch) are one of the strongest influences.
The divisions between Caribbean music genres are not always well-defined, because many of these genres share common relations and have influenced each other in many ways and directions. For example, the Jamaican mento style has a long history of conflation with Trinidadian calypso. Elements of calypso have come to be used in mento, and vice versa, while their origins lie in the Afro-Caribbean culture, each uniquely characterized by influences from the Shango and Shouters religions of Trinidad and the Kumina spiritual tradition of Jamaica.Melba Liston
Melba Doretta Liston (January 13, 1926 – April 23, 1999) was an American jazz trombonist, arranger, and composer. She was the first woman trombonist to play in big bands during the 1940s and 1960s, but as her career progressed she became better known as an arranger particularly in partnership with pianist Randy Weston.Nicolas Geffrard
Nicolas Geffrard (1871–1930) was a Haitian musician best known for composing La Dessalinienne, the Haitian national anthem. The piece was adopted in 1904 to celebrate one hundred years of Haitian independence. He spent part of his career working in Europe.Ring shout
A shout or ring shout is an ecstatic, transcendent religious ritual, first practiced by African slaves in the West Indies and the United States, in which worshipers move in a circle while shuffling and stomping their feet and clapping their hands. Despite the name, shouting aloud is not an essential part of the ritual.
The ring shout was practiced in some African American churches into the 20th century, and it continues to the present among the Gullah people of the Sea Islands.Rose Mary Allen
Rose Mary Allen (born 1950) is a Curaçaoan anthropologist, who has published on the oral history of former enslaved people of the Dutch Caribbean islands.Her dissertation Di ki manera: a social history of Afro-Curaçaoans, 1863-1917 draws largely on the collected oral histories of Afro-Curaçaoans. She holds a PhD and is a lecturer at the University of Curaçao.
She has a wide anthropological production For example:Emigración laboral de Curazao a Cuba a principios del siglo XX: una experiencia En: Revista
Mexicana del Caribe, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 40-103, 2000. Also available on http://kaleidoscope.caribseek.com/Rose_Mary_Allen/Curacao_Cuba .Ta Cuba mi ke bai. Testimonio di trahadónan ku a emigrá for di Kòrsou bai Cuba na kuminsamentu di siglo XX. Curaçao: ICS, 2001.Regionalization of identity in Curaçao: migration and diaspora. In: Caribbean transnationalism : migration, pluralization, and social cohesion edited by Ruben Sewpersad Gowricharn, Lanham, MD [etc.] : Lexington Books, 2006.The Complexity of National Identity Construction in Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean. In: The European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies/ Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, October 2010.“Learning to be a Man”: Afro-Caribbean Seamen and Maritime Workers from Curaçao in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. In : Caribbean Studies Volume 39, Number 1, January-June 2011, pp. 43-64.Music in Diasporic Context: The Case of Curacao and Intra-Caribbean Migration. In: Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 32, No.2, fall 2012:51-66; National identities, Belonging and citizenship in Curacao: the complexity of changing nationhood narratives and performances in a Caribbean small island context. In: Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer and Elisabeth Echteld (eds).Multiplex Cultures and Citizenships: Multiple perspectives on Language, Literature, Education, and Society in the ABC-Islands and Beyond
Twentieth century migration from the English-speaking Caribbean: discursive inclusion and exclusion. In: Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer and Elisabeth Echteld (eds)
Researching the Rhizome. Studies of transcultural language, literature, learning and life on the ABC Islands and Beyond, 2013.In 2015 she was awarded a knighthood in the Order of Orange-Nassau by the Netherlands and she also won the Cola Debrot award.Second Helping
Second Helping is the second studio album by Lynyrd Skynyrd, released April 15, 1974. It featured the band's biggest hit single, "Sweet Home Alabama," an answer song to Neil Young's "Alabama" and "Southern Man". The song reached #8 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in August 1974. This L.P. was the last to feature Bob Burns on drums.
The album reached #12 on the Billboard album charts. It was certified Gold on September 20, 1974, Platinum and 2x Platinum on July 21, 1987 by the RIAA.Slave Songs of the United States
Slave Songs of the United States was a collection of African American music consisting of 136 songs. Published in 1867, it was the first, and most influential, collection of spirituals to be published. The collectors of the songs were Northern abolitionists William Francis Allen, Lucy McKim Garrison, and Charles Pickard Ware. It is a "milestone not just in African American music but in modern folk history". It is also the first published collection of African-American music of any kind.The making of the book is described by Samuel Charters, with an emphasis on the role of Lucy McKim Garrison. A segment of History Detectives explored the book's history and significance.The Musical Quarterly
The Musical Quarterly is the oldest academic journal on music in America. Originally established in 1915 by Oscar Sonneck, the journal was edited by Sonneck until his death in 1928. Sonneck was succeeded by a number of editors, including Carl Engel (1930-1944), Gustave Reese (1944-45), Paul Henry Lang, who edited the journal for over 25 years, from 1945 to 1973, Joan Peyser (1977-84), Eric Salzman who served as editor from 1984 to 1991 and several others.
Since 1993 The Musical Quarterly has been edited by Leon Botstein, president of Bard College and principal conductor of the American Symphony Orchestra. It is published by Oxford University Press.