Bird hybrid

A bird hybrid is a bird that has two different species as parents. The resulting bird can present with any combination of characters from the parent species, from totally identical to completely different. Usually, the bird hybrid shows intermediate characteristics between the two species. A "successful" hybrid is one demonstrated to produce fertile offspring. According to the most recent estimates, about 16% of all wild bird species species have been known to hybridize with one another; this number increases to 22% when captive hybrids are taken into account.[1]

In the wild, some of the most frequently reported hybrids are waterfowl,[2] gulls,[3] hummingbirds,[4] and birds-of-paradise.[5] Mallards, whether of wild or domestic origin, hybridize with other ducks so often that multiple duck species are at risk of extinction because of it.[6][7] In gulls, Western x Glaucous-winged Gulls (known as "Olympic Gulls") are particularly common; these hybrids are fertile and may be more evolutionarily fit than either parent species.[8] At least twenty different hummingbird hybrid combinations have been reported, and intergeneric hybrids are not uncommon within the family.[9][10]

Wood-warblers are known to hybridize as well, and an unusual three-species warbler hybrid was discovered in May 2018.[11] Hybridisation in shorebirds is unusual but reliably recorded.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Numerous gamebird, domestic fowl and duck hybrids are known. Captive songbird hybrids are sometimes called mules.[20]

The scientific literature on hybridization in birds has been collected at the Avian Hybrids Project.[21]

Hybrid goose

An intergeneric hybrid between Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus)

Goldfinch Canary hybrid

A mule, a hybrid between domestic canary and goldfinch

Cockatoo hybrid -Flying High Bird Habitat, Australia-8a

A probable galah x little corella intergeneric hybrid

Blackxhazel

Hybrid pheasant (left) and hybrid of black grouse × hazel grouse (right)

See also

References

  1. ^ Ottenburghs, Jente; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Hooft, Pim Van; Wieren, Sipke E. Van; Prins, Herbert H. T. (2015-10-01). "The Avian Hybrids Project: gathering the scientific literature on avian hybridization". Ibis. 157 (4): 892–894. doi:10.1111/ibi.12285. ISSN 1474-919X.
  2. ^ "Waterfowl Hybrids". www.ducks.org. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  3. ^ www.bsc-eoc.org (PDF) https://www.bsc-eoc.org/volunteer/bccws/Resources/GullIDGuideImm.pdf. Retrieved 2018-12-04. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "Which Birds Produce the Most Hybrids?". Audubon. 2018-04-20. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  5. ^ "Hybrid Species of Bird of Paradise or Cendrawasih | Beauty of Birds". www.beautyofbirds.com. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  6. ^ "Mottled Duck Overview, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". www.allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  7. ^ "Hawaiian Duck - Introduction". Birds of North America Online, birdsna.org. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  8. ^ Appleton, Dave (2014-06-05). "Bird Hybrids: Western Gull x Glaucous-winged Gull". Bird Hybrids. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  9. ^ says, It’s complicated: Hybrid hummingbirds in Mexico-Avian Hybrids (2014-12-12). "Apodiformes". Avian Hybrids. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  10. ^ "westtexashummingbirds.com: Hybrids". Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  11. ^ GrrlScientist. "Scientists Discover A Rare Bird That's A Hybrid Of Three Different Species". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  12. ^ Jehl, J. R. Jr. (1985). "Hybridization and evolution of oystercatchers on the Pacific Coast of Baja California". Ornithological Monographs. 36 (36): 484–504. doi:10.2307/40168300. JSTOR 40168300.
  13. ^ Jonsson, Lars (1996). "Mystery stint at Groote Keeten: First known hybrid between Little and Temminck's Stint?". Dutch Birding. 18: 24–28.
  14. ^ McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8.
  15. ^ McLaughlin K. A.; Wormington, A. (2000). "An apparent Dunlin × White-rumped Sandpiper hybrid". Ontario Birds. 18 (1): 8–12.
  16. ^ Millington, Richard (1994). "A mystery Calidris at Cley". Birding World. 7 (2): 61–63. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17.
  17. ^ Parker, Shane A. (1982). "A new sandpiper of the genus Calidris". South Australian Naturalist. 56: 63.
  18. ^ Paulson, Dennis R. (2005). Shorebirds of North America: a photographic guide. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12107-9.
  19. ^ Pierce, R. J. (1984). "Plumage, morphology and hybridisation of New Zealand Stilts Himantopus spp" (PDF). Notornis. 31: 106–130. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-24.
  20. ^ "The National British Bird & Mule Club". Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  21. ^ Ottenburghs, Jente. "The Avian Hybrids Project". Avian Hybrids. Retrieved 2018-07-21.

