Biomedical Microdevices is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering applications of Bio-MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) and biomedical nanotechnology. It is published by Springer Science+Business Media and the editor-in-chief is Mauro Ferrari (University of Texas).
|Edited by||Mauro Ferrari|
The journal is abstracted/indexed in:
Anthony "Tony" Guiseppi-Elie, Sc.D., FRSC, FAIMBE, FIEEE is a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering of Texas A&M University where he holds a TEES Research Professorship and is a member of the EnMed Working Group. He is also founder, President and Scientific director of ABTECH Scientific, Inc. He is noted for his research and commercial development of biologically inspired and chemically responsive polymers, as related to bioanalytics, bioinformatics, and bionics.Automated patch clamp
Automated patch clamping is beginning to replace manual patch clamping as a method to measure the electrical activity of individual cells. Different techniques are used to automate patch clamp recordings from cells in cell culture and in vivo. This work has been ongoing since the late 1990s by research labs and companies trying to reduce its complexity and cost of patch clamping manually. Patch clamping for a long time was considered an art form and is still very time consuming and tedious, especially in vivo. The automation techniques try to reduce user error and variability in obtaining quality electrophysiology recordings from single cells.Bio-MEMS
Bio-MEMS is an abbreviation for biomedical (or biological) microelectromechanical systems. Bio-MEMS have considerable overlap, and is sometimes considered synonymous, with lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). Bio-MEMS is typically more focused on mechanical parts and microfabrication technologies made suitable for biological applications. On the other hand, lab-on-a-chip is concerned with miniaturization and integration of laboratory processes and experiments into single (often microfluidic) chips. In this definition, lab-on-a-chip devices do not strictly have biological applications, although most do or are amenable to be adapted for biological purposes. Similarly, micro total analysis systems may not have biological applications in mind, and are usually dedicated to chemical analysis. A broad definition for bio-MEMS can be used to refer to the science and technology of operating at the microscale for biological and biomedical applications, which may or may not include any electronic or mechanical functions. The interdisciplinary nature of bio-MEMS combines material sciences, clinical sciences, medicine, surgery, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, optical engineering, chemical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Some of its major applications include genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics, point-of-care diagnostics, tissue engineering, single cell analysis and implantable microdevices.CLIC5
Chloride intracellular channel protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLIC5 gene.Chronic electrode implant
A chronic electrode implant is an electronic device implanted chronically (for a long period) into the brain or other electrically excitable tissue. It may record electrical impulses in the brain or may stimulate neurons with electrical impulses from an external source.Circulating tumor cell
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and are carried around the body in the blood circulation. CTCs constitute seeds for the subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastases) in distant organs, a mechanism that is responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. The detection and analysis of CTCs can assist early patient prognoses and determine appropriate tailored treatments.CTCs were observed for the first time in 1869 in the blood of a man with metastatic cancer by Thomas Ashworth, who postulated that "cells identical with those of the cancer itself being seen in the blood may tend to throw some light upon the mode of origin of multiple tumours existing in the same person". A thorough comparison of the morphology of the circulating cells to tumor cells from different lesions led Ashworth to conclude that "One thing is certain, that if they [CTC] came from an existing cancer structure, they must have passed through the greater part of the circulatory system to have arrived at the internal saphena vein of the sound leg".The importance of CTCs in modern cancer research began in the mid 1990s with the demonstration that CTCs exist early on in the course of the disease.
Those results were made possible by exquisitely sensitive magnetic separation technology employing ferrofluids (colloidal magnetic nanoparticles) and high gradient magnetic separators invented by Paul Liberti and motivated by theoretical calculations by Liberti and Leon Terstappen that indicated very small tumors shedding cells at less than 1.0% per day should result in detectable cells in blood. A variety of other technologies have been applied to CTC enumeration and identification since that time.
Modern cancer research has demonstrated that CTCs derive from clones in the primary tumor, validating Ashworth's remarks.
