Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms. Most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay.
life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago.   Earlier physical evidences of life include  graphite, a biogenic substance, in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland, as well as, "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in  Western Australia.  Earth's  biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions. Although scholars estimate that over 99 percent of all  species of life (over five billion) that ever lived on Earth are  extinct,  there are still an estimated 10–14 million extant species,   of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not yet been described. 
Examples of biotic materials are
wood, straw, humus, manure, bark, crude oil, cotton, spider silk, chitin, fibrin, and bone.
The use of biotic materials, and processed biotic materials (
bio-based material) as alternative natural materials, over synthetics is popular with those who are environmentally conscious because such materials are usually biodegradable, renewable, and the processing is commonly understood and has minimal environmental impact. However, not all biotic materials are used in an environmentally friendly way, such as those that require high levels of processing, are harvested unsustainably, or are used to produce carbon emissions.
When the source of the recently living material has little importance to the product produced, such as in the production of
biofuels, biotic material is simply called biomass. Many fuel sources may have biological sources, and may be divided roughly into fossil fuels, and biofuel.
soil science, biotic material is often referred to as . Biotic materials in organic matter soil include glomalin, Dopplerite and humic acid. Some biotic material may not be considered to be organic matter if it is low in organic compounds, such as a clam's shell, which is an essential component of the living organism, but contains little organic carbon.
Examples of the use of biotic materials include:
^ Schopf, JW, Kudryavtsev, AB, Czaja, AD, and Tripathi, AB. (2007).
Evidence of some Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research 158:141–155.
^ Schopf, JW (2006).
Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 29;361(1470) 869-85.
Hamilton Raven, Peter; Brooks Johnson, George (2002). . Biology McGraw-Hill Education. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-07-112261-0 . Retrieved . 7 July 2013
Ohtomo, Yoko; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Ishida, Akizumi; et al. (January 2014). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks". . London: Nature Geoscience Nature Publishing Group. 7 (1): 25–28. Bibcode: 2014NatGe...7...25O. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2025. ISSN 1752-0894.
Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth". . Yonkers, NY: Excite Mindspark Interactive Network. Associated Press . Retrieved . 2015-10-20
Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; et al. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 112: 14518–21. Bibcode: 2015PNAS..11214518B. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1517557112. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC . 4664351 PMID 26483481 . Retrieved . 2015-10-20 Early edition, published online before print.
Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. & Ferry, P.A. (27 January 2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land" (PDF). Biology Letters. 6 (4): 544–47. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024. PMC . 2936204 PMID 20106856.
Kunin, W.E.; Gaston, Kevin, eds. (31 December 1996). . The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences ISBN 978-0412633805 . Retrieved . 26 May 2015
Stearns, Beverly Peterson; Stearns, S. C.; Stearns, Stephen C. (2000). . Watching, from the Edge of Extinction Yale University Press. p. preface x. ISBN 978-0-300-08469-6 . Retrieved . 30 May 2017
Novacek, Michael J. (8 November 2014). "Prehistory's Brilliant Future". The New York Times . Retrieved . 25 December 2014
May, Robert M. (1988). "How many species are there on earth?". Science. 241 (4872): 1441–1449. Bibcode: 1988Sci...241.1441M. doi: 10.1126/science.241.4872.1441. PMID 17790039.
Miller, G.; Spoolman, Scott (1 January 2012). "Biodiversity and Evolution". . Environmental Science Cengage Learning. p. 62. ISBN 1-133-70787-4 . Retrieved . 27 December 2014
Mora, C.; Tittensor, D.P.; Adl, S.; Simpson, A.G.; Worm, B. (23 August 2011). "How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean?". . PLOS Biology 9: e1001127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127. PMC . 3160336 PMID 21886479.
This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.