Black-capped donacobius

The black-capped donacobius (Donacobius atricapilla) is a conspicuous, vocal South American bird. It is found in tropical swamps and wetlands in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela; also Panama of Central America.[1]

Black-capped donacobius
Donacobius atricapilla -Fazenda Campo de Ouro, Piraju, Sao Paulo, Brasil-8
In Piraju, São Paulo, Brazil
Note lower bird displaying yellow neck patch
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Donacobiidae
Genus: Donacobius
Swainson, 1831
Species:
D. atricapilla
Binomial name
Donacobius atricapilla
Donacobius atricapillus-map
All-year range
Synonyms

Turdus atricapilla Linnaeus, 1766

Taxonomy

African Bush-warbler (Bradypterus baboecala), dorsal side view
Little rush warbler (Bradypterus baboecala), apparently one of the closest living relatives of the donacobius

In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the black-capped donacobius in his Ornithologie based on a specimen that he mistakenly believed had been collected from the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. He used the French name Le merle a test noire de Cap de Bonne Espérance and the Latin Merula Atricapilla Capitis Bonae Spei.[2] Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.[3] When in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species that had been previously described by Brisson.[3] One of these was the black-capped donacobius. Linnaeus included a brief description, coined the binomial name Turdus atricapilla and cited Brisson's work.[4] The type location was subsequently corrected to eastern Brazil.[5] The specific name atricapilla is Latin for "black-haired" from ater "black" and capillus "hair of the head".[6] This species is now placed in the genus Donacobius that was introduced by the English naturalist William John Swainson in 1831.[7] The name of the genus is from Ancient Greek donakos "reed" and bios "mode of life".[8]

The black-capped donacobius is the only member of the genus Donacobius. Its familial placement is not established, and ornithologists disagree as to its closest relations. In the 19th century, it was placed in the Turdidae, and in the 20th century, moved to the Mimidae. It had various English names, including the "black-capped mockingthrush". In the 1980s and 1990s, suggestions that it was a type of wren (Troglodytidae) were accepted by the South American Classification Committee (SACC), the American Ornithologists Union (AOU) and most other authorities. More recently, listing organizations and authors follow Van Remsen and Keith Barker's conclusion that it is not a wren either, but instead most closely related to an Old World (probably African) lineage.[9][10] A current proposal to the SACC would create a monotypic family, Donacobiidae, for this species, but this is not universally accepted as some authorities insist it may prove to be a member of an existing Old World family,[11] presumably the Locustellidae which seem to be its closest living relatives. These are long-tailed "warblers" from around the Indian Ocean region, many of which despite their cryptic coloration, smaller size and more solitary habits, are similar to the donacobius in stance, habitat and some aspects of their behavior (such as the nests); these "warblers" also have a similarly voice, but being higher-pitched they sound less grating and more like locusts (namely in Locustella).

Habitat

Black-capped donacobiuses are common in a wide range of Amazonian wetlands, including oxbow lakes, riparian zones, and other areas with tall dense aquatic or semi-aquatic vegetation. A third of the species range is outside the Amazon Basin, from Panama, northern Colombia, and western Venezuela, the Orinoco River system of Venezuela, to southeast coastal and inland Brazil, and neighboring countries southward, Paraguay, and extreme northern Argentina.

Behavior

Mating for life, pairs of black-capped donacobiuses can be seen frequently and throughout the day atop thickets of dense lakeside or streamside vegetation. They often will engage in antiphonic dueting. Adult offspring will remain with their parents and help raise siblings from subsequent nesting periods in a system of cooperative breeding.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Donacobius atricapilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés (in French and Latin). Supplement. Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. pp. 47–50, Plate 3 fig 2. The two stars (**) at the start of the section indicates that Brisson based his description on the examination of a specimen.
  3. ^ a b Allen, J.A. (1910). "Collation of Brisson's genera of birds with those of Linnaeus". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 28: 317–335.
  4. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1766). Systema naturae : per regna tria natura, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Volume 1, Part 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 295.
  5. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Greenway, James C. Jr, eds. (1960). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 9. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 456.
  6. ^ Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  7. ^ Swainson, William John (1831). Zoological illustrations, or, Original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals. Series 2. Volume 2. London: Baldwin, Cradock. Plate 49 text.
  8. ^ Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  9. ^ Remsen, Van & Keith Barker (2004). "Proposal (#118) to South American Check-list Committee: Remove Donacobius from the Troglodytidae". Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  10. ^ a b "Donacobius page".
  11. ^ Aleixo, Alexandre & J. F. Pacheco (2007). "Proposal (#293) to South American Classification Committee: Recognize Donacobius in its own family, Donacobiidae". Archived from the original on 2014-01-04.

External links

Bush-warbler

Bush-warblers (or bush warblers) are small insectivorous songbirds belonging to the genera Cettia, Horornis, and Bradypterus. They were formerly placed in the "wastebin" Old World warbler family. Neither genus as traditionally delimited is believed to be monophyletic.Due to their external similarity convergently acquired by strong selective pressures due to the identical habitat, they were occasionally believed to be close relatives. However, they belong to two well-distant families in the Sylvioidea, the "warbler-and-babbler" superfamily:

Cettia, the cettiid bush-warblers or typical bush-warblers, belong in the Cettiidae, an ancient sylvioid lineage related to long-tailed tits.

Horornis, the horornid bush-warblers, also belonging in the Cettiidae, an ancient sylvioid lineage related to long-tailed tits.

Bradypterus, the megalurid bush-warblers, belong to in the Megaluridae, the grass-warbler family which is closely related to the Malagasy warblers and the peculiar black-capped donacobius from South America, formerly believed to be an aberrant wren.

