Biryani

Biryani (pronounced [bɪr.jaːniː]), also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, is a mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.[1][2][3] This dish is especially popular throughout the Indian subcontinent, as well as among the diaspora from the region. It is also prepared in other regions such as Iraqi Kurdistan.[4] It is made with Indian spices, rice, meat (chicken, goat, beef, prawn, or fish), vegetables or eggs.

Biryani
India food
Hyderabadi Biryani (left) served with other Indian dishes.
Alternative namesBiriyani, Biriani, Briyani, Breyani, Briani, Birani.
CourseMain dish
Place of originNorth India
Region or stateDhaka, Chittagong, Kolkata, Punjab, Hyderabad, Awadh, Kannur, Kozhikode, Mumbai, Palakkad, Thalassery, Malappuram, Dindigul, Sindh, Delhi, Malabar, Chettinad
Main ingredients
  • Rice
  • Indian spices
  • Meat
  • Vegetables
  • Dahi
Ingredients generally used
  • Eggs
  • Nuts
  • Dried fruits
  • Potatoes
VariationsMany

Etymology

Biryani is a Hindustani word derived from the Persian language, which was used as an official language in different parts of medieval India by various Islamic dynasties.[5][6] One theory states that it originated from birinj, the Persian word for rice.[7][8] Another theory states that it is derived from biryan or beriyan, which means "to fry" or "to roast."[9][10]

Origin

The exact origin of the dish is uncertain. In North India, different varieties of biryani developed in the Muslim centers of Delhi (Mughlai cuisine), Lucknow (Awadhi cuisine) and other small principalities. In South India, where rice is more widely used as a staple food, several distinct varieties of biryani emerged from Telangana (specifically Hyderabad), Tamil Nadu (Ambur), Kerala (Malabar), and Karnataka, where Muslim communities were present. Andhra is the only region of South India that does not have many native varieties of biryani.[7][11] During the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia, a dish called Berian Pilao (Nastaliq script: بریان پلو) was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with dahi, herbs, spices, dried fruits (e.g., raisins, prunes, or pomegranate seeds) — and later cooked in a tandoor oven. It was then served with steamed rice.

According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf.[12] Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, and was brought to India by the Mughals.[13] Another theory claims that the dish was prepared in India before the first Mughal emperor Babur came to India.[14] The 16th-century Mughal text Ain-i-Akbari makes no distinction between biryanis and pilaf (or pulao): it states that the word "biryani" is of older usage in India.[15] A similar theory, that biryani came to India with Timur's invasion, appears to be incorrect, because there is no record of biryani having existed in his native land during that period.[14]

According to Pratibha Karan, the biryani is of South Indian origin, derived from pilaf varieties brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Arab traders. She speculates that the pulao was an army dish in medieval India. The armies, unable to cook elaborate meals, would prepare a one-pot dish where they cooked rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between "pulao" and "biryani" being arbitrary.[7][14] According to Vishwanath Shenoy, the owner of a biryani restaurant chain in India, one branch of biryani comes from the Mughals, while another was brought by the Arab traders to Malabar in South India.[16]

Difference between biryani and pulao

Indian biryani

Biryani contains more gravy and is cooked for longer with condiments.

Mirchi ka salan and Dahi chutney

Two biryani accompaniments: mirchi ka salan and dahi chutney.

Pilaf or pulao, as it is known in the Indian subcontinent, is another mixed rice dish popular in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent and Middle Eastern cuisine. Opinions differ on the differences between pulao and biryani, and whether actually there is a difference between the two.[17]

According to Delhi-based historian Sohail Nakhvi, pulao tends to be comparatively plainer than the biryani and consists of meat (or vegetables) cooked with rice. Biryani, on the other hand, contains more gravy (due to the use of yakhni in it), and is often cooked for longer, leaving the meat or vegetables more tender. Biryani is also cooked with additional dressings.[18] Pratibha Karan states that while the terms are often applied arbitrarily, the main distinction is that a biryani consists of two layers of rice with a layer of meat (or vegetables) in the middle; whereas, the pulao is not layered.[14]

Colleen Taylor Sen lists the following distinctions between biryani and pulao:[19]