External links

Anzû

Anzû, also known as dZû and Imdugud (Sumerian: 𒀭𒅎𒂂 AN.IM.DUGUDMUŠEN), is a lesser divinity or monster in several Mesopotamian religions. He was conceived by the pure waters of the Apsu and the wide Earth, or as son of Siris. Anzû was depicted as a massive bird who can breathe fire and water, although Anzû is alternately depicted as a lion-headed eagle.

Stephanie Dalley, in Myths from Mesopotamia, writes that "the Epic of Anzu is principally known in two versions: an Old Babylonian version of the early second millennium [BC], giving the hero as Ningursu; and 'The Standard Babylonian' version, dating to the first millennium BC, which appears to be the most quoted version, with the hero as Ninurta". However, the Anzu character does not appear as often in some other writings, as noted below.

Betty Ross

Elizabeth Ross (later Talbot and then Banner) is a fictional character created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. She made her first appearance in Incredible Hulk #1 (1962) as a romantic interest of the Hulk (Dr. Bruce Banner) and is the daughter of General Thaddeus E. "Thunderbolt" Ross. Over the years, the character has undergone multiple transformations, including the antiheroine Red She-Hulk (or She-Rulk).

The character was portrayed by Jennifer Connelly in Hulk (2003) and by Liv Tyler in the Marvel Cinematic Universe film The Incredible Hulk (2008).

Chimera (mythology)

The Chimera ( or , also Chimaera (Chimæra); Greek: Χίμαιρα, Chímaira "she-goat") according to Greek mythology, was a monstrous fire-breathing hybrid creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal. It is usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat protruding from its back, and a tail that might end with a snake's head. It was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra.

The term "chimera" has come to describe any mythical or fictional animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe anything composed of very disparate parts, or perceived as wildly imaginative, implausible, or dazzling.

Gamebird hybrids

Gamebird hybrids are the result of crossing species of game birds, including ducks, with each other and with domestic poultry. These hybrid species may sometimes occur naturally in the wild or more commonly through the deliberate or inadvertent intervention of humans.

Charles Darwin described hybrids of game birds and domestic fowl in The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication:

Mr. Hewitt, who has had great experience in crossing tame cock-pheasants with fowls belonging to five breeds, gives as the character of all 'extraordinary wildness' (13/42. 'The Poultry Book' by Tegetmeier 1866 pages 165, 167.); but I have myself seen one exception to this rule. Mr. S. J. Salter (13/43. 'Natural History Review' 1863 April page 277.) who raised a large number of hybrids from a bantam-hen by Gallus sonneratii, states that 'all were exceedingly wild.' [...] utterly sterile male hybrids from the pheasant and the fowl act in the same manner, "their delight being to watch when the hens leave their nests, and to take on themselves the office of a sitter." (13/57. 'Cottage Gardener' 1860 page 379.) [...] Mr. Hewitt gives it as a general rule with fowls, that crossing the breed increases their size. He makes this remark after stating that hybrids from the pheasant and fowl are considerably larger than either progenitor: so again, hybrids from the male golden pheasant and female common pheasant "are of far larger size than either parent-bird.' (17/39. Ibid 1866 page 167; and 'Poultry Chronicle' volume 3 1855 page 15.)"

Griffin

The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; Latin: gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle's talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions.In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine.

Hybridisation in gulls

Hybridisation in gulls occurs quite frequently, although to varying degrees depending on the species involved.

Hybridisation in shorebirds

Hybridisation in shorebirds has been proven on only a small number of occasions; however, many individual shorebirds have been recorded by birdwatchers worldwide that do not fit the characters of known species. Many of these have been suspected of being hybrids. In several cases, shorebird hybrids have been described as new species before their hybrid origin was discovered. Compared to other groups of birds (such as gulls), only a few species of shorebirds are known or suspected to hybridize, but nonetheless, these hybrids occur quite frequently in some cases.

Kalaviṅka

Kalaviṅka (Sanskrit: कलविङ्क kalaviṅka ; Chinese: 迦陵頻迦 Jiālíngpínjiā ; Japanese: Karyōbinga (迦陵頻迦), Korean: 가릉빈가; Burmese: ကရဝိက်; Thai: การเวก) is a fantastical immortal creature in Buddhism, with a human head and a bird's torso, with long flowing tail.The kalaviṅka is said to dwell in the Western pure land and reputed to preach the Dharma with its fine voice. It is said to sing while still unhatched within its eggshell. Its voice is a descriptor of the Buddha's voice. In Japanese text, it goes by various titles such as myōonchō (妙音鳥, "exquisite sounding bird"), kōonchō (好音鳥, "goodly sounding bird") among others.

