A BitLicense is the common term used for a business license of virtual currency activities, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) under regulations designed for companies. The regulations are limited to activities involving the state of New York or a New York resident. People residing in, located in, having a place of business in, or conducting business in the State of New York count as New York Residents under these regulations. The license was introduced and designed by Benjamin Lawsky, New York's first Superintendent of Financial Services, in July 2014.. Chartered entities do not require an explicit BitLicense, but may instead proceed with virtual currency activities via limited purpose trust charters approved by the NYDFS.
The regulations define virtual currency business activity as any one of the following types of activities:
The two following activities are excluded from the definition of virtual currency business activity:
On July 17, 2014, the department released details on a proposed "BitLicense", which places regulations on any company or person that uses cryptocurrencies residing in New York. The proposed regulations were officially published in the New York State Register on July 23, beginning a 45-day comment period. On February 25, 2015, a revised proposal notice was published, beginning another 30-day comment period.
It came into effect on August 8, 2015. At least ten bitcoin companies announced they were stopping all business in New York State because of the new regulations. The New York Business Journal called this the "Great Bitcoin Exodus".
In September 2015, Boston-based Circle was granted the first BitLicense, although in December 2016 the company had pivoted away from its bitcoin exchange to focus more on payments.
Two virtual currency limited purpose trust company charters were approved by the NYDFS in 2015, the first in May 2015 to itBit, now Paxos Trust Company, and the second charter in October 2015 to Gemini.
In October 2015, an article 78 was filed in the Supreme Court of the State of New York challenging the authority of the New York State Department of Financial Services to define virtual currency. Justice St George heard the case on October 10, 2017 and dismissed the case on December 27, 2017 The case is currently on appeal.
BitPay was awarded the eighth BitLicense in July 2018.
In November 2018, Texas-based Coinsource, an operator of Bitcoin Teller Machines, was awarded the twelfth virtual currency license or charter.
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An airdrop is a distribution of a cryptocurrency token or coin, usually for free, to a large number of wallet addresses. Airdrops are primarily implemented as a way of gaining attention and new followers, resulting in a larger user-base and a wider disbursement of coins.Circle (company)
Circle is a peer-to-peer payments technology company. It was founded by Jeremy Allaire and Sean Neville in October 2013. Circle's mobile payment platform, Circle Pay, allows users to hold, send, and receive traditional fiat currencies . In September 2015, Circle received the first BitLicense issued from the New York State Department of Financial Services. In April 2016, the British government approved the first virtual currency licensure to Circle. Circle is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.Up until December 2016, Circle Pay also operated as a bitcoin wallet service to buy and sell bitcoins. It has since ceased to provide such service, claiming the company "is now more than ever not a consumer bitcoin exchange, and will continue to focus resources on global social payments and future next-generation blockchain technology". Circle has launched a Bitcoin Blockchain-based remittance and messaging application to serve the unbanked.Coinbase
Coinbase is a digital currency exchange headquartered in San Francisco, California. They broker exchanges of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin with fiat currencies in approximately 32 countries, and bitcoin transactions and storage in 190 countries worldwide.CryptoNote
CryptoNote is an application layer protocol that aims to solve the problems outlined in Bitcoin Core, the protocol behind Bitcoin.. The protocol powers several decentralized privacy-oriented cryptocurrencies
Nothing is known about the original author of CryptoNote, "Nicolas van Saberhagen."Cryptocurrency tumbler
Cryptocurrency tumbler or cryptocurrency mixing service is a service offered to mix potentially identifiable or 'tainted' cryptocurrency funds with others, so as to obscure the trail back to the fund's original source. Tumblers have arisen to improve the anonymity of cryptocurrencies, usually bitcoin (hence Bitcoin mixer), since the currencies provide a public ledger of all transactions.Dash (cryptocurrency)
Dash is an open source cryptocurrency and is a form of decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) run by a subset of users, called "masternodes". It is an altcoin that was forked from the Bitcoin protocol. The currency permits fast transactions that can be untraceable.Distributed ledger
A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger or distributed ledger technology or DLT) is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions. There is no central administrator or centralized data storage.A peer-to-peer network is required as well as consensus algorithms to ensure replication across nodes is undertaken. One form of distributed ledger design is the blockchain system, which can be either public or private.Ethash
Ethash is the proof-of-work function in Ethereum-based blockchain currencies. It uses Keccak, a hash function eventually standardized to SHA-3. These two are different, and should not be confused. Since version 1.0, Ethash has been designed to be ASIC-resistant via memory-hardness (harder to implement in special ASIC chips) and easily verifiable. It also uses a slightly modified version of earlier Dagger and Hashimoto hashes to remove computational overhead. Previously referred to as Dagger-Hashimoto, the Ethash function has evolved over time. Ethash uses an initial 1 GB dataset known as the Ethash DAG and a 16 MB cache for light clients to hold. These are regenerated every 30,000 blocks, known as an epoch. Miners grab slices of the DAG to generate mix-hashes using transaction and receipt data, along with a cryptographic nonce to generate a hash below a dynamic target difficulty.Filecoin