  • Biryani is the primary dish in a meal, while the pulao is usually a secondary accompaniment to a larger meal
  • In biryani, meat and rice are cooked separately before being layered and cooked together. Pulao is a single-pot dish: meat and rice are simmered in a liquid until the liquid is absorbed. However, some other writers, such as Holly Shaffer (based on her observations in Lucknow), R. K. Saxena and Sangeeta Bhatnagar have reported pulao recipes in which the rice and meat are cooked separately and then mixed before the dum cooking.[17][20]
  • Biryanis have more complex and stronger spices compared to pulao. The British-era author Abdul Halim Sharar mentions the following as their primary difference: biryani has a stronger taste of curried rice due to a greater amount of spices.[17][21]

Ingredients

Ingredients vary according to the region and the type of meat used. Meat (of either chicken, goat, beef, lamb[22], prawn or fish) is the prime ingredient with rice. As is common in dishes of the Indian subcontinent, some vegetables are also used when preparing biryani. Corn may be used depending on the season and availability. Navratan biryani tends to use sweeter, richer ingredients such as cashews, kismis and fruits, such as apples and pineapples.[18]

The spices and condiments used in biryani may include ghee (clarified butter), nutmeg, mace,[23] pepper, cloves,[23] cardamom, cinnamon, bay leaves, coriander, mint leaves, ginger, onions, tomatoes, green chilies[24], and garlic. The premium varieties include saffron.[23] In all biryanis, the main ingredient that accompanies the spices is the chicken or goat meat; special varieties might use beef or seafood instead. The dish may be served with dahi chutney or raita, korma, curry, a sour dish of aubergine (brinjal), boiled egg, and salad.

Varieties

Kacchi biryani

For kacchi biryani, raw marinated meat is layered with raw rice before being cooked together. It is also known as kacchi yeqni. It is typically cooked with chicken or goat meat and occasionally with fish or prawns. The dish is cooked layered with the meat and a dahi-based marinade at the bottom of the cooking pot. A layer of rice (usually basmati rice or chinigura rice) is placed over it. Potatoes are often added before adding the rice layer. The pot is usually sealed (typically with wheat dough) to allow it to cook in its own steam and it is not opened until it is ready to serve.

Tehari

Tehari, tehri or tehari are various names for the vegetarian version of biryani. It was developed for the Hindu bookkeepers of the Muslim Nawabs. It is prepared by adding the potatoes to the rice, as opposed to the case of traditional biryani, where the rice is added to the meat. In Kashmir, tehari is sold as street food. Tehari became more popular during World War II, when meat prices increased substantially and potatoes became the popular substitute in biryani.

Beef biryani

Food-Beef-Biryani-2
Beef biryani
Beef biryani, as the name implies, uses beef as the meat. In Hyderabad, it is famous as Kalyani biryani, in which buffalo or cow meat is used.[25][26] This meal was started after the Kalyani Nawabs of Bidar came to Hyderabad sometime in the 18th century. The Kalyani biryani is made with small cubes of beef, regular spices, onions and lots of tomatoes. It has a distinct tomato, jeera and dhania flavor.[27] In Kerala, beef biryani is well known.[28] The Bhatkali biryani is a special biryani where the main ingredient is onion. It was created by the Arab settlers who married the local Jain women. Its variations include beef, goat, chicken, titar, egg, fish, crab, prawn and vegetable biryani.

In the Indian subcontinent

Vegetable Biriyani.jpeg
Hyderabadi vegetable biryani served in Tampa, U.S.

