Bir Tawil

Bir Tawil or Bi'r Tawīl (Egyptian Arabic: بير طويلBīr Ṭawīl  [biːɾ tˤɑˈwiːl] or بئر طويل Bi’r Ṭawīl, meaning "tall water well") is a 2,060 km2 (800 sq mi) area along the border between Egypt and Sudan, which is uninhabited and claimed by neither country. When spoken of in association with the neighbouring Hala'ib Triangle, it is sometimes referred to as the Bir Tawil Triangle, despite the area's quadrilateral shape; the two "triangles" border at a quadripoint.

Its terra nullius status results from a discrepancy between the straight political boundary between Egypt and Sudan established in 1899, and the irregular administrative boundary established in 1902. Egypt asserts the political boundary, and Sudan asserts the administrative boundary, with the result that the Hala'ib Triangle is claimed by both and Bir Tawil by neither. In 2014, author Alastair Bonnett described Bir Tawil as the only place on Earth that was habitable but was not claimed by any recognised government.[1]

Bir Tawil

بير طويل
Unclaimed land
Neither Egypt nor Sudan claim Bir Tawil, which is located between the two countries.
Neither Egypt nor Sudan claim Bir Tawil, which is located between the two countries.
Bir Tawil
Location between Egypt and Sudan
Neither Egypt nor Sudan claim Bir Tawil, which is located between the two countries.
Neither Egypt nor Sudan claim Bir Tawil, which is located between the two countries.
Bir Tawil
Bir Tawil (Sudan)
Coordinates: 21°52′9″N 33°44′52″E / 21.86917°N 33.74778°ECoordinates: 21°52′9″N 33°44′52″E / 21.86917°N 33.74778°E
 • Total2,060 km2 (800 sq mi)
 • Total0
 No permanent populations.
Egypt Sudan claims
Simplified map showing Egypt's claim (yellow and green), Sudan's claim (blue and green), the Hala'ib Triangle (green) and Bir Tawil (the white area between Egypt and Sudan)


In 1899, when the United Kingdom held authority in the area, the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement for Sudan set the border between the territories at the 22nd parallel. However, in 1902 the UK drew a separate "administrative boundary", intended to reflect the actual use of the land by the tribes in the region. Bir Tawil was grazing land used by the Ababda tribe based near Aswan, and thus was placed under Egyptian administration from Cairo. Similarly, the Hala'ib Triangle to the northeast was placed under the British governor of Sudan, because its inhabitants were culturally closer to Khartoum.

Egypt claims the original border from 1899, the 22nd parallel, which would place the Hala'ib Triangle within Egypt and the Bir Tawil area within Sudan. Sudan, however, claims the administrative border of 1902, which would put Hala'ib within Sudan, and Bir Tawil within Egypt. As a result, both states claim the Hala'ib Triangle and neither claims the much less valuable Bir Tawil area, which is only a tenth the size, and has no permanent settlements or access to the sea. There is no basis in international law for either Sudan or Egypt to claim both territories, and neither nation is willing to cede Hala'ib. With no third state claiming the neglected area, Bir Tawil is one of the few land areas of the world not claimed by any recognised state. Egypt arguably still administers the territory, but it is not marked as Egyptian on government maps.[2][3]


Bir Tawil is 2,060 km2 (795 sq mi) in size. The length of its northern and southern borders are 95 kilometres (59 mi) and 46 kilometres (29 mi) respectively; the length of its eastern and western borders are 26 kilometres (16 mi) and 49 kilometres (30 mi) respectively.

In the north of the area is the mountain Jabal Tawil (جبل طويل), located at 21°57′56″N 33°48′05″E / 21.96556°N 33.80139°E, with a height of 459 metres (1,506 ft). In the east is Jebel Hagar ez Zarqa, with a height of 662 metres (2,172 ft).

In the south is the Wadi Tawil (وادي طويل), also called Khawr Abū Bard, located at 21°49′25″N 33°43′42″E / 21.82361°N 33.72833°E.

There are a few streams in Bir Tawil, which originate in Lake Nasser.


Bir Tawil's climate is, according to the Köppen climate classification, a BWh hot, arid desert. During its summer months (which take up to three-quarters of the year), temperatures can soar into 40 degrees more, while its hottest 3 months (June-August) can see it as high as 45 °C (113 °F). During its brief winters, however (with December and January being its mildest months), Bir Tawil can experience milder temperatures with 26º as its usual temperature peak.