The significant efforts put into understanding the CTCs biological properties have demonstrated the critical role circulating tumor cells play in the metastatic spread of carcinoma. Furthermore, highly sensitive, single-cell analysis demonstrated a high level of heterogeneity seen at the single cell level for both protein expression and protein localization and the CTCs reflected both the primary biopsy and the changes seen in the metastatic sites.Tissue biopsies are poor diagnostic procedures: they are invasive, cannot be used repeatedly, and are ineffective in understanding metastatic risk, disease progression, and treatment effectiveness. CTCs thus could be considered a "liquid biopsy" which reveals metastasis in action, providing live information about the patient's disease status.
Analysis of blood samples found a propensity for increased CTC detection as the disease progressed in individual patients. Blood tests are easy and safe to perform and multiple samples can be taken over time. By contrast, analysis of solid tumors necessitates invasive procedures that might limit patient compliance. The ability to monitor the disease progression over time could facilitate appropriate modification to a patient's therapy, potentially improving their prognosis and quality of life. The important aspect of the ability to prognose the future progression of the disease is elimination (at least temporarily) of the need for a surgery when the repeated CTC counts are low and not increasing; the obvious benefits of avoiding the surgery include avoiding the risk related to the innate tumor-genicity of cancer surgeries. To this end, technologies with the requisite sensitivity and reproducibility to detect CTCs in patients with metastatic disease have recently been developed.List of University of Mount Union people
This is a list of people associated with University of Mount Union. The University of Mount Union is a 4-year private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Alliance, Ohio.List of biology journals
This is a list of articles about scientific journals in biology and its various subfields.List of engineering journals and magazines
This is a representative list of academic journals and magazines in engineering and its various subfields.List of scientific journals
The following is a partial list of scientific journals. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. The list given here is far from exhaustive, only containing some of the most influential, currently publishing journals in each field. As a rule of thumb, each field should be represented by more or less than ten positions, chosen by their impact factors and other ratings.
Note: there are many science magazines that are not scientific journals, including Scientific American, New Scientist, Australasian Science and others. They are not listed here.
For periodicals in the social sciences and humanities, see list of social science journals.Microelectrode array
Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) (also referred to as multielectrode arrays) are devices that contain multiple (tens to thousands) microelectrodes through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. There are two general classes of MEAs: implantable MEAs, used in vivo, and non-implantable MEAs, used in vitro.Microfluidics
Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale at which capillary penetration governs mass transport. It is a multidisciplinary field at the intersection of engineering, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, nanotechnology, and biotechnology, with practical applications in the design of systems in which low volumes of fluids are processed to achieve multiplexing, automation, and high-throughput screening. Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal technologies.
Typically, micro means one of the following features:
small volumes (μL, nL, pL, fL)
low energy consumption
effects of the microdomainTypically in microfluidic systems fluids are transported, mixed, separated or otherwise processed. The various applications of such systems rely on passive fluid control using capillary forces. In some applications, external actuation means are additionally used for a directed transport of the media. Examples are rotary drives applying centrifugal forces for the fluid transport on the passive chips. Active microfluidics refers to the defined manipulation of the working fluid by active (micro) components such as micropumps or microvalves. Micropumps supply fluids in a continuous manner or are used for dosing. Microvalves determine the flow direction or the mode of movement of pumped liquids. Often processes which are normally carried out in a lab are miniaturised on a single chip in order to enhance efficiency and mobility as well as reducing sample and reagent volumes.Neuroprosthetics
Neuroprosthetics (also called neural prosthetics) is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses. They are sometimes contrasted with a brain–computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality.Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease. Cochlear implants provide an example of such devices. These devices substitute the functions performed by the ear drum and stapes while simulating the frequency analysis performed in the cochlea. A microphone on an external unit gathers the sound and processes it; the processed signal is then transferred to an implanted unit that stimulates the auditory nerve through a microelectrode array. Through the replacement or augmentation of damaged senses, these devices intend to improve the quality of life for those with disabilities.
These implantable devices are also commonly used in animal experimentation as a tool to aid neuroscientists in developing a greater understanding of the brain and its functioning. By wirelessly monitoring the brain's electrical signals sent out by electrodes implanted in the subject's brain, the subject can be studied without the device affecting the results.
