For example, bacteria are responsible for the formation of some minerals such as pyrite, and can concentrate economically important metals such as tin and uranium. Bacteria are also responsible for the chemical composition of the atmosphere, which affects weathering rates of rocks.
Prior to the late Devonian period, there was little plant life beyond lichens, and bryophytes. At this time large vascular plants evolved, growing up to 30 meters (98 ft 5.1 in) in height. These large plants changed the atmosphere, and altered the composition of the soil by increasing the amount of organic carbon. This helped prevent the soil being washed away through erosion.
Biogeomorphology and ecogeomorphology are the study of interactions between organisms and the development of landforms, and are thus fields of study within geomorphology and ichnology. Organisms affect geomorphic processes in a variety of ways. For example, trees can reduce landslide potential where their roots penetrate to underlying rock, plants and their litter inhibit soil erosion, biochemicals produced by plants accelerate the chemical weathering of bedrock and regolith, and marine animals cause the bioerosion of coral. The study of the interactions between marine biota and coastal landform processes is called coastal biogeomorphology.
Phytogeomorphology is an aspect of biogeomorphology that deals with the narrower subject of how terrain affects plant growth. In recent years a large number of articles have appeared in the literature dealing with how terrain attributes affect crop growth and yield in farm fields, and while they don't use the term phytogeomorphology the dependencies are the same. Precision agriculture models where crop variability is at least partially defined by terrain attributes can be considered as phytogeomorphological precision agriculture.Biogeophysics
Biogeophysics is a subdiscipline of geophysics concerned with how plants, microbial activity and other organisms alter geologic materials and affect geophysical signatures.Black catbird
The black catbird (Melanoptila glabrirostris) is a songbird species in the monotypic genus Melanoptila, part of the family Mimidae. At 19–20.5 cm (7.5–8.1 in) in length and 31.6–42 g (1.11–1.48 oz) in mass, it is the smallest of the mimids. Sexes appear similar, with glossy black plumage, black legs and bill, and dark brownish eyes. The species is endemic to the Yucatán Peninsula, and is found as far south as Campeche, northern Guatemala and northern Belize. Although there are historical records from Honduras and the US state of Texas, the species is not now known to occur in either location. It is found at low elevations in semi-arid to humid habitats ranging from shrubland and abandoned farmland to woodland with thick understory, and is primarily sedentary.
Although it is a mimid, the black catbird is not known to imitate any other species. Its song is a mix of harsh notes and clear flute-like whistles, with the phrases repeated. It builds a cup nest in low bushes or trees, and lays two bluish eggs. It is threatened by habitat loss, and has been assessed as near threatened by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.Campbell Plateau
The Campbell Plateau is a large oceanic plateau south of New Zealand and the Chatham Rise. It originated in the Gondwanan breakup and is part of Zealandia, a largely submerged continent. The above sea level parts of the plateau — the Bounty Islands, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands and Campbell Island — form part of the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands which were declared a World Heritage Site in 1998.
Large parts of the Campbell Plateau lie less than 1000 m below sea level. It rises to 500 m at the Pukaki Rise and emerges above sea level at the Auckland and Campbell Islands.Covering an area of 800,000 km2 (310,000 sq mi), the Campbell Plateau has a gently undulating bathymetry with major rises trending east-west: Campbell Island Rise, Pukaki Rise, and Bounty Island Ridge. There are two near-parallel rises on the western margin: Stewart Island–Snare Island Rise and Auckland Island platform. The continental slopes are steep on western and southern margins while the northern margin slowly falls into the Bounty Trough.China University of Geosciences (Wuhan)
The China University of Geosciences (simplified Chinese: 中国地质大学(武汉); traditional Chinese: 中國地質大學(武漢); pinyin: Zhōngguó Dìzhì Dàxué (Wǔhàn); abbreviated 地大 or CUG) is a key national university directly under the administration of the Education Ministry of the People's Republic of China. It is located in Wuhan, the capital of Central China's Hubei Province. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.It is regarded as one of the top geosciences university in China and exerts considerable influence on the Chinese mining and oil industry. Its notable alumni include Wen Jiabao, the Premier of China's State Council between 2003 and 2013, who attended the China University of Geosciences when it was known as the Beijing Institute of Geology (BIG). The motto "Being austere and simple, keeping on practice and acting for truth" is from him.Geobiology
Geobiology is a field of scientific research that explores the interactions between the physical Earth and the biosphere. It is a relatively young field, and its borders are fluid. There is considerable overlap with the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, paleontology, and particularly soil science and biogeochemistry. Geobiology applies the principles and methods of biology, geology, and soil science to the study of the ancient history of the co-evolution of life and Earth as well as the role of life in the modern world. Geobiologic studies tend to be focused on microorganisms, and on the role that life plays in altering the chemical and physical environment of the pedosphere, which exists at the intersection of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and/or cryosphere. It differs from biogeochemistry in that the focus is on processes and organisms over space and time rather than on global chemical cycles.