There are many types of biryani, whose names are often based on their region of origin. For example, Sindhi biryani developed in the Sindh region of what is now Pakistan, and Hyderabadi biryani developed in the city of Hyderabad in South India. Some have taken the name of the shop that sells it, for example: Haji Biriyani, Haji Nanna Biriyani in Old Dhaka[29], Fakhruddin Biriyani in Dhaka,[30][31] Students biryani in Karachi, Lucky biryani in Bandra, Mumbai and Baghdadi biryani in Colaba, Mumbai.[18] Biryanis are often specific to the respective Muslim communities where they originate, as they are usually the defining dishes of those communities. Cosmopolitanism has also led to the creation of these native versions to suit the tastes of others as well.[32]

Delhi biryani

The Delhi version of the biryani developed a unique local flavor as the Mughal kings shifted their political capital to the North Indian city of Delhi. Until the 1950s, most people cooked biryani in their home and rarely ate at eateries outside of their homes. Hence, restaurants primarily catered to travelers and merchants. Any region that saw more of these two classes of people nurtured more restaurants, and thus their own versions of biryani. This is the reason why most shops that sold biryani in Delhi, tended to be near mosques such as Jama Masjid (for travellers) or traditional shopping districts (such as Chandni Chowk). Each part of Delhi has its own style of biryani, often based on its original purpose, thus giving rise to Nizamuddin biryani, Shahjahanabad biryani, etc. Nizamuddin biryani usually had little expensive meat and spices as it was primarily meant to be made in bulk for offering at the Nizamuddin Dargah shrine and thereafter to be distributed to devotees.[18] A non-dum biryani, using a lot of green chillies, popularized by the Babu Shahi Bawarchi shops located outside the National Sports Club in Delhi is informally called Babu Shahi biryani. Another version of Delhi biryani uses achaar (pickles) and is called achaari biryani.[33]

Dhakaiya Haji Biriyani

Bangladeshi Biryani
Dhakaiya biriyani
The city of Dhaka in Bangladesh is known for selling Chevon Biryani, a dish made with highly seasoned rice and goat meat. The recipe includes: highly seasoned rice, goat meat, mustard oil, garlic, onion, black pepper, saffron, clove, cardamom, cinnamon, salt, lemon, doi, peanuts, cream, raisins and a small amount of cheese (either from cows or buffalo). Haji biryani is a favourite among Bangladeshis living abroad.[34] A recipe was handed down by the founder of one Dhaka restaurant to the next generation. Haji Mohammad Shahed claimed, "I have never changed anything, not even the amount of salt".[35]
Dhakaiya Kacchi Biryani is accompanied by borhani, a salted mint drink made of yogurt, boiled eggs and salt.

Sindhi biryani

The exotic and aromatic Sindhi biryani is known in Pakistan for its spicy taste, fragrant rice and delicate meat. Sindhi biryani is a beloved staple in food menus of Pakistani and Sindhi cuisine. Sindhi biryani is prepared with meat and a mixture of basmati rice, vegetables and various spices. Sindhi Biryani is often served by Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) on most of their international flights. A special version of Sindhi biryani sold by a shop in Karachi called the Students Center is popularly called "Students biryani."[36]

Hyderabadi biryani

Hyderabadi biryani is one of India's most famous biryanis; some say biryani is synonymous with Hyderabad.[37] The crown dish of the Hyderabadi Muslims, Hyderabadi biryani developed under the rule of Asaf Jah I, who was first appointed as the governor of Deccan by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. It is made with basmati rice, spices and goat meat. Popular variations use chicken instead of goat meat. There are various forms of Hyderabadi biryani. One such biryani is the kachay gosht ki biryani or the dum biryani, where the goat meat is marinated and cooked along with the rice. It is left on a slow fire or dum for a fragrant and aromatic flavour.[38]. One more variation is dum cooked Hyderabad veg biryani for vegetarians. [39]

Thalassery biryani

Thalassery biryani is the variation of biryani found in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the many dishes of the Malabar Muslim community, and very popular.[40]
The ingredients are chicken, spices and the specialty is the choice of rice called Khyma. Khyma rice is generally mixed with ghee. Although a large number of spices such as mace, cashew nuts, sultana raisins, fennel-cumin seeds, tomato, onion, ginger, garlic, shallot, cloves and cinnamon are used,[41] there is only a small amount of chili (or chili powder) used in its preparation.
A pakki biryani, the Thalassery biryani uses a small-grained thin (not round) fragrant variety of rice known as Khyma or Jeerakasala. The dum method of preparation (sealing the lid with dough (maida) or cloth and placing red-hot charcoal above the lid) is applied here.