Accurately probing and recording the electrical signals in the brain would help better understand the relationship among a local population of neurons that are responsible for a specific function.
Neural implants are designed to be as small as possible in order to be minimally invasive, particularly in areas surrounding the brain, eyes or cochlea. These implants typically communicate with their prosthetic counterparts wirelessly. Additionally, power is currently received through wireless power transmission through the skin. The tissue surrounding the implant is usually highly sensitive to temperature rise, meaning that power consumption must be minimal in order to prevent tissue damage.The neuroprosthetic currently undergoing the most widespread use is the cochlear implant, with over 300,000 in use worldwide as of 2012.Nicholas A. Peppas
Nicholas (Nikolaos) A. Peppas (Greek: Νικόλαος Α. Πέππας; born in Athens, Greece on August 25, 1948) is a chemical and biomedical engineer whose leadership in biomaterials science and engineering, drug delivery, bionanotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences, chemical and polymer engineering has provided seminal foundations based on the physics and mathematical theories of nanoscale, macromolecular processes and drug/protein transport and has led to numerous biomedical products or devices.OLIGO Primer Analysis Software
OLIGO Primer Analysis Software was the first publicly available software for DNA primer design. The first papers describing this software were published in 1989 and 1990, and consecutive upgrades in the 1990s and 2000s, all have been cited together over 600 times in scientific journals and over 500 times in patents (according to Scopus). The program is a comprehensive real time PCR primer and probe search and analysis tool, and also does other tasks such as siRNA and molecular beacon searches, open reading frame and restriction enzyme analysis etc. It has been created and maintained by Wojciech Rychlik and Piotr Rychlik. The OLIGO has been reviewed several times in scientific journals, for the first time in 1991 in a review in Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and for its next upgrades (with OLIGO 7 being the latest one in 2011).Oligo Primer Analysis Software has been used in various scientific studies (as cited by examples of recent publications), among them for: real time PCR, apoptosis studies, antigen typing, species identification, studies on species evolution, measuring mRNA expression levels, oligonucleotide-based array hybridization studies, degenerate primer studies, microsatellite analysis, DNA microarray detection, inverse PCR, genome walking, nucleotide polymorphisms studies, detection of microorganisms or viruses, genotyping, cloning, vector (gene) construction, genome sequencing, detection of mutants or intraspecific variability, genetic disease studies, siRNA and gene silencing, FISH analysis (single cell expression study), scorpion probes, and development of new DNA amplification methods.Projection micro-stereolithography
Projection micro-stereolithography (PµSL) adapts 3D printing technology for micro-fabrication. Digital micro display technology provides dynamic stereolithography masks that work as a virtual photomask. This technique allows for rapid photopolymerization of an entire layer with a flash of UV illumination at micro-scale resolution. The mask can control individual pixel light intensity, allowing control of material properties of the fabricated structure with desired spatial distribution.
Materials include polymers, responsive hydrogels, shape memory polymers and bio-materials.Reza Ghodssi
Reza Ghodssi is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research (ISR) at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he directs the MEMS Sensors and Actuators Lab and holds the Herbert Rabin Distinguished Chair in Engineering. He is best known for his work designing micro- and nano-devices for healthcare applications, particularly for systems requiring small-scale energy conversion and biological and chemical sensing.Shuvo Roy
Shuvo Roy is a Bangladeshi-born American scientist and engineer. He is the co-inventor of world's first implantable artificial kidney along with nephrologist William H. Fissell.Supercritical angle fluorescence microscopy
Supercritical angle fluorescence microscopy (SAF) is a technique to detect and characterize fluorescent species (proteins, biomolecules, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and their behaviour close or even adsorbed or linked at surfaces. The method is able to observe molecules in a distance of less than 100 to 0 nanometer from the surface even in presence of high concentrations of fluorescent species around. Using an aspheric lens for excitation of a sample with laser light, fluorescence emitted by the specimen is collected above the critical angle of total internal reflection selectively and directed by a parabolic optics onto a detector. The method was invented in 1998 in the laboratories of Stefan Seeger at University of Regensburg/Germany and later at University of Zurich/Switzerland.