Fauna of Colombia

The fauna of Colombia is characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Colombia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia. The avifauna of Colombia has 1851 confirmed species, of which 81 are endemic, three have been introduced by humans, and 62 are rare or vagrants. One of the endemic species is believed to be extinct. An additional 37 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is noted otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. An additional 17 species are listed here whose only Colombian records are from that province. Three of them are also considered hypothetical.The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(SA) San Andrés - a species whose only Colombian records are from the province of San Andrés and Providencia

List of birds of Ecuador

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ecuador including those of the Galápagos Islands. The avifauna of Ecuador has 1635 confirmed species, of which seven are endemic to the mainland and 30 are endemic to the Galápagos. Four have been introduced by humans, 64 are rare or vagrants, and two have been extirpated. An additional 49 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ecuador

(EG) Endemic - Galápagos - a species endemic to the Galápagos Islands

(EM) Endemic - mainland - a species endemic to mainland Ecuador

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ecuador as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of French Guiana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in French Guiana. The avifauna of French Guiana has 698 confirmed species, of which one is endemic. Two have been introduced by humans and 58 are rare or vagrants. An additional 28 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in French Guiana

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to French Guiana

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to French Guiana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Guyana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guyana. The avifauna of Guyana include a total of 785 confirmed species, of which one has been introduced by humans and two are extinct or extirpated. None are endemic. An additional 33 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Guyana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Paraguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Paraguay. The avifauna of Paraguay has 694 confirmed species, of which two have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and five are extirpated or extinct. An additional 27 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Paraguay

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Paraguay

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Paraguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Suriname

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Suriname. The avifauna of Suriname has 732 confirmed species, of which one is endemic, one has been introduced by humans, 27 are rare or vagrants, and one has been extirpated. An additional 21 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Suriname

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Suriname

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Suriname as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

Locustellidae

Locustellidae is a newly recognized family of small insectivorous songbirds ("warblers"), formerly placed in the Old World warbler "wastebin" family. It contains the grass warblers, grassbirds, and the Bradypterus "bush warblers". These birds occur mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. The family name is sometimes given as Megaluridae, but Locustellidae has priority.The species are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed; the scientific name of the genus Megalurus in fact means "the large-tailed one" in plain English. They are less wren-like than the typical shrub-warblers (Cettia) but like these drab brownish or buffy all over. They tend to be larger and slimmer than Cettia though, and many have bold dark streaks on wings and/or underside. Most live in scrubland and frequently hunt food by clambering through thick tangled growth or pursuing it on the ground; they are perhaps the most terrestrial of the "warblers". Very unusual for Passeriformes, beginning evolution towards flightlessness is seen in some taxa.Among the "warbler and babbler" superfamily Sylvioidea, the Locustellidae are closest to the Malagasy warblers, another newly recognized (and hitherto unnamed) family; the black-capped donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) is an American relative derived from the same ancestral stock and not a wren as was long believed.

Old World warbler

Old World warblers are a large group of birds formerly grouped together in the bird family Sylviidae. The family held over 400 species in over 70 genera, and were the source of much taxonomic confusion. Two families were split out initially, the cisticolas into Cisticolidae and the kinglets into Regulidae. In the past ten years they have been the subject of much research and many species are now placed into other families, including the Acrocephalidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, and Megaluridae. In addition some species have been moved into existing families or have not yet had their placement fully resolved. A smaller family of warblers, together with some babblers formerly placed in the family Timaliidae and the parrotbills, are retained in a much smaller family Sylviidae.

Pale-eyed blackbird

The pale-eyed blackbird (Agelasticus xanthophthalmus) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. It is found in Ecuador and Peru where its natural habitat is swamps. An inconspicuous bird of very local occurrence, it was first described in 1969 by American ornithologist Lester L. Short.

Passerida

Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.

Passerine

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided

into three clades, Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscine).The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 15

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Songbird

A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes). Another name that is sometimes seen as a scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird". This group contains 5000 or so species found all over the world, in which the vocal organ typically is developed in such a way as to produce a diverse and elaborate bird song.

Songbirds form one of the two major lineages of extant perching birds, the other being the Tyranni, which are most diverse in the Neotropics and absent from many parts of the world. The Tyranni have a simpler syrinx musculature, and while their vocalizations are often just as complex and striking as those of songbirds, they are altogether more mechanical sounding. There is a third perching bird lineage, the Acanthisitti from New Zealand, of which only two species remain alive today.

Some evidence suggests that songbirds evolved 50 million years ago in the part of Gondwana that later became India, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and Antarctica, before spreading around the world.

Sylvioidea

Sylvioidea is a superfamily of passerine birds, one of at least three major clades within the Passerida along with the Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea. It contains about 1300 species including the Old World warblers, Old World babblers, swallows, larks and bulbuls. Members of the clade are found worldwide, but fewer species are present in the Americas.

White-bellied erpornis

The white-bellied erpornis (Erpornis zantholeuca) or simply erpornis is a species of bird. It is the only member of the genus Erpornis. This bird is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Wren

The wren is a family of mostly small, brown, passerine birds in the (mainly) New World family Troglodytidae. The family includes 88 species divided into 19 genera. Only the Eurasian wren occurs in the Old World, where in Anglophone regions, it is commonly known simply as the "wren", as it is the originator of the name. The name wren has been applied to other, unrelated birds, particularly the New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) and the Australian wrens (Maluridae).

Most wrens are small and rather inconspicuous, except for their loud and often complex songs. Notable exceptions are the relatively large members of the genus Campylorhynchus, which can be quite bold in their behavior. Wrens have short wings that are barred in most species, and they often hold their tails upright. As far as is known, wrens are primarily insectivorous, eating insects, spiders, and other small arthropods, but many species also eat vegetable matter and some take small frogs and lizards and many more amphibians.

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