Bishopric of Verdun

The Bishopric of Verdun was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was located at the western edge of the Empire and was bordered by France, the Duchy of Luxembourg, and the Duchy of Bar.

Bishopric of Verdun

Fürstbistum Wirten  (German)
Principauté épiscopale de Verdun  (French)
997–1552
Coat of arms of Verdun
Coat of arms
The Three Bishoprics of Verdun, Metz and Toul in the upper half of this map, coloured green and outlined in pink.
The Three Bishoprics of Verdun, Metz and Toul in the upper half of this map, coloured green and outlined in pink.
StatusPrince-Bishopric
CapitalVerdun
GovernmentPrince-Bishopric
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• County established
10th century
• County ceded
    to the bishopric
997
1552
• Peace of Westphalia
    recognises annexation
1648
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Verdun
Early modern France
Diocèse de Verdun
Location of Diocese of Verdun

History

This fief also included the advowson of the church of Verdun over its possessions along the river Moselle. According to a chronist's report, written around the year 900, the Merovingian king Childebert II (575–596) came to visit Verdun. There was not enough wine to serve the monarch and the Bishop Agericus was very embarrassed. However God rewarded him for his good deeds and miraculously increased the amount of wine. The king presented Agericus of Verdun with the Schloss Veldenz as a fief of Verdun "because of the wine".[1] Around 1156 Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the holding by Bishop Albert I of Verdun of the castle together with the surrounding land.

A story that Peter (774-798), successor of Madalvaeus, was granted temporal lordship of the Diocese by Charlemagne, but this is no longer accepted.[2]

Because of the destruction of the archives in a fire Bishop Dadon (880-923) commissioned the Gesta episcoporum Virodunensium (Chronicle of the Bishops of Verdun) from Bertharius, a Benedictine monk. This was continued to 1250 by a second monk, Lawrence, and later by an anonymous writer.[2]

A key element of Emperor Otto I's domestic policy was to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities at the expense of the nobility who threatened his power. To this end he filled the ranks of the episcopate with his own relatives and with loyal chancery clerks. As protector of the Church he invested them with the symbols of their offices, both spiritual and secular, so the clerics were appointed as his vassals through a commendation ceremony. Historian Norman Cantor concludes: "Under these conditions clerical election became a mere formality in the Ottonian empire ..."[3] The Bishop of Verdun, appointed by Otto, was totally faithful to the emperor.[4]

In 990 Bishop Haimont ordered the construction of a new cathedral[4] on the Romano-Rhenish plan: a nave, two transepts, two opposing apses, each one flanked by two bell towers. The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III bestowed the title Count on Bishop Haimont (990-1024) and his successors in 997. The bishops had the right to appoint a temporary "count for life" (comte viager), theoretically subject to the authority of the bishop. These counts were selected from the noble family of Ardennes. There was frequent conflict between the count and the bishop.[2]

With the marriage of Philip IV with Joan I of Navarre, the daughter of the Count of Champagne, Lorraine and particularly Verdun become a primary focus for the crown of France. After 1331, appointment to the episcopal see was controlled by the King of France rather than the Emperor.[4]

The Bishopric was annexed to France in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It then was a part of the province of the Three Bishoprics.

Bishops

Fourth century

Fifth century

  •  ???–420: Salvinus
  • ca. 440: Arator
  • 454–470: Polychronius[5]
  • 470–486: Possessor
  • 486–502: Freminus (Firminus)

Sixth century

Seventh century

  • v. 614: Harimeris
  •  ???–621: St. Ermenfred
  • 623–626: Godo
  • 641–648: Paulus
  • 648–665: Gisloald
  • 665–689: Gerebert
  • 689–701: Armonius

Eighth century

  • 701–710: Agrebert
  • 711–715: Bertalamius
  • 716: Abbo
  • 716–722: Pepo
  • 722–730: Volchisus
  • 730–732: Agronius
  • 753–774: Madalveus
  • 774–798: Peter
  • 798–802: Austram

Ninth century

  • 802–824: Heriland
  • 824–847: Hilduin
  • 847–870: Hatto
  • 870–879: Bernard
  • 880–923: Dado[6]

Tenth century

  • 923–925: Hugh I
  • 925–939: Bernuin, son of Matfried I, Count of Metz, and of Lantesinde (sister of Dado)
  • 939–959: Berengar
  • 959–983: Wigfrid
  • 983–984: Hugh II
  • 984–984: Adalbero I, later Bishop of Metz
  • 985–990: Adalbero II,[7] later Bishop of Metz.
  • 990–1024: Haimont (Heymon)