Edward H. Schafer notes that in East Asian religious art the Kalaviṅka is often confused with the Kinnara, which is also a half-human half-bird hybrid mythical creature, but that the two are actually distinct and unrelated.

Kinnara

For the social group or caste amongst the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka, see KinnarayaIn Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse (India). In South-east Asia, two of the most beloved mythological characters are the benevolent half-human, half-bird creatures known as the Kinnara and Kinnari, which are believed to come from the Himalayas and often watch over the well-being of humans in times of trouble or danger. Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:

We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally husband and wife; never do we become mother and father. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are lover and beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure.They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra.

An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena.

In Southeast Asian mythology, Kinnaris, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures. One of the many creatures that inhabit the mythical Himavanta, Kinnaris have the head, torso, and arms of a woman and the wings, tail and feet of a swan. They are renowned for their dance, song and poetry, and are a traditional symbol of feminine beauty, grace and accomplishment.

Edward H. Schafer notes that in East Asian religious art the Kinnara is often confused with the Kalaviṅka, which is also a half-human half-bird hybrid mythical creature, but that the two are actually distinct and unrelated.

Lamassu

A lamassu (Cuneiform: 𒀭𒆗, an.kal; Sumerian: dlammař; Akkadian: lamassu; sometimes called a lamassus) is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human head, the body of a bull or a lion, and bird wings. In some writings, it is portrayed to represent a female deity. A less frequently used name is shedu (Cuneiform: 𒀭𒆘, an.kal×bad; Sumerian: dalad; Akkadian, šēdu), which refers to the male counterpart of a lamassu. Lammasu represent the zodiacs, parent-stars or constellations.

List of legendary creatures (C)

Cabeiri (Greek) - Smith and wine spirit

Cacus (Roman) - Fire-breathing giant

Cadejo (Central America) - Cow-sized dog-goat hybrid in two varieties: benevolent and white; malevolent and black

Cailleach (Scottish) - Divine creator and weather deity hag

Caipora (Tupi) - Fox-human hybrid and nature spirit

Caladrius (Medieval Bestiary) - White bird that can foretell if a sick person will recover or die

Calingi (Medieval Bestiary) - Humanoid with an eight-year lifespan

Callitrix (Medieval Bestiary) - Apes who always bear twins, one the mother loves, the other it hates

Calydonian Boar (Greek) - Giant, chthonic boar

Calygreyhound (Heraldic) - Wildcat-deer/antelope-eagle-ox-lion hybrid

Camahueto (Chilota) - One-horned calf

Cambion (Medieval folklore) - Offspring of a human and an incubus or succubus; general term for any kind of human/demon hybrid

Campe (Greek) - Dragon-human-scorpion hybrid

Camulatz (Mayan) - Bird that ate the heads of the first men

Candileja (Colombian) - Spectral, fiery hag

Canaima (Guyanese) - Were-jaguar

Canotila (Lakota) - Little people and tree spirits

Caoineag (Scottish) - Death spirit (a particular type of Banshee/Bean Sídhe)

Čhápa (Lakota) - Beaver spirit

Căpcăun (Romanian) - Large, monstrous humanoid

Carbuncle (Latin America) - Small creature with a jewel on its head

Catoblepas (Medieval Bestiary) - Scaled buffalo-hog hybrid

Cat Sidhe (Scottish) - Fairy cat

Ceffyl Dŵr (Welsh) - Malevolent water horse

Centaur (Greek) - Human-horse hybrid

Centicore (Indian) - Horse-Antelope-Lion-Bear hybrid

Cerastes (Greek) - Extremely flexible, horned snake

Cerberus (Greek) - Three-headed dog that guards the entrance to the underworld

Cercopes (Greek) - Mischievous forest spirit

Cericopithicus (Medieval Bestiary) - Apes who always bear twins, one the mother loves, the other it hates

Ceryneian Hind (Greek) - Hind with golden antlers and bronze or brass hooves

Cetan (Lakota) - Hawk spirit

Chakora (Hindu) - Lunar bird

Chamrosh (Persian) - Dog-bird hybrid

Chaneque (Aztec) - Little people and nature spirits

Changeling (European) - Humanoid child (fairy, elf, troll, etc.) substituted for a kidnapped human child