Considering the fact that the territory is very far from the ocean (being at least 200 km away, the nearest being the Red Sea), the diurnal temperature range throughout the region is extremely drastic; varying from 18 to 20º degrees year-round. For instance, in its coldest month of January, the area could see a warm temperature of 26º at daytime, and a rather chilly 9º by night. This goes the same to its other months, as the range doesn't differ from season.[4]


Due to its status as de jure unclaimed territory, multiple individuals and organizations have attempted to claim Bir Tawil as a micronation. However, none has been taken seriously by the international community, and due to the remoteness and hostile climate of the region, the vast majority of these claims have been by declarations posted online from other locations. None of these claims, or any others, have been recognized, officially or otherwise, by any government or international organization.[5][6]

See also


  1. ^ Bonnett, Alastair (2014). "Bir Tawil". Unruly Places: Lost Spaces, Secret Cities and Other Inscrutable Geographies. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-544-10160-9. LCCN 2013050983. OCLC 890509603. the only place on the planet that is both habitable and unclaimed.
  2. ^ "Official version of map of Egypt". Retrieved 2017-03-05.
  3. ^ "Egypt". CIA World Factbook 2010. CIA. 2010.
  4. ^ "Climate: Bir Tawil
  5. ^ Shenker, Jack (3 March 2016). "Welcome to the land that no country wants". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  6. ^ Liston, Enjoli (16 July 2014). "American plans to use his piece of Africa for advancement of science". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 Oct 2017.

External links

22nd parallel north

The 22nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 22 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Africa, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, North America, the Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean.

The majority of the border between Egypt and Sudan follows the parallel.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 13 hours, 29 minutes during the summer solstice and 10 hours, 47 minutes during the winter solstice.

34th meridian east

The meridian 34° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 34th meridian east forms a great circle with the 146th meridian west.


BIR or Bir may refer to:

Acronyms (BIR)

Bataillon d'Intervention Rapide, Cameroon's armed forces elite unit

Bilhete de Identidade de Residente, the identity card issued to residents of the Chinese SAR of Macau

Brainerd International Raceway, a road course, drag strip and kart track in Brainerd, Minnesota, USA

British Institute of Radiology, professional society for medical imaging

Birmingham International Raceway, a 5/8-mile oval paved racetrack located at the Alabama State Fairgrounds

Board of Invention and Research, a military research group of the British Royal Navy Admiralty during World War I

Burma's IOC country code

Bureau of Internal Revenue (Philippines), an attached agency of the Department of Finance in the Philippines

Baculovirus Inhibitor of apoptosis protein Repeat, a domain commonly found in Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs)

Built-in 'robe, a British term to describe a living space with a built-in closet

British Indian Restaurant, adaptation of traditional Indian food for the British market

Biólogo Interno Residente, SpainProper Names (Bir)

Bir, Himachal Pradesh, town in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh

Bir, Madhya Pradesh

Bir, Iran, a village in Fars Province, Iran

Bir-e Bala, a village in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

Bir-e Rasul Bakhsh, a village in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

Bir-e Sofla, a village in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

Bir, alternate name of Birdaf, a village in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

Bir Ma'in, a Palestinian Arab village in the Ramle Subdistrict

Bir Ghbalou District, a district of Bouïra Province, Algeria

Bir Moghrein Airport, an airport serving Bir Moghrein, a city in the Tiris Zemmour region of Mauritania

Bir Salim, a Palestinian Arab village in the Ramle Subdistrict

Bir Tawil, a small area along the border between Egypt and Sudan which is claimed by neither country

Bir Tibetan Colony, Tibetan refugee settlement in the town of Bir in Himachal Pradesh, India

Bir Tungal, Hill area in Himachal Pradesh, India

Beed, Maharashtra, India, also known as Bir

Birecik, town on the Euphrates in Turkey, also known as Bir

Bir (Mezarkabul album)

Bir (Hepsi album), an album released by Hepsi in Turkey in April 2005

Rosette Bir (1926–1992), French sculptor

Croatia–Serbia border dispute

The Croatia–Serbia border dispute refers to differing views held by Croatia and Serbia regarding their border in the area of the Danube River. While Serbia holds the opinion that the thalweg of the Danube valley and the centerline of the river represents the international border between the two countries, Croatia disagrees and claims that the international border lies along the boundaries of the cadastral municipalities located along the river—departing from the course at several points along a 140-kilometre (87 mi) section. The cadastre-based boundary reflects the course of the Danube which existed in the 19th century, before meandering and hydraulic engineering works altered its course. The area size of the territory in dispute is reported variously, up to 140 square kilometres (54 square miles).