Geobiological research synthesizes the geologic record with modern biologic studies. It deals with process - how organisms affect the Earth and vice versa - as well as history - how the Earth and life have changed together. Much research is grounded in the search for fundamental understanding, but geobiology can also be applied, as in the case of microbes that clean up oil spills.Geobiology employs molecular biology, environmental microbiology, chemical analyses, and the geologic record to investigate the evolutionary interconnectedness of life and Earth. It attempts to understand how the Earth has changed since the origin of life and what it might have been like along the way. Some definitions of geobiology even push the boundaries of this time frame - to understanding the origin of life and to the role that man has played and will continue to play in shaping the Earth in the Anthropocene.Geomorphology
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.Hecastocleis
Hecastocleis is a genus of low thorny shrubs with stiff branches, assigned to the daisy family. At the tip of each of the branches, inflorescences are subtended by oval, thorny, whitish to greenish bracts that enclose several flower heads which each contain only one pinkish bud, opening into a white corolla. It contains but one species, Hecastocleis shockleyi, the only representative of the tribe Hecastocleideae, and of the subfamily Hecastocleidoideae. Its vernacular name is prickleleaf. It is confined to the southwestern United States.Hexagonaria
Hexagonaria is a genus of colonial rugose coral. Fossils are found in rock formations dating to the Devonian period, about 350 million years ago. Specimens of Hexagonaria can be found in most of the rock formations of the Traverse Group in Michigan. Fossils of this genus form Petoskey stones, the state stone of Michigan.They can be seen and found in most Midwestern states.
Hexagonaria is a common constituent of the coral reefs exposed in Devonian Fossil Gorge below the Coralville Lake spillway and in many exposures of the Coralville Formation in the vicinity of Coralville, Iowa.Index of soil-related articles
This is an index of articles relating to soil.Isthmus
An isthmus ( or ; plural: isthmuses; from Ancient Greek: ἰσθμός, romanized: isthmós, lit. 'neck') is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, and a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus.
Canals are often built across isthmuses, where they may be a particularly advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; the Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, cutting across the western side of the Isthmus of Suez, formed by the Sinai Peninsula; and the Crinan Canal crosses the isthmus between Loch Crinan and Loch Gilp, which connects the Kintyre peninsula with the rest of Scotland. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula (technically an isthmus). It connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus.Liberal Arts and Science Academy
Liberal Arts and Science Academy (LASA) is a selective public magnet high school in Austin, Texas. Although LASA is open to all Austin residents and charges no tuition, competition for admission can be strong and is contingent on submission of an application, prior academic record, and the Cognitive Abilities Test.
In 2018, U.S. News and World Report ranked the school #16 among the nation's best high schools and #5 among high schools in Texas. Niche ranked LASA #11 nationally, and #1 in the state of Texas. In 2014, Newsweek ranked LASA #8 nationally, and #1 in Texas. 38 out of the 260 students in the LASA Class of 2018 were National Merit Scholars.As part of AISD's November 2017 bond, LASA will relocate to the old Eastside Memorial campus, with new school colors and mascot, as well as a new name. It is expected that the move will take place in 2021.Outline of geology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology:
Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which it is shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.Preston Cloud
Preston Ercelle Cloud, Jr. (September 26, 1912 – January 16, 1991) was an eminent American earth scientist, biogeologist, cosmologist, and paleontologist. He served in the United States Navy (in which he was a bantamweight boxing champion), and led several field explorations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In academia, he was a member of the faculty of Harvard University, University of Minnesota, University of California, Los Angeles, and lastly University of California, Santa Barbara. He was best known for his work on the geologic time scale and the origin of life on Earth, and as a pioneering ecologist and environmentalist. He was credited with coining the term "biogeology." His works on the significance of Cambrian fossils in the 1940s led to the development of the concept "Cambrian explosion," for which he coined the phrase "eruptive evolution."Stanley Awramik
Stanley Awramik (born 1946) is an American biogeologist and paleontologist. He is best known for his work related to the Precambrian. In 2013, he was inducted as a fellow of the Geological Society of America.Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften
The Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften (English: Journal for the Geological Sciences) is a peer-reviewed German scientific journal established in 1973, that publishes preferably original papers in German and English dealing with geology and related sub-disciplines. Since 2005 the journal has been published bimonthly by the Verlag für Geowissenschaften Berlin. The journal was formerly an official periodical of the national East German Gesellschaft für Geologische Wissenschaften, the East German geological sciences society, and was published by the scientific and academic publishing house Akademie Verlag. The journal was regarded as the most important geological sciences periodical in East Germany with an international reputation. The journal is indexed in: GeoRef, Chemical Abstracts Service, and Geoline.
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