Black Eye Galaxy

The Black Eye Galaxy (also called Evil Eye Galaxy and designated Messier 64, M64, or NGC 4826) is a relatively isolated[7] spiral galaxy located 17 million light years away in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices. It was discovered by Edward Pigott in March 1779, and independently by Johann Elert Bode in April of the same year, as well as by Charles Messier in 1780. A dark band of absorbing dust in front of the galaxy's bright nucleus gave rise to its nicknames of the "Black Eye" or "Evil Eye" galaxy. M64 is well known among amateur astronomers because of its appearance in small telescopes.

This galaxy is inclined 60° to the line-of-sight and has a position angle of 112°.[7] At the distance of this galaxy, it has a linear scale of 65 ly (20 pc) per arcsecond.[7] The morphological classification of NGC 4826 in the De Vaucouleurs system is (R)SA(rs)ab,[4] where the '(R)' indicates an outer ring-like structure, 'SA' denotes a non-barred spiral, '(rs)' means a transitional inner ring/spiral structure, and 'ab' says the spiral arms are fairly tightly wound.[10] Ann et al. (2015) gave it a class of SABa,[11] suggesting a weakly-barred spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms.

M64 is a type 2 Seyfert galaxy[12] with an HII/LINER nucleus. The central region is a weak source of radio emission.[7] A soft X-ray source has been detected at the nucleus, which is most likely coming from the circumnuclear region rather than directly from an active galactic nucleus.[13] There is an inner disk of molecular gas that is truncated at a radius of 2,300 ly (700 pc). At present, the non-rotational motions of this disk do not significantly feed the core, but the disk does produce a vigorous rate of star formation. There is also evidence of a recent large inflow of mass.[14]

The interstellar medium of Messier 64 consists of two counter-rotating disks that are approximately equal in mass.[15] The inner disk contains the prominent dust lanes of the galaxy. The stellar population of the galaxy exhibits no measurable counter-rotation.[16] Possible formation scenarios include a merger with a gas-rich satellite galaxy in a retrograde orbit, or the continued accretion of gas clouds from the intergalactic medium.[15][16] It has a diameter of 54,000 light-years (17 kpc).[17]

Messier 64[1]
The core of the Black Eye Galaxy (M64) as taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationComa Berenices[2]
Right ascension 12h 56m 43.696s[3]
Declination+21° 40′ 57.57″[3]
Helio radial velocity410[5]
Galactocentric velocity400±4[6]
Distance (comoving)17.3 Mly (5.30 Mpc)[5]
Group or clusterCVn I[7]
Apparent magnitude (V)8.52[8]
Apparent magnitude (B)9.36[8]
Type(R)SA(rs)ab,[4] HIISy2
Apparent size (V)10.71 × 5.128 arcminute[9]
Other designations
Evil Eye Galaxy, M64, NGC 4826, PGC 44182, UGC 8062[9]


M64 JeffJohnson

Amateur image of Black Eye Galaxy (M64)


  1. ^ Tonry, J. L.; et al. (2001), "The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances", Astrophysical Journal, 546 (2): 681–693, arXiv:astro-ph/0011223, Bibcode:2001ApJ...546..681T, doi:10.1086/318301.
  2. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E. (1988), Sinnott, R. W. (ed.), The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters, Sky Publishing Corporation/Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-933346-51-2.
  3. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", The Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708.
  4. ^ a b c de Vaucouleurs, G.; et al. (1991), Third reference catalogue of bright galaxies, 9, New York: Springer-Verlag.
  5. ^ a b Tully, R. Brent; et al. (August 2016), "Cosmicflows-3", The Astronomical Journal, 152 (2): 21, arXiv:1605.01765, Bibcode:2016AJ....152...50T, doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/50, 50.
  6. ^ "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database", Results for NGC 4826, retrieved 2018-12-13.
  7. ^ a b c d e Israel, F. P. (January 2009), "CI and CO in nearby galaxy centers. The bright galaxies NGC 1068 (M 77), NGC 2146, NGC 3079, NGC 4826 (M 64), and NGC 7469", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 493 (2): 525–538, arXiv:0811.4058, Bibcode:2009A&A...493..525I, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810655.
  8. ^ a b Gil de Paz, Armando; et al. (2007), "The GALEX Ultraviolet Atlas of Nearby Galaxies", Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 173 (2): 185–255, arXiv:astro-ph/0606440, Bibcode:2007ApJS..173..185G, doi:10.1086/516636.
  9. ^ a b "M 64". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  10. ^ de Vaucouleurs, Gérard (April 1963), "Revised Classification of 1500 Bright Galaxies", Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 8: 31, Bibcode:1963ApJS....8...31D, doi:10.1086/190084.
  11. ^ Ann, H. B.; et al. (2015), "A Catalog of Visually Classified Galaxies in the Local (z ∼ 0.01) Universe", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 217 (2): 27–49, arXiv:1502.03545, Bibcode:2015ApJS..217...27A, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/217/2/27.
  12. ^ Malkan, Matthew A.; et al. (September 2017), "Emission Line Properties of Seyfert Galaxies in the 12 μm Sample", The Astrophysical Journal, 846 (2): 26, arXiv:1708.08563, Bibcode:2017ApJ...846..102M, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8302, 102.
  13. ^ Grier, C. J.; Mathur, S.; Ghosh, H.; Ferrarese, L. (April 2011), "Discovery of Nuclear X-ray Sources in Sings Galaxies", The Astrophysical Journal, 731 (1): 13, arXiv:1011.4295, Bibcode:2011ApJ...731...60G, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/60, 60.
  14. ^ García-Burillo, S.; et al. (August 2003), "Molecular Gas in NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA). I. The counter-rotating LINER NGC 4826", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 407 (2): 485–502, arXiv:astro-ph/0306140, Bibcode:2003A&A...407..485G, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030866.
  15. ^ a b Brawn, R.; Walterbos, R. A. M.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr. (1992). "Counter-rotating gaseous disks in the "Evil Eye" galaxy NGC4826". Nature. 360 (6403): 442. Bibcode:1992Natur.360..442B. doi:10.1038/360442a0.
  16. ^ a b Rix, Hans-Walter R.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Walterbos, Rene A. M. (1995). "Placid stars and excited gas in NGC 4826". Astrophysical Journal. 438: 155. Bibcode:1995ApJ...438..155R. doi:10.1086/175061.
  17. ^ From trigonometry: diameter = distance × sin( diameter_angle) = 17.3 Myr × sin(10.71′) = 53,896 ly.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 56m 43.7s, +21° 40′ 58″