Eleventh century

  • 1024–1039: Reginbert
  • 1039–1046: Richard I
  • 1047–1089: Theoderic
  • 1089–1107: Richhar

Twelfth century

  • 1107–1114: Richard II of Grandpré
  • 1114–1117: Mazo, administrator
  • 1117–1129: Henry I of Blois, deposed at the Council of Chalon (1129)
  • 1129–1131: Ursio
  • 1131–1156: Adalbero III of Chiny
  • 1156–1162: Albert I of Marcey
  • 1163–1171: Richard III of Crisse
  • 1172–1181: Arnulf of Chiny-Verdun
  • 1181–1186: Henry II of Castel
  • 1186–1208: Albert II of Hierges

Thirteenth century

  • 1208–1216: Robert I of Grandpré
  • 1217–1224: John I of Aspremont
  • 1224–1245: Radulf of Torote
  • 1245–1245: Guy (Wido) I of Traignel
  • 1245–1247: Guy (Wido) II of Mellote
  • 1247–1252: John II of Aachen
  • 1252–1255: James (Jacques) I Pantaléon of Court-Palais
  • 1255–1271: Robert II of Médidan
  • 1271–1273: Ulrich of Sarvay
  • 1275–1278: Gerard of Grandson
  • 1278–1286: Henry III of Grandson
  • 1289–1296: James (Jacques) II of Ruvigny
  • 1297–1302: John III of Richericourt

Fourteenth century

  • 1303–1305: Thomas of Blankenberg
  • 1305–1312: Nicholas I of Neuville
  • 1312–1349: Henry IV of Aspremont
  • 1349–1351: Otto of Poitiers
  • 1352–1361: Hugh III of Bar
  • 1362–1371: John IV of Bourbon-Montperoux
  • 1371–1375: John V of Dampierre-St. Dizier
  • 1375–1379: Guy III of Roye
  • 1380–1404: Leobald of Cousance

Fifteenth century

  • 1404–1419: John VI of Saarbrücken
  • 1419–1423: Louis I of Bar († 1430), administrator
  • 1423–1423: Raymond
  • 1423–1424: William of Montjoie
  • 1424–1430: Louis I of Bar († 1430), administrator
  • 1430–1437: Louis of Haraucourt
  • 1437–1449: William Fillatre
  • 1449–1456: Louis of Haraucourt
  • 1457–1500: William of Haraucourt

Sixteenth century

  • 1500–1508: Warry de Dommartin
  • 1508–1522: Louis de Lorraine[8]
  • 1523–1544: Jean de Lorraine (1498–1550), brother of predecessor
  • 1544–1547: Nicolas de Mercœur (1524–1577), nephew of predecessor
  • 1548–1575: Nicolas Psaume
  • 1576–1584: Nicolas Bousmard
  • 1585–1587: Charles de Lorraine[9]
  • 1588–1593: Nicolas Boucher
  • 1593–1610: Eric of Lorraine[10]
    • 1593–1601: Christophe de la Vallée, administrator

Seventeenth century

  • 1610–1622: Charles de Lorraine,[11] nephew of predecessor
  • 1623–1661: François de Lorraine (1599 † 1672), brother of predecessor
  • 1667–1679: Armand de Monchy d'Hocquincourt
  • 1681–1720: Hippolyte de Béthune

Eighteenth century

  • 1721–1754: Charles-François D'Hallencourt
  • 1754–1769: Aymar-Fr.-Chrétien-Mi. de Nicolai
  • 1770–1793: Henri-Louis Rene Desnos

Until 1801 Verdun was part of the ecclesiastical province of the Archbishop of Trier. On November 29, 1801 it was suppressed and added to the Diocese of Nancy. On October 6, 1822 the diocese was re-established.

See also

External links

Notes

  1. ^ "The first Lords of the Castle and the early Counts of Veldenz", Schloss Veldenz
  2. ^ a b c Goyau, Georges. "Diocese of Verdun". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
  3. ^ Cantor, Norman F. (1994). The Civilization of the Middle Ages. p. 213, Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-092553-6
  4. ^ a b c "Verdun, a rich history", Verduntourisme
  5. ^ Smith, William; Wace, Henry (1887). A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines, vol 4. Little, Brown & Company. p. 436.
  6. ^ Gerzaguet, Jean-Pierre. "Dado of Verdun". Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, (Graeme Dunphy, ed.) Brill Online, 2016. Reference. 09 March 2016
  7. ^ Son of Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine, nephew of predecessor.
  8. ^ Son of René II, Duke of Lorraine.
  9. ^ (1561–1587), bishop of Toul from 1580 to 1587, son of Nicolas de Mercœur.
  10. ^ (1576–1623), son of Nicolas de Mercœur.
  11. ^ Saive Numismatique
Adenbach

Adenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Albert, Count of Chiny

Albert (Albert I) (before 1131 – 29 September 1162), Count of Chiny, son of Otto II, Count of Chiny, and Adélaïs of Namur. He succeeded his father before 1131 and spent most of his time in Chiny, not taking part in the various conflicts which shook the region.