Charybdis (Greek) - Sea monster in the form of a giant mouth

Chepi (Narragansett) - Ancestral spirit that instructs tribe members

Cherufe (Mapuche) - Volcano-dwelling monster

Cheval Mallet (French) - Evil horse who runs away with travelers

Cheval Gauvin (French) - Evil horse who drowns riders, similar to kelpie

Chibaiskweda (Abenaki) - Ghost of an improperly buried person

Chichevache - Human-faced cow that feeds on good women

Chickcharney (Bahamian) - Bird-mammal hybrid

Chimaera (Greek) - Lion-goat-snake hybrid

Chindi (Navajo) - Vengeful ghost that causes dust devils

Chinthe (Burmese) - Temple-guarding feline, similar to Chinese Shi and Japanese Shisa

Chitauli (Zulu) - Human-lizard hybrid

Chōchinobake (Japanese) - Animated paper lantern

Chol (Biblical mythology) - Regenerative bird

Chollima (Korean) - Supernaturally fast horse

Chonchon (Mapuche) - Disembodied, flying head

Choorile (Guyanese) - Ghost of a woman that died in childbirth

Chromandi (Medieval Bestiary) - Hairy savage with dog teeth

Chrysaor (Greek) - The giant son of the gorgon Medusa.

Chrysomallus (Greek mythology) - Golden winged ram

Chukwa (Hindu) - Giant turtle that supports the world

Chupacabra (Latin America) - Cryptid beast named for its habit of sucking the blood of livestock

Churel (Hindu) - Vampiric, female ghost

Ciguapa (Dominican Republic) - Malevolent seductress

Cihuateteo (Aztec) - Ghost of women that died in childbirth

Cikavac (Serbian) - Bird that serves its owner

Cinnamon bird (Medieval Bestiaries) - Giant bird that makes its nest out of cinnamon

Cipactli (Aztec) - Sea monster, crocodile-fish hybrid

Cirein cròin (Scottish) - Sea serpent

Coblynau (Welsh) - Little people and mine spirits

Cockatrice (Medieval Bestiaries) - Chicken-lizard hybrid

Cofgod (English) - Cove god

Colo Colo (Mapuche) - Rat-bird hybrid that can shapeshift into a serpent

Corycian nymphs (Greek) - Nymph of the Corycian Cave

Cretan Bull (Greek) - Monstrous bull

Crinaeae (Greek) - Fountain nymph

Criosphinx (Ancient Egypt) - Ram-headed sphinx

Crocotta (Medieval Bestiaries) - Monstrous dog-wolf

The Cu Bird (Mexican) - El Pájaro Cu; a bird.

Cuco (Latin America) - Bogeyman

Cucuy (Latin America) - Malevolent spirit

Cuegle (Cantabrian) - Monstrous, three-armed humanoid

Cuélebre (Asturian and Cantabrian) - Dragon

Curupira (Tupi) - Nature spirit

Cu Sith (Scottish) - Gigantic fairy dog

Cŵn Annwn (Welsh) - Underworld hunting dog

Cyclops (Greek) - One-eyed giant

Cyhyraeth (Welsh) - Death spirit

Cynocephalus (Medieval Bestiaries) - Dog-headed humanoid

List of legendary creatures (K)

Kabouter (Dutch) - Little people that live underground, in mushrooms, or as house spirits

Kachina (Hopi and Puebloan) - Nature spirit

Kahaku (Japanese) - Little people and water spirits

Kajsa (Scandinavian) - Wind spirit

Kalakeyas (Hindu) - Descendents of Kala

Kallikantzaroi (Greek) - Grotesque, malevolent spirit

Kamaitachi (Japanese) - Wind spirit

Kamatayan (Philippine) - Philippine counterpart of Death

Kami (Japanese) - Nature spirit

Kamikiri (Japanese) - Hair-cutting spirit

Kanbari-nyūdō (Japanese) - Bathroom spirit

Kanbo (Japanese) - Drought spirit

Kanedama (Japanese) - Money spirit

Kappa (Japanese) - Little people and water spirit

Kapre (Philippine) - Malevolent tree spirit

Karakoncolos (Bulgarian and Turkish), also in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia known as Karanđoloz - Troublesome spirit

Karakura (Turkish) - Male night-demon

Karasu-tengu (Japanese) - Tengu with a bird's bill

Karkadann (Persian) - One-horned giant animal

Karkinos (Greek) - Giant crab

Karura (Japanese) - Eagle-human hybrid

Karzełek (Polish) - Little people and mine spirits

Kasa-obake (Japanese) - Animated parasol

Kasha (Japanese) - Cat-like demon which descends from the sky and carries away corpses