1779 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1779 in Great Britain.

1779 in science

The year 1779 in science and technology involved some significant events.

64 (number)

64 (sixty-four) is the natural number following 63 and preceding 65.

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude (M) is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a inverse logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. An object's absolute magnitude is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were viewed from a distance of exactly 10.0 parsecs (32.6 light-years), without extinction (or dimming) of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. By hypothetically placing all objects at a standard reference distance from the observer, their luminosities can be directly compared on a magnitude scale.

As with all astronomical magnitudes, the absolute magnitude can be specified for different wavelength ranges corresponding to specified filter bands or passbands; for stars a commonly quoted absolute magnitude is the absolute visual magnitude, which uses the visual (V) band of the spectrum (in the UBV photometric system). Absolute magnitudes are denoted by a capital M, with a subscript representing the filter band used for measurement, such as MV for absolute magnitude in the V band.

The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude. A difference of 5 magnitudes between the absolute magnitudes of two objects corresponds to a ratio of 100 in their luminosities, and a difference of n magnitudes in absolute magnitude corresponds to a luminosity ratio of 100(n/5). For example, a star of absolute magnitude MV=3.0 would be 100 times more luminous than a star of absolute magnitude MV=8.0 as measured in the V filter band. The Sun has absolute magnitude MV=+4.83. Highly luminous objects can have negative absolute magnitudes: for example, the Milky Way galaxy has an absolute B magnitude of about −20.8.An object's absolute bolometric magnitude (Mbol) represents its total luminosity over all wavelengths, rather than in a single filter band, as expressed on a logarithmic magnitude scale. To convert from an absolute magnitude in a specific filter band to absolute bolometric magnitude, a bolometric correction (BC) is applied.For Solar System bodies that shine in reflected light, a different definition of absolute magnitude (H) is used, based on a standard reference distance of one astronomical unit.

Anders Osborne

Anders Osborne (born May 4, 1966 in Uddevalla, Sweden) is an American singer/songwriter. He tours solo and with a band, and often plays in North Mississippi Osborne (N.M.O), a group formed by Osborne and North Mississippi Allstars.

Billy Iuso

Billy Iuso (born January 26, 1969, in Port Chester, N.Y.) is a New Orleans-based guitarist, singer and songwriter. In addition to performing solo and collaborating with artists such as Anders Osborne and George Porter, Jr., he is the leader of Billy Iuso and the Restless Natives and a member of Dead Feat, which features former and current members of Little Feat and The Grateful Dead.

Black eye (disambiguation)

A black eye is an injury.

Black eye may also refer to:

Blackeye, or Black-eyed pea, a subspecies of Cowpea, a type of bean

"Blackeye", a song by Toto from Tambu

Black Eye (album)

Black eye (drink), a cup of coffee with two shots of espresso in it

Black Eye (film), a 1974 film starring and directed by Jack Arnold

Black Eye Galaxy, (aka M64 or NGC 4826), a pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxy in the Coma Berenices constellation

Black eye grease, or Eye black, a black grease applied under the eye to reduce glare

Black-Eye Griffin, a minor character from Family Guy

Black Eye Productions, a defunct Canadian comic book publisher

Mountain blackeye, a species of bird

Coma Berenices

Coma Berenices is an ancient asterism in the northern sky which has been defined as one of the 88 modern constellations. It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant, between Leo and Boötes, and is visible in both hemispheres. Its name means "Berenice's Hair" in Latin and refers to Queen Berenice II of Egypt, who sacrificed her long hair as a votive offering. It was introduced to Western astronomy during the third century BC by Conon of Samos and was further corroborated as a constellation by Gerardus Mercator and Tycho Brahe. Coma Berenices is the only modern constellation named for a historic person.