Kolkata biryani

Calcutta or Kolkata biryani evolved from the Lucknow style, when Awadh's last Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was exiled in 1856 to the Kolkata suburb of Metiabruz.[16] Shah brought his personal chef with him. The poorer households of Kolkata, which could not afford meat, used potatoes instead, which went on to become a specialty of the Calcutta biryani. The Calcutta biryani primarily uses meat and potatoes. However, this theory is vehemently opposed by Janab Shahanshah Mirza, great great grandson of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. According to him, Awadh's last ruler used to get an annual pension of Rs.12 Lakh and he was the highest paid pensioner in India. He was an animal lover and had set up a zoo in Kolkata. He used to spend about 25% of his pension on the maintenance of zoo and upkeep of animals. A man who can spend a substantial part of his income on the welfare of animals can certainly afford meat in his biryani, argues Mirza. He points out that potatoes were first introduced in Surat in the 17th century. They slowly spread to different regions and were brought to Bengal by English traders. In those days, potato was an exotic vegetable and because of low yield it was extremely expensive. The chefs who had accompanied Nawab Wajid Ali Shah tried various combinations and experiments to enhance the taste of biryani. On one such occasion potatoes were added while cooking the biryani. It appealed to the taste buds of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. He was so pleased that he ordered that henceforth whenever biryani was cooked it should be with this vegetable.
The Calcutta biryani is much lighter on spices. The marinade uses primarily nutmeg, cinnamon, mace along with cloves and cardamom in the dahi-based marinade for the meat which is cooked separately from rice. This combination of spices gives it a distinct flavour compared to other styles of biryani. The rice is flavoured with ketaki water or rose water along with saffron to give it flavour and a light yellowish colour.

Ambur/Vaniyambadi biryani

Ambur/Vaniyambadi biryani is a type of biryani cooked in the neighboring towns of Ambur and Vaniyambadi in the Vellore district of the northeastern part of Tamil Nadu, which has a high Muslim population. It was introduced by the Nawabs of Arcot who once ruled the area.[42]
The Ambur/Vaniyambadi biryani is accompanied with 'dhalcha,' a sour brinjal curry and pachadi' or raitha, which is sliced onions mixed with plain curd, tomato, chilies and salt. It has a distinctive aroma and is considered light on the stomach. The usage of spice is moderate and curd is used as a gravy base. It also has a higher ratio of meat to rice.[15]

Chettinad biryani

Chettinad biryani is famous in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is made of jeeraka samba rice, and smells of spices and ghee. It is best taken with nenju elumbu kuzhambu, a spicy and tangy goat meat gravy. The podi kozhi is usually topped with fried onions and curry leaves.[43][44][45][46]

Bhatkali/Navayathi biryani

This is an integral part of the Navayath cuisine and a specialty of Bhatkal, a coastal town in Karnataka. Its origins are traced to the Persian traders who left behind not only biryani but a variation of kababs and Indian breads. In Bhatkali biryani the meat is cooked in an onion and green chili based masala and layered with fragrant rice. It has a unique spicy and heady flavour, and the rice is overwhelmingly white with mild streaks of orange. Though similar to those in Thalassery and Kozhikode, this biryani differs with lingering after-notes of mashed onions laced with garlic. A few chilies and spices littered with curry leaves lends a unique flavour to Bhatkal biryani. No oil is used.[47]

Memoni/Kutchi biryani

Memoni biryani is an extremely spicy variety developed by the Memons of Gujarat-Sindh region in India and Pakistan.[16] It is made with lamb, dahi, fried onions, and potatoes, and fewer tomatoes compared to Sindhi biryani. Memoni biryani also uses less food colouring compared to other biryanis, allowing the rich colours of the various meats, rice, and vegetables to blend without too much orange colouring.

Dindigul biryani

The Dindigul town of Tamil Nadu is noted for its biryani, which uses a little curd and lemon juice for a tangy taste.[48]

Bohri biryani

The Bohri biryani, prepared by the Bohris is flavoured with a lot of tomatoes.[16] It is very popular in Karachi.