Kashanbo (Japanese) - Kappa who climb into the mountains for the winter

Katawa-guruma (Japanese) - Woman riding on a flaming wheel

Katsura-otoko (Japanese) - Handsome man from the moon

Katallan (Albanian)- Man eating giant

Kaukas (Lithuanian) - Nature spirit

Kawa-uso (Japanese) - Supernatural river otter

Kawa-zaru (Japanese) - Smelly, cowardly water spirit

Ke'lets, Chukchi mythology - ogre or evil spirit

Keelut (Inuit) - Hairless dog

Kee-wakw (Abenaki) - Half-human half-animal cannibalistic giant

Kekkai (Japanese) - Amorphous afterbirth spirit

Kelpie (Irish and Scottish) - Malevolent water horse

Ker (Greek) - Female death spirit

Kesaran-pasaran (Japanese) - Mysterious, white, fluffy creature

Keukegen (Japanese) - Disease spirit

Keythong (Heraldic) - Wingless griffin

Colchis bull (Greek) - Bronze-hoofed bulls

Khyah (Nepalese) - Fat, hairy ape-like creature

Kigatilik (Inuit) - Night-demon

Kholomodumo (Sotho - gluttonous monster that was one of the first beasts of creation

Kijimunaa (Japanese) - Tree sprite from Okinawa

Kijo (Japanese) - She-devil

Kikimora (Slavic) - Female house spirit

Killmoulis (English and Scottish) - Ugly, mischievous mill spirit

Kinnara (Hindu) - Human-bird hybrid

Kin-u (Japanese) - Bird

Kirin (Japanese) - Japanese Unicorn

Kishi (Angola) - Malevolent, two-faced seducer

Kitsune (Japanese) - Fox spirit

Kitsune-Tsuki (Japanese) - Person possessed by a fox spirit

Kiyohime (Japanese) - Woman who transformed into a serpentine demon out of the rage of unrequited love

Klabautermann (German) - Ship spirit

Knocker (folklore) (Cornish and Welsh) - Little people and mine spirits

Knucker (English) - Water dragon

Kobalos (Greek) - Goblin like thieves and tricksters

Kobold (German) - Little people and mine or house spirits

Kodama (Japanese) - Tree spirit

Kofewalt (Germanic) - House spirit

Ko-gok (Abenaki) - Hideous monster

Kokakuchō (Japanese) - Ubume bird

Komainu (Japanese) - Protective animal

Konaki-Jijii (Japanese) - Infant that cries until it is picked up, then increases its weight and crushes its victim

Kongamoto (Congo) - Flying creature

Konoha-tengu (Japanese) - Bird-like creature

Koro-pok-guru (Ainu) - Little people

Korrigan (Breton) - Little people and nature spirits

Kraken (Scandinavian) - Sea monster

Krasnoludek (Slavic) - Little people nature spirits

Krasue (Southeast Asian) - Vampiric, floating head

Kuarahy Jára (Guaraní) - Forest spirit

Kubikajiri (Japanese) - Female corpse-chewing graveyard spirit

Kuchisake-onna (Japanese) - Vengeful ghost of a woman mutilated by her husband

Kuda-gitsune (Japanese) - Miniature fox spirit

Kudan (Japanese) - Human-faced calf which predicts a calamity before dying

Kui (Chinese) - One-legged monster

Kukudhi (Albanian)- Female demon who spreads sickness

Kulshedra (Albanian) - Drought-causing dragon

Kumakatok (Philippine) - Death spirits

Kumiho (Korean) - Fox spirit

Kun (Chinese) - Giant fish

Kupua (Hawaiian) - Shapeshifting tricksters

Kurabokko (Japanese) - Guardian spirit of a warehouse

Kurage-no-hinotama (Japanese) - Jellyfish which floats through the air as a fireball

Kurma (Hindu mythology) - Second avatar of Vishnu in the form of a Turtle

Kurupi (Guaraní) - Wild man and fertility spirit

Kushtaka (Tlingit) - Shapeshifting "land otter man"

Kye-ryong (Korean) - Chicken-lizard hybrid

Kyourinrin (Japanese) - Animated scroll or paper

Kyūbi-no-kitsune (Japanese) - Nine-tailed fox

Kyūketsuki (Japanese) - Vampire

List of legendary creatures (P)

Paasselkä devils (Finnish) - Spectral fire

Pamola (Abenaki) - Weather spirit

Panes (Greek) - Human-goat hybrids descended from the god Pan

Pandi (Medieval Bestiary) - White-haired humanoid with giant ears and eight fingers and toes

