Black-headed duck

The black-headed duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the stiff-tailed ducks in the tribe Oxyurini of the family Anatidae. It is the only member of the genus Heteronetta.

Black-headed duck
Heteronetta atricapilla blackheadedduck (cropped)
Pair (male with black head)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Genus: Heteronetta
Salvadori, 1865
Species:
H. atricapilla
Binomial name
Heteronetta atricapilla
(Merrem, 1841)
Heteronetta atricapilla distribution
Range of black-headed duck

Description

This is the most basal living member of its subfamily, and it lacks the stiff tail and swollen bill of its relatives. Overall much resembling a fairly typical diving duck,[2] its plumage and other peculiarities indicate it is not a very close relative of these, but rather the product of convergent evolution in the ancestors of the stiff-tailed ducks.[3] It is a small, dark duck, the male with a black head and mantle and a paler flank and belly, and the female pale brown overall.

Distribution and habitat

They live in swamps, lakes and marshes in central Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil, feeding by dabbling on water plants and insects.

Brooding behavior

The black-headed duck is an obligate brood parasite, meaning the female does not build a nest. It lays its eggs in the nests of other birds, instead, earning it the nickname cuckoo duck.[4] The hosts are particularly rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca), other ducks, coots (Fulica species), and occasionally even gulls (such as the brown-hooded gull) and birds of prey. Unlike some cuckoos, neither the chicks nor adults destroy the eggs or kill the chicks of the host. Instead, after a 21-day incubation, the ducklings fledge and after a few hours are completely independent, leaving their broodmates and fending for themselves. In contrast with the brood parasitic passerines (family Viduidae and genus Molothrus), whose young are altricial, black-headed duck ducklings are precocial.

The black-headed duck is not considered threatened by the IUCN.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Heteronetta atricapilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Livezey, Bradley C. (1986). "A phylogenetic analysis of recent anseriform genera using morphological characters" (PDF). Auk. 103 (4): 737–754.
  3. ^ McCracken, Kevin G.; Harshman, John; McClellan, David A. & Afton, Alan D. (1999). "Data Set Incongruence and Correlated Character Evolution: An Example of Functional Convergence in the Hind-Limbs of Stifftail Diving Ducks" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 48 (4): 683–714. doi:10.1080/106351599259979. PMID 12066296. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2011.
  4. ^ David Attenborough, Nature of the Cuckoo Duck, The Life of Birds, BBC Episode 9, 19 minutes ff.

External links

Anatidae

The Anatidae are the biological family of water birds that includes ducks, geese, and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on all the world's continents. These birds are adapted for swimming, floating on the water surface, and in some cases diving in at least shallow water. The family contains around 146 species in 43 genera. (The magpie goose is no longer considered to be part of the Anatidae and is now placed in its own family, Anseranatidae.)

They are generally herbivorous, and are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations. A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, and many others are hunted for food and recreation. Five species have become extinct since 1600, and many more are threatened with extinction.

Anatinae

The Anatinae are a subfamily of the family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks). Its surviving members are the dabbling ducks, which feed mainly at the surface rather than by diving. The other members of the Anatinae are the extinct moa-nalo, a young but highly apomorphic lineage derived from the dabbling ducks.

There has been much debate about the systematical status and which ducks belong to the Anatinae. Some taxonomic authorities only include the dabbling ducks and their close relatives, the extinct moa-nalos. Alternatively, the Anatinae are considered to include most "ducks", and the dabbling ducks form a tribe Anatini within these. The classification as presented here more appropriately reflects the remaining uncertainty about the interrelationships of the major lineages of Anatidae (waterfowl).

Anseriformes

Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. Most modern species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. With the exception of screamers, all have phalli, a trait that has been lost in the Neoaves. Due to their aquatic nature, most species are web-footed.

Brood parasite

Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young. The strategy appears among birds, insects and some fish. The brood parasite manipulates a host, either of the same or of another species, to raise its young as if it were its own, using brood mimicry, for example by having eggs that resemble the host's (egg mimicry).

Brood parasitism relieves the parasitic parents from the investment of rearing young or building nests for the young, enabling them to spend more time on other activities such as foraging and producing further offspring. Bird parasite species mitigate the risk of egg loss by distributing eggs amongst a number of different hosts. As this behaviour damages the host, it often results in an evolutionary arms race between parasite and host as the pair of species coevolve.

Brown-hooded gull

The brown-hooded gull (Chroicocephalus maculipennis) is a species of gull found in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Falkland Islands, and Uruguay. Its specific epithet, maculipennis, means 'spotted wings' (macula + penna). It is a white bird with a brown head and red beak and feet.

John Charles Phillips

John Charles Phillips (November 5, 1876 in Boston - November 14, 1938 near Exeter in southern New Hampshire) was an American hunter, zoologist, ornithologist, and environmentalist. He published over two hundred books and articles about animal breeding, sport hunting, ornithology, wildlife conservation, faunal surveys and systematic reviews, and Mendelian genetics.

List of Anseriformes

Anseriformes is an order of birds belonging to the clade Galloanseres. It consists of 3 families, 58 genera and 171 living species. Extinct species assignment follows the Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and Paleofile.com websites.

