Bithynium or Bithynion (Ancient Greek: Βιθύνιον) was a city in the interior of Bithynia, lying above Tius, as Strabo describes it,[1] and possessing the country around Salon, which was a good feeding country for cattle, and noted for its cheese.[2][3] Bithynium was the birthplace of Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, as Pausanius tells us,[4] who adds that Bithynium is beyond, by which he probably means east of, the river Sangarius; and he adds that the remotest ancestors of the Bithynians are Arcadians and Mantineis. If this is true, which however does not seem probable, a Greek colony settled here. Bithynium was afterwards called Claudiopolis, a name which it is conjectured it first had in the time of Tiberius; but it is strange that Pausanias does not mention this name. Dio Cassius speaks of it under the name of Bithynium and Claudiopolis also.[5] It later bore the name Hadriana after the emperor.[6] The names of Claudiopolis and Hadriana appear on coins minted here.

The town was Christianised early and became an archbishopric. An archbishop suffered martyrdom under Diocletian. No longer a residential see, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church under the name Claudiopolis in Honoriade.[7] A former titular see under the name of Claudiopolis in Bithynia was suppressed.[8]

Its site is occupied by the modern town of Bolu, Asiatic Turkey.[6][9]


  1. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 565. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 11.42.
  3. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Σαλωνεία.
  4. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece. 8.9.1.
  5. ^ Dio Cassius, 69.11. ed. Reimarus, and his note.
  6. ^ a b Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 86, and directory notes accompanying.
  7. ^ Catholic Hierarchy
  8. ^ Catholic Hierarchy
  9. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Bithynium". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 40°44′22″N 31°36′42″E / 40.739479°N 31.611561°E


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Bithynian coinage

Bithynian coinage refers to coinage struck by the Kingdom of Bithynia that was situated on the coast of the Black Sea.


Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264 (2012 census).The city has been governed by mayor Alaaddin Yılmaz (AK Party) since local elections in 2004. It was the site of Ancient Claudiopolis and has also been called Eskihisar ("old fortress") (and as such has several Turkish namesakes).

Bolu is on the old highway from Istanbul to Ankara, which climbs over Mount Bolu, while the new motorway passes through Mount Bolu Tunnel below the town.

Bolu Province

Bolu Province (Turkish: Bolu ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. It's an important midpoint between the capital, Ankara and the largest city in the country, Istanbul. It covers an area of 7,410 km², and the population is 271,208.This is an attractive forested mountain district centered on the city of Bolu, which has a long history.

There is plenty of forest but little agricultural land. There is some garden produce and dairy production including good cheeses and cream, most of this is consumed or sold locally, especially as Bolu has a large passing trade: Bolu Mountain is the major topographical obstacle on the Istanbul-Ankara highway, and until 2007, when the Bolu Mountain Tunnel is being opened, most travelers stopped here for food and refreshment. Bolu has a long tradition of high quality cuisine. Annual cookery competitions are held in Mengen.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Claudiopolis (Ancient Greek: Κλαυδιόπολις, city of Claudius) is the name of a number of ancient cities named after Roman emperor Claudius or another person bearing that name (in the case of Cluj-Napoca), notably:

in TurkeyClaudiopolis (Bithynia) or Claudiopolis in Honoriade or Bithynium, Ancient city, capital of Roman province Honorias and Metropolitan Archbishopric, now modern Bolu, Bolu Province and Latin titular archbishopricClaudiopolis in Honoriade, a titular see of the Roman Catholic ChurchClaudiopolis (Cilicia), an ancient city in Cilicia, formerly called Ninica, now in Mut district, Mersin Province and a Latin titular bishopric as Claudiopolis in IsauriaClaudiopolis in Isauria, a titular see of the Roman Catholic ChurchClaudiopolis (Cappadocia), an ancient city in Cappadocia

Claudiopolis (Cataonia), an ancient city in Cataonia

Claudiopolis (Galatia), an ancient city in GalatiaElsewhereAbila Lysaniou, an ancient city in Syria also called Claudiopolis

Cluj-Napoca, a city in Romania

The Ancient town of Cyrene, Libya, renamed after 262 AD, in honor of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Claudius II

Claudiopolis in Honoriade

Claudiopolis in Honoriade is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church; the success to the suppressed see of Claudiopolis in Bithynia. Seated in a town originally named Bithynium, but later renamed Claudiopolis; the place was Christianised early and became an archbishopric. An archbishop suffered martyrdom under Diocletian. No longer a residential see, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. A former titular see under the name of Claudiopolis in Bithynia was suppressed.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hadriana may refer to:

Bithynium, a town of ancient Bithynia

Mopsuestia, a town of ancient Cilicia


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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