Panis (Hindu) - Demons with herds of stolen cows

Panlong (Chinese) - Water dragon

Panotti (Medieval Bestiaries) - Humanoid with gigantic ears

Panther (Medieval Bestiaries) - Feline with sweet breath

Parandrus (Medieval Bestiaries) - Shapeshifting animal whose natural form was a large ruminant

Pard (Medieval Bestiaries) - Fast, spotted feline believed to mate with lions to produce leopards

Pardalokampoi (Etruscan) - Fish-tailed leopard

Patagon (Medieval folklore) - Giant race reputed to live in the area of Patagonia

Patasola (Latin America) - Anthropophagous, one-legged humanoid

Patupairehe (Māori) - White-skinned nature spirits

Pech (Scottish) - Strong little people

Pegaeae (Greek) - Spring nymph

Pegasus (Greek) - Winged horse

Pegacorn - Pegasus-unicorn hybrid

Pelesit (Malay) - Servant spirit

Peluda (French) - Dragon

Penanggalan (Malay) - Vampires that sever their heads from their bodies to fly around, usually with their intestines or other internal organs trailing behind

Peng (Chinese) - Giant bird

Penghou (Chinese) - Tree spirit

Peri (Persian) - Winged humanoid

Peryton (Allegedly Medieval folklore) - Deer-bird hybrid

Pesanta (Catalan) - Nightmare demon in the form of a cat or dog

Peuchen (Chilota and Mapuche) - Vampiric, flying, shapeshifting serpent

Phi Tai Hong (Thai) - Ghost of a person who has died suddenly of a violent or cruel death

Phoenix (Phoenician) - Regenerative bird reborn from its own ashes

Piasa (Native American mythology) - Winged, antlered feline-like dragon

Piatek (Armenian) - Large land animal

Pictish Beast (Pictish stones) - Stylistic animal, possibly a dragon

Pillan (Mapuche) - Nature spirit

Pim-skwa-wagen-owad (Abenaki) - Water spirit

Piru (Finnish) - Minor demon

Pishacha (Hindu) - Carrion-eating demon

Pita-skog (Abenaki) - Serpentine rain spirit

Pixie (Cornish) - Little people and nature spirits

Pixiu (Chinese) - Winged lion

Pi yao (Chinese) - Horned, dragon-lion hybrid

Plakavac (Slavic) - Vampire created when a mother strangles her child

Pok-wejee-men (Abenaki) - Tree spirit

Polevik (Polish) - Little people and field spirits

Pollo Maligno (Colombian) - Man-eating chicken spirit

Polong (Malay) - Invisible servant spirit

Poltergeist (German) - Ghost that moves objects

Pombero (Guaraní) - Wild man and nature spirit

Ponaturi (Māori) - Grotesque, malevolent humanoid

Pontianak (Malay) - Undead, vampiric women who died in childbirth

Poukai (Māori) - Giant bird

Preta (Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain) - Ghosts of especially greedy people

Pricolici (Romanian - Roman) - Undead wolf

Psoglav (Serbia) - Dog-headed monster

Psotnik (Slavic) - Mischievous spirit

Psychai (Greek) - Butterfly-winged nymphs, daughters of Psyche

Psychopomp (Greek) - Creatures, spirits, angels, or deities in many religions who escort newly deceased souls from Earth to the afterlife

Púca (Welsh) - Shapeshifting animal spirit

Púki (Icelandic) - Malevolent little person

Puck (English) - House spirit

Putz (German) - House spirit

Pugot (Philippine) - Headless humanoid

Puk (Frisian) - House spirit

Pūķis (Latvian) - Dragon

Puckwudgie (Native American mythology) - Troll-like gray-skinned being

Pygmy (Greek) - Little people

Pyrausta (Greek) - Insect-dragon hybrid

Python (Greek) - Serpentine dragon

List of legendary creatures (S)

Saci (Brazilian) - One-legged nature spirit

Sagari (Japanese) - Horse head that dangles from trees on Kyūshū

Sakabashira (Japanese) - Haunted pillar, installed upside-down

Salamander (Alchemy) - Fire elemental

Samebito (Japanese) - Shark-man servant of the dragon king of the sea.