Filecoin is an open-source, public, cryptocurrency and digital payment system intended to be a blockchain-based cooperative digital storage and data retrieval method. It is made by Protocol Labs and builds on top of InterPlanetary File System, allowing users to rent unused hard drive space.Filecoin has raised $52 million in a pre-initial coin offering (pre-ICO) sale and $200 million in ICO.Gridcoin
Gridcoin implements a "Proof-of-Research" (POR) scheme, which rewards users with Gridcoin for performing useful scientific computations on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), a distributed computing platform. Gridcoin uses a more energy efficient proof-of-stake system - although it fails to explicitly address the energy cost of computing power.Gridcoin attempts to ease the environmental energy impact of cryptocurrency mining through its Proof-of-Research and Proof-of-Stake protocols.List of bitcoin companies
This is a list of Wikipedia articles about for-profit companies with notable commercial activities related to bitcoin. Common services are wallet providers, bitcoin exchanges, payment service providers and venture capital. Other services include mining pools, cloud mining, peer-to-peer lending, exchange-traded funds, over-the-counter trading, gambling, micropayments, affiliates and prediction markets.Litecoin
Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open-source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Creation and transfer of coins is based on an open source cryptographic protocol and is not managed by any central authority. Litecoin was an early bitcoin spinoff or altcoin, starting in October 2011. In technical details, litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin.LocalBitcoins
LocalBitcoins is a bitcoin startup company based in Helsinki, Finland. Its service facilitates over-the-counter trading of local currency for bitcoins. Users post advertisements on the website, where they state exchange rates and payment methods for buying or selling bitcoins.
Other users reply to these advertisements and agree to meet the person to buy bitcoins with cash or pay with online banking. LocalBitcoins has a reputation and feedback mechanism for users and an escrow and conflict resolution service. As of December 2013, LocalBitcoins has around 110,000 active traders with a trade volume of 1,400–3,000 bitcoins per day.Marcia Hofmann
Marcia Clare Hofmann () is an American attorney known for her work as an advocate of electronic privacy and free expression, including defending individuals charged with high-profile computer crimes.Namecoin
Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ or NMC) is a cryptocurrency that aims to provide a decentralized DNS. Namecoin implements the top level domain .bit, which is independent of ICANN.
Other proposed use cases of Namecoin include notary/timestamp systems.Namecoin uses the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus system called "Merged mining", a process which reuses partial solutions to PoW problems from a parent cryptocurrency as valid proofs-of-work for a child cryptocurrency.New York State Department of Financial Services
The New York State Department of Financial Services (DFS or NYSDFS) is the department of the New York state government responsible for regulating financial services and products, including those subject to the New York insurance, banking and financial services laws.NuBits
NuBits is a cryptocurrency which advertises itself as a stablecoin issued by a DAO under the same name. Shareholders achieve stability in NuBits by placing buy and sell orders at $1.00 using revenue from NuBit sales kept in external digital currencies (such as Bitcoin).NuBits attempts to keep price stability by distributing voting shares (NuShares), which have the ability to vote on motions and network changes. Holders of NuShares earn rewards as an incentive to stabilize the network. Partial revenue is distributed to shareholders to create a mechanism for deep backing by incentive for investment when NuBits leaving circulation exceed the value of Nu's liquidity reserve. Additionally, holders of NuBits have the ability to lock away NuBits to gain interest (from Nu's reserves), which in turn reduces the circulating supply.As of March 18th, 2018, NuBits has decoupled from its $1.00 price and has not been able to maintain a stable peg against the US dollar, trading at $0.35 as of June 2018.ShapeShift
ShapeShift is a company that offers global trading of a variety of digital assets via web and mobile platforms. It is headquartered in Switzerland, but run out of Denver.The company does not collect personal data on its customers and exchanges one cryptocurrency for another without ever collecting customer funds into company accounts, which is unique among digital currency trading companies. However, the company will begin requiring such information as of October 1, 2018.If an exchange fails (by fault of user or company) and the user does not make a refund claim within 90 days, the company will keep all assets.Steemit
Steemit is a blogging and social networking website owned by Steemit Inc that uses the Steem blockchain to reward publishers and curators.On July 4, 2016, Steemit, Inc. launched Steemit, a social media platform with virtual currency rewards that runs over the Steem blockchain. On July 14, 2016, Steemit announced on their website that they were hacked. The attack, according to them, has compromised about 260 accounts. About US$85,000 worth of Steem Dollars and Steem are reported to have been taken by the attackers.
Steemit gives small amounts of its cryptocurrency token, Steem, to posters who get upvotes. Posters can also be tipped by readers. Steemit faced financial difficulties in 2018 and laid off 70% of its staff. Steemit co-founder Ned Scott referred to the Steemit blogging platform as an interface on top of a blockchain, akin to a blockexplorer.