Kalyani biryani

Kalyani biryani is a typical biryani from the former state of Hyderabad Deccan.[49] Also known as the 'poor man's' Hyderabadi biryani, Kalyani biryani is always made from small cubes of buffalo meat.
The meat is flavoured with ginger, garlic, turmeric, red chili, cumin, coriander powder, lots of onion and tomato. It is first cooked as a thick curry and then cooked along with rice. Then given dum (the Indian method of steaming in a covered pot).
Kalyani biryani is supposed to have originated in Bidar during the reign of the Kalyani Nawabs, who migrated to Hyderabad after one of the nawabs, Ghazanfur Jang married into the Asaf Jahi family. Kalyani biryani was served by the Kalyani nawabs to all of their subjects who came from Bidar to Hyderabad and stayed or visited their devdi or noble mansion.
This was the practice for many decades. But after Operation Polo when the Indian army took over Hyderabad State, the state of the nobles went into decline. Some of their illustrious cooks set up their own stalls and introduced Kalyani biryani to the local populace of Hyderabad state.

Sri Lankan biryani

Chicken Biryani
Sri Lankan chicken biryani
Biryani was brought into Sri Lanka by the South Indian Muslims who were trading in the Northern part of Sri Lanka and in Colombo in the early 1900s. In Sri Lanka, it is Buryani, a colloquial word which generated from Buhari Biryani. In many cases, Sri Lankan biryani is much spicier than most Indian varieties. Side dishes may include acchar, Malay pickle, cashew curry and mint sambol.

Rawther biryani

This type of biryani is popular in the Palakkad and Coimbatore regions. This was most commonly prepared by Rawther families in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. This type of biryani is cooked in a different style. Goat meat is most commonly used and it is entirely different from malabar biryani.

Outside the Indian subcontinent

Burma

Kyet Shar Soon biryani
A dish of Burmese biryani (locally known as danpauk), as served at Kyet Shar

In Myanmar (Burma), biryani is known in Burmese as danpauk or danbauk, from the Persian dum pukht. Featured ingredients include: cashew nuts, yogurt, raisins and peas, chicken, cloves, cinnamon, saffron and bay leaf. In Burmese biryani, the chicken is cooked with the rice.[50] Biryani is also eaten with a salad of sliced onions and cucumber.

Middle East

One form of "Arabic" biryani is the Iraqi preparation (برياني: "biryani"), where the rice is usually saffron-based with chicken usually being the meat or poultry of choice. It is most popular in Iraqi Kurdistan. Most variations also include vermicelli, fried onions, fried potato cubes, almonds and raisins spread liberally over the rice.[16] Sometimes, a sour/spicy tomato sauce is served on the side (maraq).

In Iran, during the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), a dish called Berian (Nastaliq script: بریان پلو) was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with yogurt, herbs, spices, dried fruits like raisins, prunes or pomegranate seeds — and later cooked in a tannour oven. It was then served with steamed rice.

Afghan biryani

A different dish called biryan is popular in Afghanistan. Biryan traces its origins to the same source as biryani, and is today sold in Afghanistan as well as in Bhopal, India. Biryan is prepared by cooking gosht and rice together, but without the additional gravy (yakhni) and other condiments that are used in biryani. The Delhi-based historian Sohail Hashmi refers to the biryan as midway between the pulao and biryani. The Afghani biryani tends to use a lot of dry fruit and lesser amounts of meat, often cut into tiny pieces.[18]

Indonesia

Nasi kebuli is an Indonesian spicy steamed rice dish cooked in goat meat broth, milk and ghee. Nasi kebuli is descended from Kabuli Palaw which is an Afghani rice dish, similar to biryani served in the Indian subcontinent.[51]

Singapore and Malaysia

Mutton briyani from Little India, Singapore - 20130719
Mutton biryani at Little India, Singapore.

Nasi Briyani dishes are very popular in Malaysia and Singapore. As an important part of Malaysian Indian cuisine, they are popularized through Mamak stalls, hawker centres, food courts as well as fine dining restaurants.

Mauritius

Biryani dishes are very popular in Mauritius especially at Hindu and Muslim weddings. It is also widely available at street food places.