The dispute first arose in 1947, but was left unresolved during the existence of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It became a contentious issue after the breakup of Yugoslavia. Particular prominence was given to the dispute at the time of Croatia's accession to the European Union. As of September 2014 the dispute remains unresolved, and the line of control mostly corresponds to Serbia's claim.

Flags of micronations

Micronations are ephemeral, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states, but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organisation.

This article documents the designated national flags of micronations whose existence is verifiable in multiple, non-trivial third party reference sources, which have been cited in the linked Wikipedia articles for those entities.

Gabal Hagar El Zarqa

Gabal Hagar El Zarqa (Arabic: جَـبَـل حَـجَـر الـزَّرْقَـاء‎, translit. Jabal Ḥajar az-Zarqā’) is the highest point in Bir Tawil, an unclaimed area in the Nubian desert between Egypt and Sudan in Northeast Africa. Due to a long-standing disagreement over the location of that border, its jurisdiction is unclear; it is said by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency to be in Egypt. In December 2017 British mountaineer Ginge Fullen accompanied by a local guide summited a point 400 m (1,300 ft) to the east of the waypoint listed on the right, recording a height of 716 m (2,349 ft) at N21 53'01 E33 58'13.

Geography of Egypt

The geography of Egypt relates to two regions: North Africa and Southwest Asia.

Egypt has coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea, the River Nile, and the Red Sea. Egypt borders Libya to the west, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, and Sudan to the south. Egypt has an area of 1,001,449 km2 (386,662 mi2).

The longest straight-line distance in Egypt from north to south is 1,024 km (636 mi), while that from east to west measures 1,240 km (771 mi). Egypt has more than 2,900 km (1800 mi) of coastline on the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Hala'ib Triangle

The Hala'ib Triangle, also known as the Halayeb Triangle (Egyptian and Sudanese Arabic: مثلث حلايب Mosallas Ḥalāyeb pronounced [moˈsællæs ħæˈlæːjeb]), is an area of land measuring 20,580 square kilometres (7,950 sq mi) located on the African coast of the Red Sea. The area, which takes its name from the town of Hala'ib, is created by the difference in the Egypt–Sudan border between the "political boundary" set in 1899 by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, which runs along the 22nd parallel north, and the "administrative boundary" set by the British in 1902, which gave administrative responsibility for an area of land north of the line to Sudan, which was an Anglo-Egyptian client at the time. With the independence of Sudan in 1956, both Egypt and Sudan claimed sovereignty over the area. Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has administered the area as part of the Red Sea Governorate, following the deployment of Egyptian military units there in the 1990s, and has been actively investing in it. Egypt has been recently categorical in rejecting international arbitration or even political negotiations regarding the area.The description of the area as a "triangle" is a rough approximation. Only the southern 290-kilometre (180 mi) demarcation, which follows latitude 22°, is a straight line. While the whole area is north of the 22-degree line, a smaller area south of latitude 22°, referred to as Bir Tawil, joins the Hala'ib Triangle at its westernmost point along the latitude line – neither Sudan nor Egypt claims Bir Tawil.The area is sometimes referred to in Egypt as the "Sudan Government Administration Area" or SGAA.


Liberland, officially the Free Republic of Liberland, is a micronation claiming an uninhabited parcel of disputed land on the western bank of the Danube, between Croatia and Serbia. It was proclaimed on 13 April 2015 by Czech right-libertarian politician and activist Vít Jedlička. The land in question has no infrastructure and lies on a floodplain.The official website of Liberland states that the nation was created due to the ongoing Croatia–Serbia border dispute, in which some areas to the east of Danube are claimed by both Serbia and Croatia, while some areas to the west, including the area of Liberland, are considered part of Serbia by Croatia, but Serbia does not claim them.

The land in question is 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) wide, or roughly the size of Gibraltar, and has been administered by Croatia since the Croatian War of Independence.

There has been no diplomatic recognition of Liberland by any country from the United Nations, although it has established relations with unrecognized Somaliland.

List of countries by southernmost point

This is a list of countries by southernmost point on land. Where borders are contested, the southernmost point under the control of a nation is listed, excluding points within Antarctica and its outlying islands south of 60°S. A selection of dependent territories is listed, but not ranked.

List of fictional African countries

This is a list of fictional countries that are set somewhere in the continent of Africa.