The constellation's major stars are Alpha Comae Berenices, Beta Comae Berenices and Gamma Comae Berenices. They form a 45-degree triangle, from which Berenice's imaginary tresses, formed by the Coma Star Cluster, hang. The constellation's brightest star is Beta Comae Berenices, a 4.2-magnitude main sequence star similar to the Sun. Coma Berenices contains the North Galactic Pole and one of the richest known galaxy clusters, the Coma Cluster, part of the Coma Supercluster. Galaxy Malin 1, in the constellation, is the first-known giant low-surface-brightness galaxy. Supernova SN 2005ap discovered in Coma Berenices is the second-brightest known, and SN 1940B was the first observed example of a type II supernova. The star FK Comae Berenices is the prototype of an eponymous class of variable stars. The constellation is the radiant of one meteor shower, Coma Berenicids, which has one of the fastest meteor speeds, up to 65 kilometres per second (40 mi/s).

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

List of galaxies

The following is a list of notable galaxies.

There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group (see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list), on the order of 100,000 in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about one to two trillion in all of the observable universe.

The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae (interstellar clouds) was made in the 1920s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the 1960s, with the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29,418 galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15, listing 30,642. In the 1980s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed 485 galaxy groups with 3,933 member galaxies. Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July 2007, it has classified over one million galaxy images from The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey.There is no universal naming convention for galaxies, as they are mostly catalogued before it is established whether the object is or isn't a galaxy. Mostly they are identified by their celestial coordinates together with the name of the observing project (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC, etc.)

List of spiral galaxies

A spiral galaxy is a type of galaxy characterized by a central bulge of old Population II stars surrounded by a rotating disc of younger Population I stars. A spiral galaxy maintains its spirals arms due to density wave theory.


M64 or M-64 may refer to:

Messier 64, a spiral galaxy known as the Black Eye Galaxy

M64 motorway, a motorway planned, but never built, in England

M-64 (Michigan highway), a north–south highway in the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan.

Super Mario 64, a platform game made by Nintendo; or its remake, Super Mario 64 DS

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

NGC 4526

NGC 4526 (also listed as NGC 4560) is a lenticular galaxy located approximately 55 million light-years from the Solar System in the Virgo constellation and discovered on 13 April 1784 by William Herschel.The galaxy is seen nearly edge-on. The morphological classification is SAB(s)0°, which indicates a lenticular structure with a weak bar across the center and pure spiral arms without a ring. It belongs to the Virgo cluster and is one of the brightest known lenticular galaxies.

In the galaxy's outer halo,

globular cluster orbital velocities

indicate abnormal poverty of dark matter:

only 43±18% of the mass within 5 effective radii.

The inner nucleus of this galaxy displays a rise in stellar orbital motion that indicates the presence of a central dark mass. The best fit model for the motion of molecular gas in the core region suggests there is a supermassive black hole with about 4.5+4.2−3.0×108 (450 million) times the mass of the Sun. This is the first object to have its black-hole mass estimated by measuring the rotation of gas molecules around its centre with an Astronomical interferometer (in this case the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy).

Supernova SN 1969E was discovered in this galaxy in 1969, reaching a peak magnitude of 16. In 1994, a Type 1a supernova was discovered about two weeks before reaching peak brightness. Designated SN 1994D, it was caused by the explosion of a white dwarf star composed of carbon and oxygen.

NGC 7001

NGC 7001 is an intermediate spiral galaxy located about 300 million light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. NGC 7001 has an estimated diameter of 106,000 light-years. It was discovered by English astronomer John Herschel on July 21, 1827 and was also observed by Austrian astronomer Rudolf Spitaler on September 26, 1891.

NGC 7013

NGC 7013 is a relatively nearby spiral or lenticular galaxy estimated to be around 37 to 41.4 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus. NGC 7013 was discovered by English astronomer William Herschel on July 17, 1784 and was also observed by his son, astronomer John Herschel on September 15, 1828.

Sufi Observing Competition

Sufi Observing Competition is an international competition and like Messier marathon, but more difficult with various subjects.

Since 2006, Astronomical Society of Iran – Amateur Committee (ASIAC) holds an international observing competition in the memory of Azophi. The first competition was held in 2006 in the north of Semnan Province and the 2nd SUFI observing competition was held in summer of 2008 in Ladiz near Zahedan. More than 100 observers from Iran and Iraq participated in this event.

Third Sufi Competition was held in Pasargadae, Fars province of Iran, at the enclosure of the historical tomb of Cyrus the Great on 17–20 August 2009. More than 120 amateur astronomers participated in this competition which held in 2 class of individuals and groups. Closing ceremony of 3rd Sufi Competition was held in Persepolis historical site splendidly which is in the list of UNESCO world heritage site.

Babak Amin Tafreshi, Pouria Nazemi, Kazem Kookaram and Mohammad H. Almasi are Iranian amateur astronomers who designed and manage this competition in their country until today.

See also

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