Philippines

Kapampangan cuisine of the Philippines (often in Pampanga) features a special dish called Nasing Biringyi (chicken saffron rice), that is typically prepared only during special occasions such as weddings, family get-togethers or fiestas. It is not a staple of the Philippino diet as it is difficult to prepare compared to other usual dishes. Nasing Biringyi is similar to the Nasi Briyani dish of Malaysia in style and taste, but is also compared to a saffron-cooked version of Spanish Paella.[52]

South Africa

In the Cape Malay culture, a variation of biryani incorporates lentils as a key ingredient in the dish along with meat (usually goat meat or chicken). The dish may be seasoned with garam masala or a curry spice mix (though this is not authentic to the local style) and coloured, sometimes heavily, with turmeric.

Thailand

Khaomhokkhai
Khao mhok ghai (Thai biryani with chicken)

Biryani in Thailand is commonly known as khao mhok (Thai: ข้าวหมก). It is commonly paired with chicken, beef or even fish and topped with fried garlic. The dish is common in Thai cuisine and often served with a green sour sauce.

See also

References

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  40. ^ Karan, Pratibha (2012). Biryani. Random House India. ISBN 978-8-18400-254-6.
  41. ^ Abdulla, Ummi (1993). Malabar Muslim Cookery. Orient Blackswan. p. 2. ISBN 978-8125013495.
  42. ^ "Easy chicken Biriyani Recipe". Viralvidos.com. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  43. ^ Nath, Parshathy J. (23 June 2016). "All the way from Karaikudi". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  44. ^ Verma, Rahul (1 August 2014). "Little Chettinad in East Delhi". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  45. ^ "Delicious destinations: From Dindigul biryani to Bikaneri bhujia". Indian Express. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  46. ^ Kannadasan, Akila (12 July 2016). "When Hyderabad came to Chennai". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  47. ^ Kumar, K. C. Vijaya (16 March 2013). "In search of Bhatkal Biryani". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  48. ^ "Biryani bistro". The Hindu. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  49. ^ "Stuff of memories". The Hindu. 10 February 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  50. ^ Pham, Mai (11 October 2000). "The Burmese Way / A visit to the land of pagodas and enchanting cuisine". The San Francisco Chronicle. Burmese chicken biryani differs from its Indian counterpart: the chicken is cooked with the rice.
  51. ^ "Sajian Kebuli, Mandi, dan Biryani". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). 6 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  52. ^ "Come Taste My Philippines — the food of Pampanga". A Bouche Amused. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2018.

External links

  • Media related to Biryani at Wikimedia Commons
  • Biryani at Wikibook Cookbooks
Baghaar-e-baingan

Baghaar-e-baingan (Urdu: بگھارے بیگن ‎) is a popular Indian cuisine brinjal curry of Hyderabad. It is also used as a side dish with the Hyderabadi biryani.

Bahraini cuisine

The cuisine of Bahrain consists of dishes such as Biryani, Harees, Khabeesa, Machboos, Mahyawa, Maglooba, Qouzi and Zalabia. Qahwah is the national beverage.

Bahrain is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. Much of the Cuisine of Bahrain is a mixture of Arabic, Persian, Indian, Balochi, African, Far East and European food due to the influence of the various communities present as Bahrain was an important sea port and trading junction since ancient times.

Cuisine of Karachi

Karachi Cuisine (Urdu: کراچی کا پکوان‎) refers to the food found mainly in the city of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The cuisine of Karachi is strongly influenced by the city's Urdu speaking Muslims, also known as Muhajir population, who came from northern India and settled in Karachi after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Most Urdu speaking Muslims have traditionally been based in Karachi, hence the city is known for Muhajir tastes in its cuisine. Urdu speaking Muslims maintained their old established culinary traditions, including variety of dishes and beverages.

The Mughal and Hyderabadi cuisine played an influential role in the making of their cuisine, having taste vary from mild to spicy and is often associated with aroma. In comparison to other Pakistani dishes, Muhajir cuisine tends to use stronger spices and flavors. Most of a dastarkhawan dining table include chapatti, rice, dal, vegetable and meat curry. Special dishes include biryani, Pulao, qorma, Paya, kofta, seekh kabab, Nihari, Haleem, Nargisi Koftay, Kata-Kat, Rogani Naan, Naan, sheer-qurma (sweet), chai (sweet, milky tea), and paan.