List of micronation currencies

Micronational currency systems describe the self-declared official currencies of micronations. These currencies are usually created to legitimize the micronations that produce them, and few such currencies are recognized outside these micronations. However, some are prized by collectors, being minted in precious metals or in limited numbers. In the 19th century, Emperor Norton I issued his own money, which was accepted by local San Franciscans.

List of territorial disputes

This is a list of territorial disputes over lands around the world, both past and in modern times. Bold indicates one claimant's full control; italics indicates one or more claimants' partial control.


Moosylvania is a fictional island and micronation located in the Lake of the Woods along the Canada–United States border that served as a plot device in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show.The island has no permanent population, and conditions are said to be harsh and unpleasant. The island is in a state of terra nullius, since neither Canada nor the United States wants to claim the land and each country says it belongs to the other. (See Bir Tawil for a similar real-life example of this.) Bullwinkle J. Moose serves as Moosylvania's presumed namesake and its governor but only stays two weeks at a time, since (according to Bullwinkle) "after two weeks here, anyplace else in the world feels like Heaven!"

In the series-ending story arc "Moosylvania Saved," Fearless Leader, the head of state of the Eastern European state of Pottsylvania, attempts to destroy Moosylvania. The plot is foiled when Bullwinkle, who was going to go down with his sinking country, asked Rocky for a stick of gum, which inspired Rocky the Flying Squirrel to raise up Moosylvania with bubble gum balloons. The plan worked and Moosylvania was saved, giving the series a happy ending.

In the fall of 1962, Jay Ward, producer of the Rocky and Bullwinkle show, decided to campaign for statehood for Moosylvania. Ward sent Skip Craig to Minnesota to buy an island in the Lake of the Woods. Craig wasn't able to find one for sale on the U.S. side of the lake (most of the islands in that lake are claimed by Canada), but managed to lease one for three years. Ward and publicist Howard Brandy conducted a west-to-east cross-country tour in a decorated van, gathering signatures on a petition for statehood for Moosylvania. While in Washington, D.C., they sought an audience with President John F. Kennedy. However, they arrived at the White House on the very day the Cuban Missile Crisis broke, and were ordered to leave.A national anthem for Moosylvania was included on the mini-album A Salute to Moosylvania!! Recorded Live at the Moosylvania Jazz Festival, self-released by Jay Ward in 1962.


neb may refer to:

neb, meaning nose or mouth

neb, meaning nosy in Pittsburgh English

neb, meaning snout or beakNEB may refer to:

Nose in Everyone's Business, a Busybody or Gossip

National Enterprise Board, former government body set up in the United Kingdom in 1975 to implement the Wilson Labour government's objective of extending public ownership of industry

National Energy Board, a Canadian independent federal agency which regulates the oil, gas and electric utility industries.

National Ethics Bureau, an American corporation

Neb, the pen name of British political cartoonist Ronald Niebour (1903–1972)

Nebulin, a large protein found in muscles

New England Biolabs, U.S. corporation, produces and supplies reagents for the life science industry

New English Bible, a fresh translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts (with some Latin in the Apocrypha)

Niederbarnimer Eisenbahn, a train company in Germany

North Equatorial belt, a Cloud pattern on Jupiter

Nuclear Energy Board (1973-1992), established in Ireland on November 30, 1973 by the Nuclear Energy (An Bord Fuinnimh Núicléigh) Act, 1971

Noise Equivalent Bandwidth, a measure of the bandwidth of an electrical filter equivalent to a 'brick wall' filter with infinite attenuation in its stop band.

Nudged Elastic Band, a way of exploring reaction paths in computational chemistry.

N-Ethylbuphedrone, a stimulant.

No man's land

No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was originally used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times, it is commonly associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross or seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process.

Tawil (disambiguation)

Tawil is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Adel Tawil (born 1978), German singer, songwriter and producer

Helga Tawil-Souri (born 1969), Palestinian American media scholar and documentary film-maker

Issam Al Tawil (born 1989), Syrian tennis player

Joseph Tawil (1913-1999), archbishop, Melkite Greek Catholic eparch for the United States, teacher and theologian.

Macarius IV Tawil (or Taouil), Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church from 1813 to 1815.

Rosarita Tawil, beauty pageant, elected Miss Lebanon

Suha Tawil or Suha Arafat, widow of former Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat

Terra nullius

Terra nullius (, plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.

Wadi Halfa Salient

The Wadi Halfa Salient, named after Wadi Halfa (Arabic: وادي حلفا Wādī Ḥalfā‎), a nearby Sudanese city 22 kilometers south of the border, is the unofficial name of a salient of the international border between Sudan and Egypt along the Nile River to the north.

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