This list is based on the taxonomy of the HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World by Josep del Hoyo and Nigel J. Collar also used by HBW, BirdLife International and IUCN and also includes historically extinct species and the presumed date of extinction

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds by common name

In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.

List of birds of Argentina

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Argentina. The avifauna of Argentina has 1006 confirmed species, of which 16 are endemic, eight have been introduced by humans, 41 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 58 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Argentina

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Argentina

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Argentina as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Bolivia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bolivia. The avifauna of Bolivia has 1384 confirmed species. Fifteen are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 20 are rare or vagrants. An additional 38 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bolivia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Bolivia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bolivia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Brazil

Brazil has one of the richest bird diversities in the world. The avifauna of Brazil include a total of 1806 confirmed species, of which 235 are endemic. Four have been introduced by humans, 70 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 24 species are hypothetical (see below).

Brazil hosts about 60% of the bird species recorded for all of South America. These numbers are still increasing almost every year, due to new occurrences, new species being described, or splits of existing species. About 10% of the bird species found in Brazil are, nonetheless, threatened.

In June 2013 a simultaneous discovery of fifteen bird species in Brazil was announced, the first such since 1871, when August von Pelzeln described forty new species. The birds were from the families Corvidae, Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Tyrannidae, and Polioptilidae. Eleven of the new species are endemics of Brazil and four also inhabit Peru and Bolivia.Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The notes of population status, for instance (endangered), are those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The status notes apply to the worldwide population, not solely the Brazilian population except for endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Brazil

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Brazil

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Brazil as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Chile

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Chile. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The SACC list includes species recorded in mainland Chile, on the Chilean islands of the Cape Horn area, on other islands and waters near the mainland, and on and around the Juan Fernández Islands. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The avifauna of Chile has 498 confirmed species, of which 12 are endemic, 107 are rare or vagrants, five have been introduced by humans, and two are extinct or extirpated. An additional seven species are hypothetical (see below). Thirty-five of the species on the Chilean SACC list are globally threatened.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Chile

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Chile

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Chile as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Paraguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Paraguay. The avifauna of Paraguay has 694 confirmed species, of which two have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and five are extirpated or extinct. An additional 27 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Paraguay

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Paraguay

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Paraguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Uruguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uruguay. The avifauna of Uruguay has 448 confirmed species, of which seven have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and six are extirpated or believed extinct. An additional 20 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uruguay

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Uruguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of the Falkland Islands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Falkland Islands. The avifauna of the Falkland Islands include a total of 227 confirmed species, of which two are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, four have been extirpated, and 140 are rare or vagrants. Three additional species are hypothetical (see below).

The entries on this list and the list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence in addition to non-endemic resident species and regular visitors.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Falklands

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to the Falklands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Falklands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species which formerly occurred in the Falklands

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded in the Falklands but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

Masked duck

The masked duck (Nomonyx dominicus) is a tiny stiff-tailed duck ranging through the tropical Americas. They are found from Mexico to South America and also in the Caribbean. Primarily not migratory, masked ducks are reported as very uncommon vagrants in the southernmost United States, along the Mexican border and in Florida. As of 2000, the conservation status for masked ducks in Texas is 3,800 birds. On April 1, 1962, it was recorded from Lowndes County, Georgia, where it was photographed by Alexander Wetmore.The only member of the genus Nomonyx, it is intermediate between the rather primitive black-headed duck (Heteronetta) and the very apomorphic true stiff-tailed ducks. It is sometimes included with the latter in the genus Oxyura, but apparently the masked ducks now are the descendants of a missing link in the Oxyurini evolution, having changed but little for millions of years.Breeding adult males have a rust-colored body with a black face and mottled wings. Adult females, winter males, and juveniles have a barred brownish gray body, with two horizontal, dark-colored stripes running through the buff-colored face.

These ducks mainly feed on seeds, roots, and leaves of aquatic plants. They also eat aquatic insects and crustaceans. They feed by diving. Masked ducks breed in any freshwater body with marsh vegetation and surrounded by heavy tree cover. They also occur in mangrove swamps. These ducks are usually very secretive, but they are not rare and not considered threatened by the IUCN.

Oxyurini

The Oxyurini are a tribe of the duck subfamily of birds, the Anatinae. It has been subject of considerable debate about its validity and circumscription. Some taxonomic authorities place the group in its own subfamily, the Oxyurinae. Most of its members have long, stiff tail feathers which are erected when the bird is at rest, and relatively large, swollen bills. Though their relationships are still enigmatic, they appear to be closer to swans and true geese than to the typical ducks. The highest diversity is found in the warmer parts of the Americas, but at least one species occurs in a major part of the world.

Their habitus resembles a freshwater diving duck, particularly when moving on dry land. Their legs are set far back, making them awkward walkers, so they rarely leave the water. When at rest, their tails are a notable difference as per above, and in the water they often swim very deep-set. Their unusual courtship displays involve drumming noises from inflatable throat sacs, head throwing, and erecting short crests. Most display singly with a very elaborate and peculiar display, but musk ducks congregate at leks and have a more limited display.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 2

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

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