The food of Urdu speaking Muslims is renowned for its cultural fusion, due to Muhajirs migrating from the different ethnic and regions of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Bengali cuisine, Gujarati cuisine, Bihari cuisine, Uttar Pradeshi cuisine and Muslim Hyderabadi cuisine collaboratively had an influence on the style of Muhajir food. The Pakistani cuisines such as Sindhi cuisine, Punjabi cuisine, Pashtun cuisine, Kalash cuisine, Saraiki cuisine, Kashmiri cuisine, Balochi cuisine, and other regional cuisines have also influenced the cuisine of Karachi.

Cuisine of muhajir people of Hyderabad Deccan (now Hyderabad, India)

Dahi chutney

Dahi chutney is strained dahi that is mixed into a chutney of mint and onions, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is popular in South India and is a side dish for the popular Hyderabadi biryani.

Handi

A handi is a deep, wide-mouthed cooking vessel used in north Indian, Pakistani and Bengali cooking. Because there are many specific Indian and Pakistani dishes cooked in this vessel, their names reflect its use, such as handi biryani.

A handi is also known as a tasla or tasli in many provinces of India. These names are given on the basis of its size and design. Tasla/tasli have a less wide mouth than handi and are much deeper; they resemble a pot with a wider mouth.

Handis resemble American beanpots, French soupières, and Mexican and Spanish ollas. They are used similarly.

Hyderabadi biryani

Hyderabadi biryani (Urdu: حیدرآبادی بریانی‎) is a variety of biryani from Hyderabad, India. It is prepared from rice using the dum method of cooking.

Hyderabadi cuisine

Hyderabadi cuisine (native: Hyderabadi Ghizaayat), also known as Deccani cuisine, is the native cooking style of the Hyderabadi Muslims, and began to develop after the foundation of the Bahmani Sultanate, and more drastically with the Qutb Shahi dynasty around the city of Hyderabad, promoting the native cuisine along with their own. Hyderabadi cuisine had become a princely legacy of the Nizams of Hyderabad State, as it began to further develop further on from there. It is an amalgamation of Mughal, Turkish, and Arabic along with the influence of the native Telugu and Marathwada cuisines. Hyderabadi cuisine comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices, herbs and natural edibles.Hyderabadi cuisine has different recipes for different events, and hence is categorized accordingly, from banquet food, for weddings and parties, festival foods, and travel foods. The category to which the recipe belongs itself speaks of different things like the time required to prepare the food, the shelf life of the prepared item, etc.Mehboob Alam Khan is a foremost expert on the Hyderabadi cuisine.

Kurdish cuisine

Kurdish cuisine (Kurdish: چێشتی کوردی‎ Çêştî Kurdî) consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people. There are cultural similarities of Kurds and their immediate neighbours in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia. Some dishes, such as biryani, are shared with the Indian subcontinent. Kurdish food is typical of western Asian cuisine.

Kuwaiti cuisine

Kuwaiti cuisine is an infusion of Arabian, Persian, Indian, and Mediterranean cuisines. A prominent dish in Kuwaiti cuisine is machboos, a rice-based specialty usually prepared with basmati rice seasoned with spices, and chicken or mutton (pork is highly restricted due to religious reasons).

Seafood is a very significant part of the Kuwaiti diet, especially fish. Local favorites are hamour (grouper), which is typically served grilled, fried, or with biryani rice because of its texture and taste, Zbaidi, safi (rabbitfish), and sobaity (bream).

Kuwait's traditional flatbread is called Iranian khubz. It is a large flatbread baked in a special oven and they often top it with sesame seeds. Numerous local bakeries dot the country, the bakers are mainly Iranians (hence the name of the bread Iranian khubuz). Bread is often served with mahyawa fish sauce.

There are many other available cuisines due to the international workforce in Kuwait.

Luchi

Luchi is a deep-fried flatbread, originating from the Indian subcontinent, possibly Bengal region, made of Maida flour.