Samodiva (Slavic) - Nature spirit

Sampati (Hindu) - The demigod Jatayu's brother

Sandman (Northern Europe) - Nursery spirit that induces sleep in children

Sango (South Western Nigeria) - Yoruba king of arts, music, dance and entertainment

Santelmo (Philippine) - Spirits in the form of fireballs that roam around the forest

Sânziană (Romanian) - Nature spirit

Sarimanok (Philippine) - Bird of good fortune

Sarngika (Hindu) - Bird spirit

Sarugami (Japanese) - Wicked monkey spirit who was defeated by a dog

Satori (Japanese) - Mind-reading humanoid

Satyr (Greek) - Human-goat hybrid and fertility spirit

Satyrus (Medieval Bestiary) - Apes who always bear twins, one the mother loves, the other it hates

Sazae-oni (Japanese) - Shapeshifting turban snail spirit

Sceadugenga (English) - Shapeshifting undead

Scitalis (Medieval Bestiaries) - Snake which mesmerizes its prey

Scorpion Man (Sumerian) - Human-scorpion hybrid

Scully (English Folklore) - Mythical Humanoid originating from Cumbria, England with impressively small biceps

Scylla (Greek) - Human-snake hybrid with a snake's tail, twelve legs, and six long-necked snake heads

Sea-bee (Heraldic) - Fish-tailed bee

Sea monk (Medieval folklore) - Fish-like humanoid

Sea monster (Worldwide) - Giant, marine animals

Sea serpent (Worldwide) - Serpentine sea monster

Sea-Wyvern (Heraldic) - Fish-tailed wyvern

Seko (Japanese) - Water spirit which can be heard making merry at night

Selkie (Faroese, Icelandic, Irish, and Scottish) - Human-seal shapeshifter

Senpoku-Kanpoku (Japanese) - Human-faced frog which guides newly deceased souls to the graveyard

Seps (Medieval Bestiaries) - Snake with corrosive venom

Serpent (Worldwide) - Snake spirit

Serpopard (Ancient Egypt) - Serpent-leopard hybrid

Shachihoko (Japanese) - Tiger-carp hybrid

Shade (Worldwide) - Spiritual imprint

Shadow People (American) - Malevolent ghost

Shahbaz (Persian) - Giant eagle or hawk

Shaitan (Islam) - Islamic version of the Devil (Lucifer) from the Bible

Shang-Yang (Chinese) - Rain bird

Shedim (Jewish) - Chicken-legged demon

Shedu (Akkadian and Sumerian) - Protective spirit who takes the form of a winged bull or human-headed lion

Shellycoat (English, Scottish and German, as schellenrocc) - Water spirit

Shen (Chinese) - Shapeshifing sea monster

Shenlong (Chinese) - Weather dragon

Shibaten (Japanese) - Water spirit from Shikoku

Shikigami (Japanese) - Servant spirit

Shiki-ōji (Japanese) - Child-sized servant spirit

Shikome (Japanese) - Underworld hag

Shinigami (Japanese) - "Death god"

Shiro-bōzu (Japanese) - White, faceless spirit

Shirouneri (Japanese) - Animated mosquito netting or dust cloth

Shiryō (Japanese) - Spirit of a dead person

Shisa (Japanese) - Lion-dog hybrid

Shishi (Chinese) - Protective animal

Shōjō (Japanese) - Red-haired sea-sprites who love alcohol

Shōkera (Japanese) - Creature that peers in through skylights

Shtriga (Albanian) - Vampire witch that feeds on children

Shui Gui (Chinese) - Drowned ghost

Shug Monkey (English) - Dog/monkey

Shunka Warakin (also shunka warak'in) - Animal mentioned in American folklore said to resemble a wolf or hyena

Shunoban (Japanese) - Red-faced ghoul

Shuten-dōji (Japanese) - Ruler of the Oni

Sídhe - (Irish and Scottish) - Ancestral or nature spirit

Sigbin (Philippine) - Goat-like vampire

Sileni (Greek) - Bald, fat, thick-lipped, and flat-nosed followers of Dionysus

Simargl (Slavic) - Winged dog

Simurgh (Persian) - Dog-lion-peacock hybrid

Singa (Batak) - Feline animal

Sint Holo (Choctaw) - Serpentine rain spirit

Siren (Greek) - Human-bird hybrid

Sirin (Slavic) - Demonic human-headed bird

Sirrush (Akkadian) - Dragon with aquiline hind legs and feline forelegs

Sisiutl (American Indian) - Two-headed sea serpent

Si-Te-Cah (Paiute) - Red-haired giants

Sjörå (Norse) - Freshwater spirit

Sjövættir (Norse) - Sea spirit

Skin-walker (American Indian) - Animal-human shapeshifter

Skogsrå (Scandinavian) - Forest spirit

Skookum (Chinook Jargon) - Hairy giant

Skrzak (Slavic) - Flying imp

Sky Women (Polish) - Weather spirit

Sleipnir (Norse) - Eight-legged horse

Sluagh (Irish and Scottish) - Restless ghost

Sodehiki-kozō (Japanese) - Invisible spirit which pulls on sleeves

Sōgenbi (Japanese) - Fiery ghost of an oil-stealing monk

Soragami (Japanese) - Ritual disciplinary demon

Soraki-gaeshi (Japanese) - Sound of trees being cut down, when later none seem to have been cut