He married Agnes, daughter of Renaud I, Count of Bar and Gisèle Vaudémont, daughter of Gerard, Count of Vaudémont. Their children were:

Louis III, Count of Chiny

Thierry (d. after 1207), Lord of Mellier, married Elizabeth

Arnulf of Chiny-Verdun (killed in 1181), Bishop of Verdun, 1172–1181

Alix (d. after 1177), married to Manasses of Hierges

Ida of Chiny, married to Gobert V, Lord of Aspremont (see Fredelon and the House of Esch for a discussion of their descendants)

A daughter, mother of Roger Walehem

Hughes, married to a daughter of Renaud de Donchéry

A daughter, Abbess of Givet.Arnulf was killed by an arrow to the head in front of the castle of Saint Manehulde during an attack on the bishopric of Verdun.

Alix and Mannases were the parents of Albert II of Hierges, Bishop of Verdun (1186–1208). Ida and Gobert were the grandparents of John I of Aspremont, Bishop of Verdun (1217–1224).

Albert was succeeded as Count of Chiny by his son Louis.

Alexandre Angélique de Talleyrand-Périgord

Alexandre Angélique de Talleyrand-Périgord (16 October 1736, Paris – 20 October 1821, Paris) was a French churchman and politician, and the paternal uncle of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754–1838).

Chênée

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County of Verdun

The County of Verdun was a medieval county in the Duchy of Lower Lorraine.

County of Zweibrücken

The County of Zweibrücken (German: Grafschaft Zweibrücken) was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire named for Zweibrücken in the contemporary Land Rhineland-Palatinate. It was created in between 1182 and 1190 from an inheritance division of the county of Saarbrücken and lasted until 1394.

Cronenberg, Rhineland-Palatinate

Cronenberg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Dennweiler-Frohnbach

Dennweiler-Frohnbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kusel-Altenglan, whose seat is in Kusel.

The municipality arose from the merger of the two formerly self-administering municipalities of Dennweiler and Frohnbach.

Frei-Laubersheim

Frei-Laubersheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Bad Kreuznach, whose seat is in the like-named town, although this lies outside the Verbandsgemeinde. Frei-Laubersheim is a winegrowing village.

Ginsweiler

Ginsweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Lütz

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Medard

Medard is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Nicolas Psaume

Nicolas Psaume (1518, in Chaumont-sur-Aire – 10 August 1575, in Verdun) was a count-bishop of Verdun and prince of the Holy Roman Empire. The Bishopric of Verdun was then a French-speaking State of the Holy Roman Empire. Nicolas Psaume was originary from the Duchy of Bar.

Odenbach

Odenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Robert VIII Bertrand de Bricquebec

Robert VIII Bertrand de Bricquebec (c.1273-3 August 1348), also known as Robert Bertrand, Baron of Bricquebec, Viscount of Roncheville, was a 14th century Norman noble. He served as Marshal of France from 1325 until 1344.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Langres

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Langres (Latin: Dioecesis Lingonensis; French: Diocèse de Langres) is a Roman Catholic diocese comprising the département of Haute-Marne in France.

The diocese is now a suffragan in ecclesiastical province of the Archdiocese of Reims, having been a suffragan of Lyon until 2002. The current Bishop is Joseph Marie Edouard de Metz-Noblat, who succeeded Bishop Philippe Jean Marie Joseph Gueneley on 21 January 2014. The diocese covers a territory of 6,250 km2 and its estimated catholic population is 140,000.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Verdun

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Verdun (Latin: Dioecesis Virodunensis; French: Diocèse de Verdun) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Currently a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Besançon, the diocese corresponds to the department of Meuse in the Region of Lorraine. The diocese is subdivided into 577 parishes.

Saintin de Meaux

Saintin de Meaux (or Saint Santin also known as Saint Sanctin, fr. Saint-Santin de Meaux, lat. Sanctinus, c. 270 - 356, Meaux) was a French bishop and missionary. As the relic of Saintin de Meaux is his tooth in the Verdun Cathedral. St. Saintin's teacher was St. Denis.

Verdun

Verdun (; French pronunciation: ​[vɛʁ.dœ̃] official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department.

Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is Bar-le-Duc which is slightly smaller than Verdun. It is well known for giving its name to a major battle of the First World War.

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