Mirchi ka salan

Mirchi ka salan (Urdu: مرچی کا سالن‎), or curried chilli peppers, is a popular chilli and peanut curry of Hyderabad, Telangana, India that usually accompanies Hyderabadi biryani. The dish contains green chilli peppers, peanuts, sesame seeds, dry coconut, cumin seeds, ginger and garlic paste, turmeric powder, bay leaf, and thick tamarind juice.

Mirchi ka salan is a traditional Hyderabadi dish prepared in weddings and special occasions. It is a spicy dish served with rice or chapati. The mirchi (chilli peppers) are cooked in spices and mixed with a ground peanut paste which gives the dish a grainy texture.

Nasi kebuli

Nasi kebuli (Kabuli Rice; Arabic: الرز الكابلى‎; Arabic pronunciation: [Ka:buly:]) is an Indonesian style spicy steamed rice dish cooked in goat broth, milk, and ghee. It is popular among the Arab community in Indonesia and Betawi people in Jakarta. Nasi kebuli was influenced by Arab culture and its origin can be traced to Middle eastern cuisine, especially Yemeni Arabian influence (Mandi rice) or Kabsa, and also Indian cuisine influence (Biryani rice).

In Betawi culture, Nasi kebuli usually served during Islamic religious festivities, such as hari raya lebaran, kurban or maulid nabi (birthday of Muhammad). Nasi kebuli also popular in cities with significant Arab descendants, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Surakarta and Gresik.

Paneer tikka masala

Paneer tikka masala is an Indian dish of marinated paneer cheese served in a spiced gravy. It is a vegetarian alternative to chicken tikka masala.

Pulihora

Puliyodarai (puli referring to tamarind in Tamil), Puliyodarai, Puliyogare or simply Tamarind Rice is a common rice preparation in the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Karnataka. Puli in puliyodarai can be translated as "sour taste", referring to the characterizing use of tamarind as one of the main ingredients.

Shrikhand

Shrikhand is an Indian sweet dish made of strained dahi (yogurt).

Sindhi biryani

Sindhi Biryani is a special meat and rice biryani dish originating from the Sindh province of Pakistan. Owing to its popularity, it forms one of the most consumed dishes of Pakistani cuisine and Sindhi cuisine. Sindhi biryani is served in nearly all the flights of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).

Tahri (dish)

Tahri (also tehri, tehari or tayari) is a yellow rice dish in Awadhi cuisine. Spices are added to plain cooked rice for flavor and colour. In one version of Tehri, potatoes are added to the rice. However, in many areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan, red meat is also added to the rice to give more flavour, aroma and texture to the dish. This dish is most popular in Bangladesh, Pakistan and North India.

Tehri and tehari are variants on the name given to the vegetarian version of biryani. It was developed for the Hindu bookkeepers of the Muslim Nawab rulers in South Asia. Tehri became more popular during the Second World War when meat prices increased substantially and potato became the popular substitute in biryani. It is prepared by adding the potatoes to the rice, as opposed to the traditional method of preparing biryani, in which the rice is added to the meat. In Kashmir, tehari is sold as street food.

Thalassery cuisine

Thalassery Cuisine refers to the distinct cuisine from Thalassery town of northern Kerala, that has blended in Arabian, Persian, Indian and European styles of cooking as a result of its long history as a maritime trading post.

Thalassery is known for its biryani (in local dialect, biri-yaa-ni). Unlike other biriyani cuisines Thalassery biryani uses Kaima/Jeerakasala rice instead of the usual basmati rice. The influence of Arabian/Mughal culture is evident, especially in the dishes of the Muslim community, although many have become popular among all communities.Thalassery also occupies a special place in the modern history of Kerala as the pioneer of its bakery industry, since the first bakery was started by Mambally Bapu in 1880 and the western style cakes were introduced in 1883.

Vindaloo

Vindaloo is an Indian curry dish popular in the region of Goa, the surrounding Konkan, and many other parts of India. It is known globally in its British Indian form as a staple of curry house and Indian restaurant menus, often regarded as a fiery, spicy dish, even though it may not necessarily be the spiciest dish available.

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