Black-thighed grosbeak

The black-thighed grosbeak (Pheucticus tibialis) is a large seed-eating bird in the cardinal family, which is endemic to the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama.

This species breeds from about 1,000 m (3,300 ft) altitude (Pacific slope) or 1,500 m (4,900 ft) (Caribbean slope) up to 2,600 m (8,500 ft) and is found in canopy, woodland edge and semi-open habitats such as pasture with some trees. The nest is a thin cup constructed on a bulky twig base 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) up in a small tree or amongst vines. The female lays two brown-spotted pale blue eggs between March and May.

The adult black-thighed grosbeak is 20 cm (7.9 in) long, weighs 70 g (2.5 oz), and has a massive grey bill. The male has a yellow head, rump and underparts, an olive-edged black back, and black wings, thighs and tail. There is a white patch on the flight feathers. The female is paler with more olive on the back and a smaller white wing patch. Immatures are duller and more olive-tinged, and have streaking and mottling on the body plumage.

The black-thighed grosbeak forages in shrubs or trees for insects, seeds and berries. The call is a sharp pink, and the song is a musical stream of warbles, whistles, trills and slurs.

Black-thighed grosbeak
Black-thighed Grosbeak
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Cardinalidae
Genus: Pheucticus
Species:
P. tibialis
Binomial name
Pheucticus tibialis
Lawrence, 1867

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pheucticus tibialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  • Stiles, F. Gary; Skutch, Alexander F. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publishing Associates. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4.

External links

Cardinal (bird)

Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America. They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings.

The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in the tanager family Thraupidae. Contrariwise, DNA analysis of the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia showed their closer relationship to the cardinal family. They have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.

Golden grosbeak

The golden grosbeak (Pheucticus chrysogaster), also known as golden-bellied grosbeak or southern yellow grosbeak, is a species of grosbeak in the Cardinalidae family. It is similar to, and has sometimes been considered conspecific with, the yellow grosbeak.

The golden grosbeak is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and heavily degraded former forest.

Grosbeak

Grosbeak is a form taxon containing various species of seed-eating passerine birds with large beaks. Although they all belong to the superfamily Passeroidea, these birds are not part of a natural group but rather a polyphyletic assemblage of distantly related songbirds. Some are cardueline finches in the family Fringillidae, while others are cardinals in the family Cardinalidae; one is a member of the weaver family Ploceidae. The word "grosbeak", first applied in the late 1670s, is a partial translation of the French grosbec, where gros means "large" and bec means "beak".The following is a list of grosbeak species, arranged in groups of closely related genera. These genera are more closely related to smaller-billed birds than to other grosbeaks. The single exception are the three genera of "typical grosbeak finches", which form a group of closest living relatives and might thus be considered the "true" grosbeaks.

List of birds of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018. This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered. Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica

(R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica

(E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Panama

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Panama. The avifauna of Panama included a total of 986 species as of January 2018, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Between that date and July 2018, 10 additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 996 species, 144 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans. Seven are endemic. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 did not change any of these counts.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Panama as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Panama

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Panama as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of least concern birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Pheucticus

Pheucticus is a genus of grosbeaks containing six species.The genus was introduced by the German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1850. The type species was subsequently designated as the black-backed grosbeak. The name of the genus is from the Ancient Greek pheuktikos "shy" or "inclined to avoid".

Yellow grosbeak, P. chrysopeplus

Black-thighed grosbeak, P. tibialis

Golden grosbeak, P. chrysogaster

Black-backed grosbeak, P. aureoventris

Rose-breasted grosbeak, P. ludovicianus

Black-headed grosbeak, P. melanocephalus

Sibley-Monroe checklist 18

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

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