Sorobanbōzu (Japanese) - Ghost with an abacus

Sōtangitsune (Japanese) - Fox spirit from Kyoto

Soucouyant (Trinidad and Tobago) - Vampiric hag who takes the form of a fireball at night

Spearfinger (Cherokee) - Sharp-fingered hag

Spectre (Worldwide) - Terrifying ghost

Sphinx (Greek) - Winged woman-headed lion

Spiriduş (Romanian) - Little people

Spirit - Ghosts

Spriggan (Cornish) - Guardians of graveyards and ruins

Sprite (Medieval folklore) - little people, ghosts or elves

Squonk (American) - Ugly and lonely creature capable of evading capture by dissolving itself into a pool of tears

Stihi (Albanian)- Demonic dragon who guards a treasure

Strigoi (Romanian) - Vampire

Strix (Roman) - Vampiric bird

Struthopodes (Medieval Bestiaries) - Humanoid whose males have enormous feet, and females have tiny feet

Strzyga (Slavic) - Vampiric undead

Stuhać (Slavic) - Malevolent mountain spirit

Stymphalian Bird (Greek) - Metallic bird

Suangi (New Guinea) - Cannibalistic sorcerer

Succubus (Medieval folklore) - Female night-demon

Sudice (Slavic) - Fortune spirit

Sunakake-baba (Japanese) - Sand-throwing hag

Sunekosuri (Japanese) - Small dog- or cat-like creature that rubs against a person's legs at night

Surma (Finnish) - Hellhound

Suzaku (Japanese) - Japanese version of the Chinese Vermillion Bird

Svaðilfari (Norse) - Unnatural strong horse, father of Sleipnir

Svartálfar (Norse) - Cavern spirits; the Black Elves

The Swallower (Ancient Egyptian) - Crocodile-leopard-hippopotamus hybrid

Swan maiden (Worldwide) - Swan-human shapeshifter

Sylph (Alchemy) - Air elemental

Sylvan (Medieval folklore) - Forest spirit

Syrbotae (Medieval Bestiaries) - African giant

Syrictæ (Medieval Bestiaries) - Reptilian humanoid

Neoregelia 'Fire Bird'

'Fire Bird' is a hybrid cultivar of the genus Neoregelia in the Bromeliad family.

Neoregelia 'Night Bird'

'Night Bird' is a hybrid cultivar of the genus Neoregelia in the Bromeliad family.

Neoregelia 'Spotted Fire Bird'

'Spotted Fire Bird' is a hybrid cultivar of the genus Neoregelia in the Bromeliad family.

Simurgh

Simurgh (; Persian: سيمرغ‎), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is a benevolent, mythical bird in Iranian mythology and literature. It is sometimes equated with other mythological birds such as a "phoenix" (Persian: ققنوس‎ quqnūs, plural: Persian: ققنوس‌ها‎ qaqnus-hâ or , Persian: ققنوسان‎ qaqnusān). Persian humā (Persian: هما‎). The figure can be found in all periods of Iranian art and literature and is also evident in the iconography of Georgia, medieval Armenia, the Byzantine Empire, and other regions that were within the realm of Persian cultural influence.

Sphinx

A sphinx (Ancient Greek: Σφίγξ [spʰíŋks], Boeotian: Φίξ [pʰíːks], plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.

In Greek tradition, the sphinx has the head of a human, the haunches of a lion, and sometimes the wings of a bird. It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer its riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster. This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus. Unlike the Greek sphinx, which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx (Ancient Greek: Ανδρόσφιγξ)). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent, but having a ferocious strength similar to the malevolent Greek version and both were thought of as guardians often flanking the entrances to temples.In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. Later, the sphinx image, something very similar to the original Ancient Egyptian concept, was exported into many other cultures, albeit often interpreted quite differently, due to translations of descriptions of the originals and the evolution of the concept in relation to other cultural traditions.

Sphinxes depictions are generally associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. The oldest known sphinx was found 195 kilometres (120 mi) to the east at Körtik Tepe, Turkey, and was dated to 9,500 B.C.

Birds (class: Aves)
Anatomy
Behaviour
Evolution
Fossil birds
Human interaction
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Neornithes

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