Binbirkilise

Binbirkilise (literally: Thousand and One Churches) is a region in the antique Lycaonia, in modern Karaman Province of Turkey, known for its around fifty Byzantine church ruins.

The region is located on the northern slopes of the volcano Karadağ, around 30 km (19 mi) north of the province capital city of Karaman. The church ruins are situated in and around the settlements Madenşehri, Üçkuyu and Değle.

Binbirkilise
Binbirkilise1
The ruins of Binbirkilise are located in and around the modern village Madenşehri.
Binbirkilise is located in Turkey
Binbirkilise
Shown within Turkey
LocationMadenşehri, Karaman Province, Turkey
RegionLycaonia
Coordinates37°26′14″N 33°08′39″E / 37.43722°N 33.14417°ECoordinates: 37°26′14″N 33°08′39″E / 37.43722°N 33.14417°E
History
FoundedApproximately 3rd century
AbandonedApproximately 8th century
Binbirkilise6
Church ruins in Madenşehri

Buildings

The region was a cultural center of the Byzantine Christians in the era between the 3rd and 8th century. There are remains of churches, monasteries, cisterns, fortifications and habitations that are integrated in the villages. The stone materials were re-used in the today's buildings that caused continuous diminishing of the historical inventory.[1]

From the architecture historical viewpoint, the several domed basilicas of Syriac Orthodox type are interesting. The walls were built of large cut stone blocks. Due to lack of wood in the region, the buildings were topped with stone domed roofs instead of flat wooden roofs. Over the aisles, matronea were constructed behind the upper column row. In apses, there were double clerestory windows. The narthexes have mostly double arcades and are supported by a single column in the center. In some churches, primarily in Madenşehri, remains of murals can be seen. Also rare relicts from the Hittites, Roman and Hellenistic period are found in the surroundings.[1]

History of research work

BinbirkiliseBell
Gertrude Bell's workers at the excavations at Madenşehri in 1907

In 1904, Carl Holzmann (1849–1914) published his Archäologischen Skizzen (English: Archaeological Designs) about Binbirkilise. Shortly after, the region was described by British traveller and archaeologist Gertrude Bell (1868–1926), who explored the region in 1905 during her trip through Asia Minor. She published her observations in a series of articles in the Revue Archéologique. During this trip, she met in Konya Scottish archaeologist William Mitchell Ramsay (1851–1939). The two decided to conduct excavations in Binbirkilise that took place in 1907. The results were published along with many photos in their book The Thousand and One Churches.[2]

When Bell returned to the site two years later, she found that a large part of the documented buildings had disappeared as a result of robbery for cut stone.[3] Today, the state of destruction is much advanced as can be seen in comparison with Bell's photos. Turkish art historian Semavi Eyice examined the region and published the result of his research in 1971.

Bibliography

  • Carl Holzmann (1904). Binbirkilise: Archäologische Skizzen aus Anatolien: ein Beitrag zur Kunstgeschichte des christlichen Kirchenbaues, Verlag Von Boysen & Maasch
  • William Mitchell Ramsay (2008). Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Robert G. Ousterhout: The Thousand and One Churches, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, ISBN 9781934536056
  • Semavi Eyice (1971). Recherches archéologiques à Karadağ (Binbirkilise) et dans la région de Karaman. Doğan Kardeş

References

  1. ^ a b Mehling, Marianne (1987). Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe Türkei. Droemer-Knaur. p. 334. ISBN 3-426-26293-2.
  2. ^ Cohen, Getzel M.; Martha Sharp Joukowsky (2006). bei GoogleBooks Breaking Ground: Pioneering Women Archaeologists Check |url= value (help). University of Michigan Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780472031740.
  3. ^ Ousterhout, Robert G. (2006). bei GoogleBooks A Byzantine settlement in Cappadocia Check |url= value (help). Dumbarton Oaks. p. 171. ISBN 9780884023104.

Gallery

Binbirkilise2
Binbirkilise3
Binbirkilise4
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Index of Eastern Christianity-related articles

Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related articles on English Wikipedia

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Karaman Province (Turkish: Karaman ili) is a province of south-central Turkey. It has an area of 9,163 km2. It has a population of 232,633 (2010 est). According to the 2000 census the population was 243,210. Population density is 27.54 people/km2. The traffic code is 70. The capital is the city of Karaman. Karaman was the location of the Karamanid emirate, which came to an end in 1486.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Madenşehri

Madenşehri (literally “city of mines”) is a village in the central district (Karaman) of Karaman Province, Turkey. It is situated on the northern slopes of Karadağ, an extinct volcano, and is 42 kilometres (26 mi) north of the town of Karaman. The population of the village was 289 as of 2010.

Mount Karadağ

Karadağ (literally: Black mountain) is an extinct volcano in Karaman Province, Turkey.

Phellus

Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

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Semavi Eyice

Semavi Eyice (December 9, 1922 in Istanbul, Turkey – May 28, 2018 in Istanbul, Turkey) was a Turkish art historian and archaeologist, who specialised in the study of Byzantine and Ottoman art in Istanbul. Professor Eyice is widely regarded as the pioneer of Byzantine studies in Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

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Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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